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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073797/physical-and-cultural-determinants-of-postpartum-pelvic-floor-support-and-symptoms-following-vaginal-delivery-a-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Ingrid E Nygaard, Erin Clark, Lauren Clark, Marlene J Egger, Robert Hitchcock, Yvonne Hsu, Peggy Norton, Ana Sanchez-Birkhead, Janet Shaw, Xiaoming Sheng, Michael Varner
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, 'Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery', uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#2
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065423/investigating-the-effects-of-motion-streaks-on-pqct-derived-leg-muscle-density-and-its-association-with-fractures
#4
Adrian C H Chan, Jonathan D Adachi, Alexandra Papaioannou, Andy Kin On Wong
Lower peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived leg muscle density has been associated with fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. Limb movement during image acquisition may result in motion streaks in muscle that could dilute this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined a subset of women from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. pQCT leg scans were qualitatively graded (1-5) for motion severity. Muscle and motion streak were segmented using semi-automated (watershed) and fully automated (threshold-based) methods, computing area, and density...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064172/effectiveness-of-an-intervention-to-prevent-frailty-in-pre-frail-community-dwelling-older-people-consulting-in-primary-care-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
M Serra-Prat, X Sist, R Domenich, L Jurado, A Saiz, A Roces, E Palomera, M Tarradelles, M Papiol
BACKGROUND: evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent frailty is scarce. OBJECTIVE: to assess the effect of an intervention in preventing frailty progression in pre-frail older people. STUDY DESIGN: a randomised, open label, controlled trial with two parallel arms. POPULATION: community-dwelling pre-frail older people (≥70 years) consulting in primary care. INTERVENTION: nutritional assessment (and derivation to a Nutritional Unit for usual care in the event of nutritional risk) and a physical activity programme including aerobic exercise and a set of mixed strengthening, balance and coordination exercises CONTROL GROUP: patients receiving the usual care...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062220/sleep-lung-function-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Ezequiel Fernandes Oliveira, Sergio Roberto Nacif, Jessica Julioti Urbano, Anderson Soares Silva, Claudia Santos Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo Perez, Melissa Nunes Polaro, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira Valerio, Roberto Stirbulov, Giuseppe Insalaco, Acary Sousa Bulle Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco Oliveira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological variables of lung function, respiratory muscle strength, and sleep in clinically stable patients with myasthenia gravis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Patients adhering to the eligibility criteria were consecutively recruited from the Research Department of Neuromuscular Diseases at the Federal University of Sao Paulo and the Department of Neurology at Santa Casa de Misericordia of Sao Paulo and were referred to the Nove de Julho University Sleep Laboratory (Sao Paulo, Brazil)...
November 25, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055302/t-type-ca-2-channels-and-autoregulation-of-local-blood-flow
#7
Lars Jørn Jensen, Morten Schak Nielsen, Max Salomonsson, Charlotte Mehlin Sørensen
L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are considered to be the primary source of calcium influx during the myogenic response. However, many vascular beds also express T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies suggest that these channels may also play a role in autoregulation. At low pressures (40-80 mm Hg) T-type channels affect myogenic responses in cerebral and mesenteric vascular beds. T-type channels also seem to be involved in skeletal muscle autoregulation. This review discusses the expression and role of T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in the autoregulation of several different vascular beds...
January 5, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045881/associations-between-low-back-pain-and-muscle-strengthening-activity-in-u-s-adults
#8
Albatool H Alnojeidi, Tammie M Johnson, Michael R Richardson, James R Churilla
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to examine the association between LBP and MSA among U.S. adults using gender-stratified analyses. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Low back pain (LBP) is a common medical condition that impacts quality of life and professional productivity and increasesthe financial burden on the healthcare system by augmenting medical treatment costs. Previous studies analyzing gender-dependent relationships between muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) and LBP have produced mixed results...
December 30, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043055/hip-mechanics-underlie-lower-extremity-power-training-induced-increase-in-old-adults-fast-gait-velocity-the-potsdam-gait-study-pogs
#9
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with slowed gait and old compared with young adults generally walk with greater positive hip work (H1) and reduced positive ankle work (A2). The role of exercise interventions on old adults' gait mechanics that underlie training-induced improvements in gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training and detraining on old adults' gait kinetics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), healthy old adults completed a no-intervention control period (69...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030419/healthy-exercise-habits-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-burnout-and-higher-quality-of-life-among-u-s-medical-students
#10
Liselotte N Dyrbye, Daniel Satele, Tait D Shanafelt
PURPOSE: Although burnout and low quality of life (QOL) are common among medical students, little remains known about personal fitness habits of medical students that may promote well-being. METHOD: In 2012 the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of U.S. medical students to explore relationships between burnout, QOL, and compliance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exercise recommendations. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, Fisher exact tests, and multivariate logistic regression were performed...
