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manipulative techniques

Isabelle F Vanhaezebrouck, Elizabeth A Ballegeer, Stephen Frey, Rob Sieffert
Conformal radiation treatment plans such as IMRT and other radiosurgery techniques require very precise patient positioning, typically within a millimeter of error for best results. CT cone beam, real-time navigation, and infrared position sensors are potential options for success but rarely present in veterinary radiation centers. A neuronavigation system (Brainsight Vet, Rogue Research) was tested 22 times on a skull for positioning accuracy and precision analysis. The first 6 manipulations allowed the authors to become familiar with the system but were still included in the analyses...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Norio Okabayashi, Angelo Peronio, Magnus Paulsson, Toyoko Arai, Franz J Giessibl
The oscillation frequencies of a molecule on a surface are determined by the mass distribution in the molecule and the restoring forces that occur when the molecule bends. The restoring force originates from the atomic-scale interaction within the molecule and with the surface, which plays an essential role in the dynamics and reactivity of the molecule. In 1998, a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy with inelastic tunneling spectroscopy revealed the vibrational frequencies of single molecules adsorbed on a surface...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yajia Huang, Aiguo Xia, Guang Yang, Fan Jin
In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h...
April 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Shao-Kai Sun, He-Fang Wang, Xiu-Ping Yan
Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) are unique optical materials emitting long-lasting luminescence after ceasing excitation. Such a unique optical feature allows luminescence detection without constant external illumination to avoid the interferences of autofluorescence and scattering light from biological fluids and tissues. Besides, near-infrared (NIR) PLNPs have advantages of deep penetration and the reactivation of the persistent luminescence (PL) by red or NIR light. These features make the application of NIR-emitting PLNPs in long-term bioimaging no longer limited by the lifetime of PL...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ina P Pavlova, Shannon C Shipley, Marcos Lanio, René Hen, Christine A Denny
Recent genetic tools have allowed researchers to visualize and manipulate memory traces (i.e. engrams) in small brain regions. However, the ultimate goal is to visualize memory traces across the entire brain in order to better understand how memories are stored in neural networks and how multiple memories may coexist. Intact tissue clearing and imaging is a new and rapidly growing area of focus that could accomplish this task. Here, we utilized the leading protocols for whole-brain clearing and applied them to the ArcCreERT2 mice, a murine line that allows for the indelible labeling of memory traces...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
Sanjaya Kumar, Russell G Witt, Stefan G Tullius, Sayeed K Malek
OBJECTIVE: Although there are several variations of laparoscopic living donor nephrectomies, there is no consensus as to the best technique. Our objective was to describe our technique and assess the outcomes of our approach to hand-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal donor nephrectomies. METHODS: From July 2001 to October 2015, 507 consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal donor nephrectomies were performed. Their clinical information was retrospectively reviewed including warm ischemia time, skin incision to kidney ready time, estimated blood loss, adverse intraoperative events, and postoperative complications...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Effrosyni Fatira, Miloš Havelka, Catherine Labbé, Alexandra Depincé, Viktoriia Iegorova, Martin Pšenička, Taiju Saito
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a very promising cloning technique for reconstruction of endangered animals. The aim of the present research is to implement the interspecific SCNT (iSCNT) technique to sturgeon; one fish family bearing some of the most critically endangered species. We transplanted single cells enzymatically isolated from a dissociated fin-fragment of the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) into non-enucleated eggs of the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), two species bearing different ploidy (4n and 2n, respectively)...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alireza Safa, Reza Yazdanpanah Abdolmalaki, Saeed Shafiee, Behzad Sadeghi
In the field of nanotechnology, there is a growing demand to provide precision control and manipulation of devices with the ability to interact with complex and unstructured environments at micro/nano-scale. As a result, ultrahigh-precision positioning stages have been turned into a key requirement of nanotechnology. In this paper, linear piezoelectric ceramic motors (LPCMs) are adopted to drive micro/nanopositioning stages since they have the ability to achieve high precision in addition to being versatile to be implemented over a wide range of applications...
April 13, 2018: ISA Transactions
Gareth T Little, Benjamin J Willson, John T Heap, Klaus Winzer, Nigel P Minton
The solventogenic anaerobe Clostridium beijerinckii has potential for use in the sustainable bioconversion of plant-derived carbohydrates into solvents, such as butanol or acetone. However, relatively few strains have been extensively characterised either at the genomic level or through exemplification of a complete genetic toolkit. To remedy this situation, a new strain of C. beijerinckii, NCIMB 14988, was selected from amongst a total of 55 new clostridial isolates capable of growth on hexose and pentose sugars...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Richard Reisdorph, BobbiJo Littrell-Miller, Roger Powell, Nichole Reisdorph
RATIONALE: The goal of this work was to identify phosphorylation sites within the amino acid sequence of human ADAP1. Using traditional mass spectrometry-based techniques we were unable to produce interpretable spectra demonstrating modification by phosphorylation. This prompted us to employ a strategy in which phosphorylated peptides were first predicted using peptide mapping followed by targeted MS/MS acquisition. METHODS: ADAP1 was immunoprecipitated from extracts of HEK293 cells stably-transfected with ADAP1 cDNA...
