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muscle strengthening

Karen J Mickle, Peter Caputi, Jan M Potter, Julie R Steele
BACKGROUND: Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve toe flexor strength in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: After baseline testing, 85 men and women (age range 60-90years) were randomized to either a supervised, progressive resistance training (n=43) or a home-based exercise (n=42) group for 12weeks...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Iva Bruhova, Anthony Auerbach
Acetylcholine (ACh) released at the vertebrate nerve-muscle synapse is hydrolyzed rapidly into choline (Cho), so endplate receptors (AChRs) are exposed to high concentrations of both of these structurally-related ligands. To understand how these receptors distinguish ACh and Cho, we used single-channel electrophysiology to measure resting affinities (binding free energies) of these and other agonists in adult-type mouse AChRs having a mutation(s) at the transmitter-binding sites. The aromatic rings of αY190, αW149 and αY198 each provide ∼50% less binding energy for Cho compared to ACh...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Marina Garzón García, Juana Muñoz López, Elvira Y Mendoza Lara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the vocal behavior of flamenco singers, as compared with classical music singers, to establish a differential vocal profile of voice habits and behaviors in flamenco music. METHOD: Bibliographic review was conducted, and the Singer's Vocal Habits Questionnaire, an experimental tool designed by the authors to gather data regarding hygiene behavior, drinking and smoking habits, type of practice, voice care, and symptomatology perceived in both the singing and the speaking voice, was administered...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Jianqiang Lian, Lele Dong, Yanjun Zhao, Jinlei Sun, Wenlong Zhang, Chunzheng Gao
BACKGROUND: The Latarjet procedure addresses recurrent anterior shoulder instability in the context of a significant bony defect. However, the bony and soft tissue anatomy of the coracoid in coracoid transfer procedures has not yet been defined in Mongolian men. The aims of this study were to describe the soft tissue attachments of the coracoid regarding the bony anatomy, define the average amount of bone available for coracoid transfer, analyze the characteristics of the pectoralis minor and coracoid, and study the relationship between the bony dimensions of the coracoid and body length in Mongolian men...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan, Jan M Hondzinski
Despite the exercise benefits, disparities among diverse older adults continue to exist where African American women have the lowest percentage of any population group in meeting national recommended activity guidelines. Drawing on the philosophical tradition of phronesis (practical reasoning) introduced by Aristotle, we studied perceptions of the exercise value among 14 older African American women. Three themes included: 1) exercise goals (e.g., effort exerted), 2) exercise reasons (e.g., health benefits, enjoyment and convenience, and activity recommendation), and 3) inactivity reasons (e...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
M Luz Sánchez-Sánchez, Maria-Arántzazu Ruescas-Nicolau, José-Antonio Pérez-Miralles, Elena Marqués-Sulé, Gemma-Victoria Espí-López
BACKGROUND: In chronic stroke, feasible physical therapy (PT) programs are needed to promote function throughout life. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated the feasibility and effect of a PT program composed of strengthening exercises with elastic bands and bimanual functional training, with clearly defined doses based on the rate of perceived exertion (Borg scale), to counteract inactivity in chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifteen subjects > 6 month post-stroke were randomized to three-month of UE function training (UE group), or to lower extremity function training (LE group)...
