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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821843/broadband-polarization-conversion-with-anisotropic-plasmonic-metasurfaces
#1
Wei Cao, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao
Metasurfaces offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of light propagation, optical intensity, phase and polarization. Plasmonic metasurface based quarter-wave plates have been recently studied to realize the conversion between linear polarization and circular polarization. However, it is still quite challenging to directly measure the birefringent phase retardation introduced by metasurface wave plates with a reliable technique. Here, we report a high-performance broadband metasurface quarter-wave plate made of anisotropic T-shaped plasmonic antennas in near-infrared wavelength range, where the achromatic nearly 90° transmitted phase retardation through the metasurface is precisely characterized with an optical vortex based interferometric approach...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820165/extraocular-needle-guided-haptic-insertion-technique-of-scleral-fixation-intraocular-lens-surgeries-x-nit
#2
Prabu Baskaran, Pratyusha Ganne, Sahil Bhandari, Seema Ramakrishnan, Rengaraj Venkatesh, Prashant Gireesh
The most challenging step in sutureless scleral fixation of intraocular lens (SFIOL) is exteriorization of haptics. The conventional handshake technique has a learning curve since it involves intraocular handing over of haptics from one forceps to another. Here, we describe "extraocular needle-guided haptic insertion technique" (X-NIT), a novel technique of exteriorizing haptics that totally eliminates intraocular manipulations. This method involves sequential introduction of two bent 26-gauge needles through the sclera (pars plicata zone) into the eye which are brought out through a sclerocorneal wound...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815718/a-potential-high-risk-for-fatty-liver-disease-was-found-in-mice-generated-after-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#3
Gu Ll, Zhang Jj, Zheng Mm, Dong Gy, Xu Jy, Zhang Wy, Yibo Wu, Yang Yang, Zhu H
Abnormal gametogenesis and embryonic development may lead to poor health status of the offspring. The operations involved in the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) occur during the key stage of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. To assess the potential risk of abnormal lipid metabolism in the liver of adult ARTs offspring, two ARTs mice models derived from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD group) and in vitro cultured embryos without biopsy (IVEM group) were constructed. And control mice were from in vivo naturally conceived (Normal group)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815496/injection-based-delivery-of-cell-permeable-peptide-tagged-cre
#4
Wei-Ming Chien, Yonggang Liu, Ana A Dinca, Michael T Chin
The technique of Cre-mediated DNA recombination at loxP sites has been used widely in manipulation of the genome in cultured cells and in living organisms. Local delivery of Cre recombinase protein tagged with a cell-penetrating (or permeable) peptide (Cre-CPP) has the advantage of additional spatial and temporal control when compared to genetic delivery methods. In this chapter, we describe protocols for injection-based intramuscular delivery of Cre-CPP dissolved in hydrogel to skeletal muscle and by ultrasound-guided injection to cardiac muscle in mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815387/image-guided-surgical-robotic-system-for-percutaneous-reduction-of-joint-fractures
#5
Giulio Dagnino, Ioannis Georgilas, Samir Morad, Peter Gibbons, Payam Tarassoli, Roger Atkins, Sanja Dogramadzi
Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815231/fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-via-a-focused-traveling-surface-acoustic-beam
#6
Zhichao Ma, Yinning Zhou, David J Collins, Ye Ai
Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) has become an essential technique widely exploited in biological studies and clinical applications. However, current FACS systems are quite complex, expensive, bulky, and pose potential sample contamination and biosafety issues due to the generation of aerosols in an open environment. Microfluidic technology capable of precise cell manipulation has great potential to reinvent and miniaturize conventional FACS systems. In this work, we demonstrate a benchtop scale FACS system that makes use of a highly focused traveling surface acoustic wave beam to sort out micron-sized particles and biological cells upon fluorescence interrogation at ∼kHz rates...
