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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530239/thermogenetic-neurostimulation-with-single-cell-resolution
#1
Yulia G Ermakova, Aleksandr A Lanin, Ilya V Fedotov, Matvey Roshchin, Ilya V Kelmanson, Dmitry Kulik, Yulia A Bogdanova, Arina G Shokhina, Dmitry S Bilan, Dmitry B Staroverov, Pavel M Balaban, Andrei B Fedotov, Dmitry A Sidorov-Biryukov, Evgeny S Nikitin, Aleksei M Zheltikov, Vsevolod V Belousov
Thermogenetics is a promising innovative neurostimulation technique, which enables robust activation of neurons using thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. Broader application of this approach in neuroscience is, however, hindered by a limited variety of suitable ion channels, and by low spatial and temporal resolution of neuronal activation when TRP channels are activated by ambient temperature variations or chemical agonists. Here, we demonstrate rapid, robust and reproducible repeated activation of snake TRPA1 channels heterologously expressed in non-neuronal cells, mouse neurons and zebrafish neurons in vivo by infrared (IR) laser radiation...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530233/artificial-control-of-the-bias-voltage-dependence-of-tunnelling-anisotropic-magnetoresistance-using-quantization-in-a-single-crystal-ferromagnet
#2
Iriya Muneta, Toshiki Kanaki, Shinobu Ohya, Masaaki Tanaka
A major issue in the development of spintronic memory devices is the reduction of the power consumption for the magnetization reversal. For this purpose, the artificial control of the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials is of great importance. Here, we demonstrate the control of the carrier-energy dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of the density of states (DOS) using the quantum size effect in a single-crystal ferromagnetic material, GaMnAs. We show that the mainly twofold symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy of DOS, which is attributed to the impurity band, is changed to a fourfold symmetry by enhancing the quantum size effect in the valence band of the GaMnAs quantum wells...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529537/a-web-based-tool-for-automatic-data-collection-curation-and-visualization-of-complex-healthcare-survey-studies-including-social-network-analysis
#3
José Alberto Benítez, José Emilio Labra, Enedina Quiroga, Vicente Martín, Isaías García, Pilar Marqués-Sánchez, Carmen Benavides
There is a great concern nowadays regarding alcohol consumption and drug abuse, especially in young people. Analyzing the social environment where these adolescents are immersed, as well as a series of measures determining the alcohol abuse risk or personal situation and perception using a number of questionnaires like AUDIT, FAS, KIDSCREEN, and others, it is possible to gain insight into the current situation of a given individual regarding his/her consumption behavior. But this analysis, in order to be achieved, requires the use of tools that can ease the process of questionnaire creation, data gathering, curation and representation, and later analysis and visualization to the user...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526825/target-decoupling-in-coupled-systems-resistant-to-random-perturbation
#4
Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, Namkyoo Park
To suppress unwanted crosstalks between nearby optical elements, the decoupling technique for integrated systems has been desired for the target control of light flows. Although cloaking methods have enabled complete decoupling of optical elements by manipulating electromagnetic waves microscopically, it is difficult to be applied rigorously to control each unit element in coupled systems due to severe restrictions on material parameters for cloaking. Here we develop the macroscopic approach to design crosstalk-free regions in coupled optical systems...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526466/-comparison-of-three-different-insertion-techniques-with-lma-unique%C3%A2-in-adults-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#5
Merih Eglen, Bahar Kuvaki, Ferim Günenç, Sule Ozbilgin, Semih Küçükgüçlü, Ebru Polat, Emel Pekel
BACKGROUND: The triple airway maneuver insertion technique allowed faster insertion of the LMA. This study compared three different insertion techniques of the laryngeal mask airway-Unique™. METHODS: One hundred and eighty ASA I-II patients aged 18-65 years were included into the study. Patients were randomly allocated to the standard, rotational and triple airway maneuver (triple) group. In the standard group (n=60), the LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway) was inserted with digital intraoral manipulation...
May 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525851/a-fully-integrated-distance-readout-elisa-chip-for-point-of-care-testing-with-sample-in-answer-out-capability
#6
Dan Liu, Xingrui Li, Junkai Zhou, Shibo Liu, Tian Tian, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Leiji Zhou, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong Yang
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular laboratory technique for detection of disease-specific protein biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. However, ELISA requires labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures with skilled operators and spectroscopic instrumentation. Simplification of the procedures and miniaturization of the devices are crucial for ELISA-based point-of-care (POC) testing in resource-limited settings. Here, we present a fully integrated, instrument-free, low-cost and portable POC platform which integrates the process of ELISA and the distance readout into a single microfluidic chip...