April 16, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Naoyuki Matsumoto, Nobuhiko Yamamoto
Axon branching and synapse formation are crucial processes for establishing precise neuronal circuits. During development, sensory thalamocortical (TC) axons form branches and synapses in specific layers of the cerebral cortex. Despite the obvious spatial correlation between axon branching and synapse formation, the causal relationship between them is poorly understood. To address this issue, we recently developed a method for simultaneous imaging of branching and synapse formation of individual TC axons in organotypic cocultures...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
João Vitor Quadra Vieira Dos Santos, Fernando J Abreu, Luis Fernando C Castro, Patric M Tavares, Brasil S Neto, Tiago Elias Rosito
This video provides a case report of a 3 year old girl with epispadia and the highlights of the surgery. A cystoscopic guided bladder neck plication was performed to achieve continence. Key points include: (1) Skin incision planning; (2) Cutaneous flap liberation to create a new urethra; (3) Complete bladder neck release to allow a controlled plication; (4) Use of cystoscopy to achieve the ideal bladder neck closure; (5) Bladder neck manipulation to achieve continence.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Thijs T G Jansen, Henri A M Marres, Johannes H A M Kaanders, Henricus P M Kunst
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the risk associated with different types of surgery for carotid body paraganglioma of different Shamblin class. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate per tumour class, the local control, cranial nerve damage and complication rates of different techniques using internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) ligation, clamping or bypassing, as well as the cranio-caudal versus caudo-cranial techniques. DESIGN: A meta-analysis is conducted after a systematic search in PubMed and the Cochrane library, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Linda E Fong, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Systems biology provides an effective approach to decipher, predict, and ultimately manipulate the complex and inter-connected networks that regulate the immune system. Advances in high-throughput, multiplexed experimental techniques have increased the availability of proteomic and transcriptomic immunological datasets, and as a result, have also accelerated the development of new data-driven computational algorithms to extract biological insight from these data. This review highlights how data-driven statistical models have been used to characterize immune cell subsets and their functions, to map the signaling and intercellular networks that regulate immune responses, and to connect immune cell states to disease outcomes to generate hypotheses for novel therapeutic strategies...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Edyta Swider, Olga Koshkina, Jurjen Tel, Luis J Cruz, I Jolanda M de Vries, Mangala Srinivas
Nano- and microparticles have increasingly widespread applications in nanomedicine, ranging from drug delivery to imaging. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles are the most widely-applied type of particles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Here, we discuss the preparation of PLGA particles, and various modifications to tailor particles for applications in biological systems. We highlight new preparation approaches, including microfluidics and PRINT method, and modifications of PLGA particles resulting in novel or responsive properties, such as Janus or upconversion particles...
April 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ida Fonkoue, Paul J Marvar, Seth D Norrholm, Melanie L Kankam, Yunxiao Li, Dana DaCosta, Barbara O Rothbaum, Jeanie Park
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients have elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity and impaired sympathetic and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Device-guided slow breathing (DGB) has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity in other patient populations. We hypothesized that DGB acutely lowers BP, heart rate (HR), and improves BRS in PTSD. In 23 prehypertensive veterans with PTSD, we measured continuous BP, EKG, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest, and during 15 minutes of device-guided slow breathing at 5 breaths/min (DGB; n=13) or identical sham device breathing at normal rates of 14 breaths/min (SHAM; n=10)...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Aleksander Shakhov, Artyom Astafiev, Viktor Nadtochenko
We report the effect of laser cavitation in water initiated by femtosecond pulses confined into subwavelength volume of photonic nanojet of spherical microparticles. The effect of nanoscale optical breakdown was employed for controllable and nondestructive micromanipulation of silica microspheres. We combine this technique with optical trapping for cyclic particle movements and estimate a peak velocity and an acceleration acquired by microspheres propelled by nanojet cavitation. Our study provides a strategy for nondestructive optical micromanipulation, cavitation-assisted drug delivery, and laser energy transduction in microdevices...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Phillip Roder, Carsten Hille
Local manipulation of complex tissues at the single-cell level is challenging and requires excellent sealing between the specimen and the micromanipulation device. Here, biological applications for a recently developed loading technique for a force- and pressure-controlled fluidic force microscope micropipette are described. This technique allows for the exact positioning and precise spatiotemporal control of liquid delivery. The feasibility of a local loading technique for tissue applications was investigated using two fluorescent dyes, with which local loading behaviour could be optically visualised...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Viktoria Klippenstein, Laetitia Mony, Pierre Paoletti
Approaches to remotely control and monitor ion channel operation with light are expanding rapidly in the biophysics and neuroscience fields. A recent development directly introduces light sensitivity into proteins by utilizing photosensitive unnatural amino acids (UAAs) incorporated using the genetic code expansion technique. The introduction of UAAs results in unique molecular level control and, when combined with the maximal spatiotemporal resolution and poor invasiveness of light, enables direct manipulation and interrogation of ion channel functionality...
April 10, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Xiao-Li Guo, Yan Wei, Qi Lou, Ying Zhu, Qun Fang
Herein, we developed an automated and flexible system for performing miniaturized liquid-liquid reactions and assays in the femtoliter to picoliter range, by combining the contact printing and the droplet-based microfluidics techniques. The system mainly consisted of solid pins and an oil-covered hydrophilic micropillar array chip fixed on an automated x- y- z translation stage. A novel droplet manipulation mode called "dipping-depositing-moving" (DDM) was proposed, which was based on the programmable combination of three basic operations, dipping liquids and depositing liquids with the solid pins and moving the two-dimensional oil-covered hydrophilic pillar microchip...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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