August 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814473/breaking-boundaries-optimizing-reconsolidation-based-interventions-for-strong-and-old-memories
#7
James W B Elsey, Merel Kindt
Recent research has demonstrated that consolidated memories can enter a temporary labile state after reactivation, requiring restabilization in order to persist. This process, known as reconsolidation, potentially allows for the modification and disruption of memory. Much interest in reconsolidation stems from the possibility that maladaptive memory traces-a core feature of several psychiatric conditions-could be tackled by disrupting their reconsolidation. However, research has indicated a range of supposed boundary conditions on the induction of reconsolidation...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813933/robotic-learning-from-demonstration-of-therapist-s-time-varying-assistance-to-a-patient-in-trajectory-following-tasks
#8
Mohammad Najafi, Kim Adams, Mahdi Tavakoli
The number of people with physical disabilities and impaired motion control is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand for intelligent assistive robotic systems to cooperate with people with disability and help them carry out different tasks. To this end, our group has pioneered the use of robot learning from demonstration (RLfD) techniques, which eliminate the need for task-specific robot programming, in robotic rehabilitation and assistive technologies settings. First, in the demonstration phase, the therapist (or in general, a helper) provides an intervention (typically assistance) and cooperatively performs a task with a patient several times...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813923/a-real-time-and-reduced-complexity-approach-to-the-detection-and-monitoring-of-static-joint-overloading-in-humans
#9
Wansoo Kim, Jinoh Lee, Nikos Tsagarakis, Arash Ajoudani
This paper proposes a novel technique for the real-time estimation of the joint torques variations in humans while performing heavy manipulation tasks. To achieve this, the method is based on the deviations of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) and Ground Reaction Force (GRF) in the presence of interaction forces. The CoP and GRF variations are calculated from the difference between the estimated values (assuming no interaction forces) using a pre-identified statically equivalent serial chain (SESC) and the measured ones (with the effect of interaction forces) using an external device...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812050/caveats-in-the-established-understanding-of-cmt1a
#10
Jun Li
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type-1A (CMT1A) is one of the most common types of inherited peripheral nerve diseases. It is caused by the trisomy of chromosome 17p12 (c17p12), a large DNA segment of 1.4 Mb containing PMP22 plus eight other genes. The size of c17p12 is formidable for any cloning technique to manipulate, and thus precludes production of models in vitro and in vivo that can precisely recapitulate the genetic alterations in humans with CMT1A. This limitation and other factors have led to several assumptions, which have yet been carefully scrutinized, serving as key principles in our understanding of the disease...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809834/quantifying-infra-slow-dynamics-of-spectral-power-and-heart-rate-in-sleeping-mice
#11
Laura M J Fernandez, Sandro Lecci, Romain Cardis, Gil Vantomme, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Three vigilance states dominate mammalian life: wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. As more neural correlates of behavior are identified in freely moving animals, this three-fold subdivision becomes too simplistic. During wakefulness, ensembles of global and local cortical activities, together with peripheral parameters such as pupillary diameter and sympathovagal balance, define various degrees of arousal. It remains unclear the extent to which sleep also forms a continuum of brain states-within which the degree of resilience to sensory stimuli and arousability, and perhaps other sleep functions, vary gradually-and how peripheral physiological states co-vary...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809711/distinct-motion-of-gfp-tagged-histone-expressing-cells-under-ac-electrokinetics-in-electrode-multilayered-microfluidic-device
#12
Jiafeng Yao, Michiko Sugawara, Hiromichi Obara, Takeomi Mizutani, Masahiro Takei
The distinct motion of GFP-tagged histone expressing cells (Histone-GFP type cells) has been investigated under ac electrokinetics in an electrode-multilayered microfluidic device as compared with Wild type cells and GFP type cells in terms of different intracellular components. The Histone-GFP type cells were modified by the transfection of green fluorescent protein-fused histone from the human lung fibroblast cell line. The velocity of the Histone-GFP type cells obtained by particle tracking velocimetry technique is faster than Wild type cells by 24...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809026/handling-of-gametes-for-in-vitro-insemination-in-birds
#13
Shusei Mizushima, Mei Matsuzaki, Tomohiro Sasanami