May 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524202/association-models-for-binding-of-molecules-to-nanostructures
#8
Manuel Ahumada, Eduardo Lissi, Ana Maria Montagut, Francisco Valenzuela-Henríquez, Natalia L Pacioni, Emilio I Alarcon
The interaction between nanoparticles and molecules plays a key role in determining the activity and performance of a given nanostructure. These interactions are pivotal for a variety of applications including drug delivery, surface manipulation for targeted therapies, and catalysis. However, to this day, gathering precise association parameters for the interaction of the molecules with nanostructures remains elusive and mostly imprecise. In this review, we present a critical discussion of the most commonly used techniques and models intended for determining the association of molecules with nanoparticles...
May 19, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524128/-placement-of-a-ventricular-catheter-into-narrow-lateral-ventricles-popular-navigation
#9
S S Ozerov, A E Samarin, A V Mel'nikov, E V Kumirova
Placement of a ventricular catheter is the most common and easiest procedure in neurosurgery. Usually, the procedure is performed using anatomical landmarks. However, despite the apparent ease of this manipulation, its results are not always satisfactory. According to the literature data, the rate of improperly placed ventricular catheters amounts to 10-40%, which is directly correlated with the risk of shunt dysfunction. The use of special equipment, such as ultrasound scanners, endoscopes, stereotactic devices, and neuronavigation systems, significantly increases success of surgery...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522828/efficient-wideband-numerical-simulations-for-nanostructures-employing-a-drude-critical-points-dcp-dispersive-model
#10
Qiang Ren, Jogender Nagar, Lei Kang, Yusheng Bian, Ping Werner, Douglas H Werner
A highly efficient numerical approach for simulating the wideband optical response of nano-architectures comprised of Drude-Critical Points (DCP) media (e.g., gold and silver) is proposed and validated through comparing with commercial computational software. The kernel of this algorithm is the subdomain level discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method, which can be viewed as a hybrid of the spectral-element time-domain method (SETD) and the finite-element time-domain (FETD) method. An hp-refinement technique is applied to decrease the Degrees-of-Freedom (DoFs) and computational requirements...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#11
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518096/invasive-behavior-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#12
Jiang Ren, Sijia Liu, Chao Cui, Peter Ten Dijke
In many cases, cancer patients do not die of a primary tumor, but rather because of metastasis. Although numerous rodent models are available for studying cancer metastasis in vivo, other efficient, reliable, low-cost models are needed to quickly access the potential effects of (epi)genetic changes or pharmacological compounds. As such, we illustrate and explain the feasibility of xenograft models using human breast cancer cells injected into zebrafish embryos to support this goal. Under the microscope, fluorescent proteins or chemically labeled human breast cancer cells are transplanted into transgenic zebrafish embryos, Tg (fli:EGFP), at the perivitelline space or duct of Cuvier (Doc) 48 h after fertilization...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515858/three-dimensional-optical-coherence-tomography-reconstruction-of-bifurcation-stenting-using-the-szabo-anchor-wire-technique
#13
Katherine Yu, Harkawal Hundal, Todd Zynda, Arnold Seto
Ostial lesions present unique challenges for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These lesions are often more calcified, fibrotic, rigid, and more prone to elastic recoil. Intervention on these lesions is associated with higher procedural complications and higher rates of restenosis. Ostial lesions require precise stent placement in the ostium with the absence of side branch compromise. Accurate stent placement in the ostium without side branch compromise is difficult to accomplish with angiography alone...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515561/efficacy-of-myofascial-unwinding-and-myofascial-release-technique-in-a-patient-with-somatic-symptoms-a-case-report
#14
Manu Goyal, Kanu Goyal, Manish Bathla, D Kanimozhi, D Narkeesh
Depression is an aversion to activity disorder which could lead to somatic dysfunctions such as insomnia, excessive sleeping, body aches, listlessness, and irritable bowel syndrome. The World Health Organization has projected the depression to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. The physical and mental ill effects of somatic depression can be addressed using the osteopathic manipulative treatment. Therefore, the purpose of the present case report is to explore the effect of myofascial release (MFR) technique and myofascial unwinding (MFU) in the somatic depression...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515126/radiomanganese-pet-detects-changes-in-functional-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-mouse-models-of-diabetes
#15
Reinier Hernandez, Stephen A Graves, Trillian Gregg, Halena R VanDeusen, Rachel J Fenske, Haley N Wienkes, Christopher G England, Hector F Valdovinos, Justin J Jeffery, Todd E Barnhart, Gregory W Severin, Robert J Nickles, Michelle E Kimple, Matthew J Merrins, Weibo Cai
The noninvasive measurement of functional β-cell mass would be clinically valuable for monitoring the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as the viability of transplanted insulin-producing cells. Although previous work employing magnetic resonance imaging has shown promise for functional β-cell mass determination through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC)-mediated internalization of Mn(2+), the clinical utility of this technique is limited by the cytotoxic levels of Mn(2+) contrast agent...