December 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018754/dysphagia-management-and-stroke-units
#11
REVIEW
David G Smithard
Dysphagia is one of the many complications of stroke. It is common and is an independent marker of outcome. Dysphagia management is important. Although the speech and language pathologist is the key worker in dysphagia management, they are supported by all members of the multi-disciplinary team. Stroke patients should be screened on admission for the presence of dysphagia and assessed by the speech and language therapist (or appropriate professional), where indicated investigation should be undertaken to understand the swallowing physiology and to guide treatment...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018240/distinctive-steady-state-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-passive-robotic-leg-exercise-and-functional-electrical-stimulation-during-head-up-tilt
#12
Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi, Robert Riener, Verena Klamroth-Marganska
Introduction: Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization (i...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017941/-a-role-of-exercise-and-sports-in-the-prevention-of-osteoporosis
#13
Jun Iwamoto
Physical activity plays an important role in maintaining or enhancing bone health. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012042/dihydropyridine-receptor-dhpr-cacna1s-congenital-myopathy
#14
Vanessa Schartner, Norma B Romero, Sandra Donkervoort, Susan Treves, Pinki Munot, Tyler Mark Pierson, Ivana Dabaj, Edoardo Malfatti, Irina T Zaharieva, Francesco Zorzato, Osorio Abath Neto, Guy Brochier, Xavière Lornage, Bruno Eymard, Ana Lía Taratuto, Johann Böhm, Hernan Gonorazky, Leigh Ramos-Platt, Lucy Feng, Rahul Phadke, Diana X Bharucha-Goebel, Charlotte Jane Sumner, Mai Thao Bui, Emmanuelle Lacene, Maud Beuvin, Clémence Labasse, Nicolas Dondaine, Raphael Schneider, Julie Thompson, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Emma Matthews, Aleksandra Nadaj Pakleza, Caroline A Sewry, Valérie Biancalana, Susana Quijano-Roy, Francesco Muntoni, Michel Fardeau, Carsten G Bönnemann, Jocelyn Laporte
Muscle contraction upon nerve stimulation relies on excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) to promote the rapid and generalized release of calcium within myofibers. In skeletal muscle, ECC is performed by the direct coupling of a voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel (dihydropyridine receptor; DHPR) located on the T-tubule with a Ca(2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor; RYR1) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) component of the triad. Here, we characterize a novel class of congenital myopathy at the morphological, molecular, and functional levels...
December 23, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005830/do-older-adults-who-meet-2008-physical-activity-guidelines-have-better-physical-performance-than-those-who-do-not-meet
#15
Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Allen W Jackson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An observed consequence of aging is a decline in muscle performance that includes a loss in both muscle strength and muscle power. This decline can lead to loss of function and independence and is a predictor of disability in older adults. Although the 2008 Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines for Americans provides a guideline for muscle strengthening, there is no evidence that performing muscle strengthening 2 times a week for all major muscle groups is related to better performance on measures known to be important factors in development or progression of frailty in older adults...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999721/improvements-in-knee-extension-strength-are-associated-with-improvements-in-self-reported-hip-function-following-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-syndrome
#16
Chelseana C Davis, Thomas J Ellis, Ajit K Amesur, Timothy E Hewett, Stephanie Di Stasi
BACKGROUND: Recovery of strength is critical for return to sport, and is a known predictor of functional outcomes in post-surgical orthopedic populations. Muscle weakness is a known impairment in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) but whether improvements in muscle strength after arthroscopy are associated with improved hip function is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between changes in hip and thigh muscle strength and self-reported function in athletes undergoing arthroscopy for FAIS...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999362/body-machine-interfaces-after-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-and-brain-plasticity
#17
Ismael Seáñez-González, Camilla Pierella, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Elias B Thorp, Xue Wang, Todd Parrish, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5-C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992070/exercise-for-haemophilia
#18
REVIEW
Karen Strike, Kathy Mulder, Rojer Michael
BACKGROUND: Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder associated with haemorrhaging into joints and muscles. Exercise is often used to aid recovery after bleeds, and to improve joint function in the presence of arthropathy. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically review the available evidence on the safety and effectiveness of exercise for people with haemophilia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coagulopathies Trials Register and electronic databases PubMed, OVID-Embase, and CINAHL...
19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984691/-iliacus-muscle-injury-caused-by-inadequate-exercise
#19
J Magaña-Reyes, L G Domínguez-Gasca, A García-Luna, L G Domínguez-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Traumatic iliacus muscle injury is rare; it is usually caused by trauma or intense exercise involving the pelvic girdle; it can produce a hematoma with femoral nerve neuropathy. Spontaneous muscle hematomas occur in patients with coagulation disorders. CLINICAL CASE: A 45-year-old male with 18 days of evolution, with an intense pain in the right buttock, groin and iliac fossa, with an inability for hip flexion and ambulation caused by inadequate exercise (supine double leg lifts)...
May 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984498/the-biomechanical-demands-on-the-hip-during-progressive-stepping-tasks
#20
Gillian L Hatfield, Jesse M Charlton, Christopher K Cochrane, Connor Hammond, Chris Napier, Judit Takacs, Natasha M Krowchuk, Michael A Hunt
Functional hip strengthening exercises are important components of lower extremity rehabilitation, and include single leg squats, step-downs, and step-ups. The biomechanical demand of these tasks is unclear. This repeated-measures study determined hip biomechanical demands in a healthy population. Twenty individuals (10 male, 26.6 +/- 5.1 years, 22.1 +/- 2.3 kg/m) participated. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction force data, and surface electromyograms were recorded during four randomly-ordered tasks...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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