October 19, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Jared J Murray, Colleen M Renier, Jenny J Ahern, Barbara A Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To document neuromuscular training (NMT) availability and its relationship to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in 4 major high school sports by gender, sport, and rural/urban geography, with the hypothesis that increased exposure to NMT would be associated with fewer ACL injuries. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All Minnesota high schools identified in the Minnesota State High School League (MSHSL) database for fall 2014 boys' football and soccer, and girls' volleyball and soccer...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Rakesh Sharma
OBJECTIVE: ·MADTP 2015 may suggest diet, exercise, behavior and positive attitude to bring normal blood lipid levels in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease among middle aged persons.LONGLIVE LIFESTYLE cholesterol lowering program may reduce risk of cardiovascular disease by diet, six month exercise prescription and modified habits of smoking, alcohol and behavior DESIGN AND METHOD:: LONGLIVE LIFESTYLE diet plan along with walking-running exercise and behavior for six months was tested to improve serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) appeared earliest; and the improvement of low density lipoprotein IV; cholesterol (LDL-C)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sakiko Oyama, Andrew G Waldhelm, Araceli R Sosa, Ravina R Patel, Derick L Kalinowski
OBJECTIVE: Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michela De Bellis, Roberta Carbonara, Julien Roussel, Alessandro Farinato, Ada Massari, Sabata Pierno, Marilena Muraglia, Filomena Corbo, Carlo Franchini, Maria Rosaria Carratù, Annamaria De Luca, Diana Conte Camerino, Jean-François Desaphy
Although the sodium channel blocker, mexiletine, is the first choice drug in myotonia, some myotonic patients remain unsatisfied due to contraindications, lack of tolerability, or incomplete response. More therapeutic options are thus needed for myotonic patients, which require clinical trials based on solid preclinical data. In previous structure-activity relationship studies, we identified two newly-synthesized derivatives of tocainide, To040 and To042, with greatly enhanced potency and use-dependent behavior in inhibiting sodium currents in frog skeletal muscle fibers...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Marcelo Cardoso de Souza, Fábio Jennings, Hisa Morimoto, Jamil Natour
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a progressive muscle strengthening program using a Swiss ball for AS patients. METHODS: Sixty patients with AS were randomized into the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). Eight exercises were performed by the IG patients with free weights on a Swiss ball two times per week for 16 weeks. The evaluations were performed by a blinded evaluator at baseline and after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks using the following instruments: the one-repetition maximum test (1 RM), BASMI, BASFI, HAQ-S, SF-36, 6-minute walk test, Time Up and Go test, BASDAI, ASDAS, ESR and CRP dosage and Likert scale...
September 17, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Liga Blyholder, Elizabeth Chumanov, Kathleen Carr, Bryan Heiderscheit
BACKGROUND: With a recent increase in running popularity, more women choose to run during and after pregnancy. Little research has examined exercise behaviors and postpartum health conditions of runners. HYPOTHESIS: Antenatal and postpartum exercise is beneficial in reducing certain postpartum health conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5. METHODS: A self-administered, online survey was developed that consisted of questions regarding antenatal and postpartum exercise behaviors, maternal history, and postpartum health conditions...
October 14, 2016: Sports Health
Fernanda de Mattos, Neiva Leite, Arthur Pitta, Paulo Cesar Barauce Bento
Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of Aquatic Exercise Programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving Aquatic Exercises for individuals with OA were included...
September 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Wouter J Harmsen, Gerard M Ribbers, Bart Zegers, Emiel M Sneekes, Stephan F E Praet, Majanka H Heijenbrok-Kal, Ladbon Khajeh, Fop van Kooten, Sebastiaan J C M M Neggers, Rita J van den Berg-Emons
Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (a-SAH) show long-term fatigue and face difficulties in resuming daily physical activities. Impaired muscle strength, especially of the lower extremity, impacts the performance of daily activities and may trigger the onset of fatigue complaints. The present study evaluated knee muscle strength and fatigue in patients with a-SAH. This study included 33 patients, 6 months after a-SAH, and 33 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors was measured at 60 and 180°/s...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Salvador Damián-Zamacona, Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Mabel Z Ibarra-Abundis, Laura Uribe-Figueroa, Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Karla Paola Macedo-Alcibia, Blanca Delgado-Coello, Jaime Mas-Oliva, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda
BACKGROUND: Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. OBJECTIVE: The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli...
2016: PloS One
Moktar Chtara, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L Bragazzi, Adam L Owen, Monoem Haddad, Karim Chamari
BACKGROUND: Soccer requires maintaining unilateral balance when executing movement with the contralateral leg. Despite the fact that balance requires standing with maintaining isometric posture with the support leg, currently there is a lack of studies regarding the implication of isometric strength on dynamic balance's performance among young soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Y- balance test and 12 lower limbs isometric strength tests...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jirakrit Leelarungrayub, Decha Pinkaew, Khanittha Wonglangka, Wichai Eungpinichpong, Jakkrit Klaphajone
Although previously proposed that chronic scleroderma should be cared for clinically and early rehabilitation should be performed in hospital by a chest physical therapist, little evidence is currently available on its benefits. Therefore, this study demonstrated the benefits of short-term pulmonary rehabilitation during hospitalization in a female patient with chronic scleroderma. The aim of rehabilitation was to improve ventilation and gas exchange by using airway clearance, chest mobilization, and breathing-relearning techniques, including strengthening the respiratory system and the muscles of the limbs by using the BreathMax(®) device and elastic bands...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
Mahmoud A Mahmoud, Mohamed Abdelsalam, Olfat A Mahdy, Hala M F El Miniawy, Zakia A M Ahmed, Ahmed H Osman, Hussein M H Mohamed, A M Khattab, M A Zaki Ewiss
This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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