May 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513721/programmable-micrometer-sized-motor-array-based-on-live-cells
#16
Shuangxi Xie, Xiaodong Wang, Niandong Jiao, Steve Tung, Lianqing Liu
Trapping and transporting microorganisms with intrinsic motility are important tasks for biological, physical, and biomedical applications. However, fast swimming speed makes the manipulation of these organisms an inherently challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated that an optoelectrical technique, namely, optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP), could effectively trap and manipulate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) cells swimming at velocities faster than 100 μm s(-1). Furthermore, live C...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513696/external-electric-field-driving-the-ultra-low-thermal-conductivity-of-silicene
#17
Guangzhao Qin, Zhenzhen Qin, Sheng-Ying Yue, Qing-Bo Yan, Ming Hu
The manipulation of thermal transport is in increasing demand as heat transfer plays a critical role in a wide range of practical applications, such as efficient heat dissipation in nanoelectronics and heat conduction hindering in solid-state thermoelectrics. It is well established that the thermal transport in semiconductors and insulators (phonons) can be effectively modulated by structure engineering or materials processing. However, almost all the existing approaches involve altering the original atomic structure of materials, which would be hindered due to either irreversible structure change or limited tunability of thermal conductivity...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511971/learning-curve-for-the-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-for-suprasellar-craniopharyngiomas
#18
Hailin Ding, Ye Gu, Xiaobiao Zhang, Tao Xie, Tengfei Liu, Fan Hu, Yong Yu, Chongjing Sun
The endoscopic endonasal approach is considered an alternative minimally invasive approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. However, the complicated surgical manipulations required by this approach have limited its application. We evaluate whether the approach features a learning curve. Thirty-three patients were retrospectively reviewed and grouped as early (17 patients) and late (16 patient) groups. The operation time, extent of removal, ophthalmology, endocrinology, reconstruction and modifications of standard technique were evaluated...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510361/chlamydia-trachomatis-transformation-and-allelic-exchange-mutagenesis
#19
Konrad E Mueller, Katerina Wolf, Kenneth A Fields
Gene inactivation is essential for forward and reverse genetic approaches to establish protein function. Techniques such as insertion or chemical mutagenesis have been developed to mutagenize chlamydiae via targeted or random mutagenesis, respectively. Both of these approaches require transformation of chlamydiae to either introduce insertion elements or complement mutants. We have recently developed a targeted mutagenesis strategy, fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM), to delete Chlamydia trachomatis L2 genes...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509899/a-bioprosthetic-ovary-created-using-3d-printed-microporous-scaffolds-restores-ovarian-function-in-sterilized-mice
#20
Monica M Laronda, Alexandra L Rutz, Shuo Xiao, Kelly A Whelan, Francesca E Duncan, Eric W Roth, Teresa K Woodruff, Ramille N Shah
Emerging additive manufacturing techniques enable investigation of the effects of pore geometry on cell behavior and function. Here, we 3D print microporous hydrogel scaffolds to test how varying pore geometry, accomplished by manipulating the advancing angle between printed layers, affects the survival of ovarian follicles. 30° and 60° scaffolds provide corners that surround follicles on multiple sides while 90° scaffolds have an open porosity that limits follicle-scaffold interaction. As the amount of scaffold interaction increases, follicle spreading is limited and survival increases...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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