A characteristic biological property of avian gamete (e.g., extremely large egg and polyspermic fertilization) does not allow the direct observation of sperm-egg interactions in vitro, but recent research advances make it possible to manipulate the gamete in vitro. Here, we describe the techniques for the handling of gametes required for in vitro fertilization assay. In addition, we also introduce the procedures for sperm-perivitelline membrane assay, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ex ovo culture.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808817/electrophysiological-modulation-in-an-effort-to-complete-illusory-figures-configuration-illusory-contour-and-closure-effects
#14
Tommaso Poscoliero, Massimo Girelli
Figure recognition process: From the coarse configuration standing from the background to the closure of a meaningful shape, was investigated by ERP technique. ERP components at different latencies from stimulus onset allowed to tap into the figure recognition process at discrete time-points when different cognitive operations take place. In this study, we present two experiments where the support-ratio (SR) of illusory figures was manipulated to vary continuously the recognition of geometrical figures. In the first experiment three shapes were used to vary the SR and the P1 component (80-130 ms) was modulated by the configuration-effect explained, in part for the first time, with the unbalanced physical stimulation between upper and lower visual field...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808328/light-guided-in-vivo-activation-of-innate-immune-cells-with-photocaged-tlr-2-6-agonist
#15
Keun Ah Ryu, Bethany McGonnigal, Troy Moore, Tawnya Kargupta, Rock J Mancini, Aaron P Esser-Kahn
The complexity of the immune system creates challenges in exploring its importance and robustness. To date, there have been few techniques developed to manipulate individual components of the immune system in an in vivo environment. Here we show a light-based dendritic cell (DC) activation allowing spatial and temporal control of immune activation in vivo. Additionally, we show time dependent changes in RNA profiles of the draining lymph node, suggesting a change in cell profile following DC migration and indicating that the cells migrating have been activated towards antigen presentation...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808096/strategies-and-tools-to-improve-crop-productivity-by-targeting-photosynthesis
#16
Michael L Nuccio, Laura Potter, Suzy M Stiegelmeyer, Joseph Curley, Jonathan Cohn, Peter E Wittich, Xiaoping Tan, Jimena Davis, Junjian Ni, Jon Trullinger, Rick Hall, Nicholas J Bate
Crop productivity needs to substantially increase to meet global food and feed demand for a rapidly growing world population. Agricultural technology developers are pursuing a variety of approaches based on both traditional technologies such as genetic improvement, pest control and mechanization as well as new technologies such as genomics, gene manipulation and environmental modelling to develop crops that are capable of meeting growing demand. Photosynthesis is a key biochemical process that, many suggest, is not yet optimized for industrial agriculture or the modern global environment...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805680/broadband-ultra-deep-sub-diffraction-limit-optical-focusing-by-metallic-graded-index-mgrin-lenses
#17
Yechuan Zhu, Weizheng Yuan, Hao Sun, Yiting Yu
The development of techniques for efficiently confining energy in the visible and infrared spectral regions to the deep subwavelength spatial scale with dimensions as small as a few nanometers would have great significance for scientific research and engineering practices. Such an ability to manipulate light is impossible for conventional dielectric lenses due to the diffraction limit. Here, we propose a metallic graded-index (MGRIN) lens formed by an array of coupled metallic waveguides with identical nanoscale widths embedded by index-varying dielectrics to enable the optical nanofocusing...
August 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804739/selection-of-genetically-modified-bacteriophages-using-the-crispr-cas-system
#18
Miriam Manor, Udi Qimron
We present a CRISPR-Cas based technique for deleting genes from the T7 bacteriophage genome. A DNA fragment encoding homologous arms to the target gene to be deleted is first cloned into a plasmid. The T7 phage is then propagated in Escherichia coli harboring this plasmid. During this propagation, some phage genomes undergo homologous recombination with the plasmid, thus deleting the targeted gene. To select for these genomes, the CRISPR-Cas system is used to cleave non-edited genomes, enabling isolation of the desired recombinant phages...
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801924/foramen-epiploicum-mesh-closure-femc-through-a-ventral-midline-laparotomy
#19
T van Bergen, A Rötting, P Wiemer, S Schauvliege, K Vanderperren, F Ugahary, A Martens
BACKGROUND: Preventive laparoscopic closure of the epiploic foramen (EF) has previously been described, but methods for EF closure during laparotomy for treatment of colic are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To describe the Foramen Epiploicum Mesh Closure (FEMC) technique through a ventral midline laparotomy in horses under general anaesthesia and its outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Terminal surgical experiment and in vivo study. METHODS: In a pilot study a standard ventral midline laparotomy was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 experimental horses and a three-dimensional expandable diabolo-shaped mesh construct was manually introduced through the EF into the omental vestibule...
August 12, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800741/erythrocyte-depletion-from-bone-marrow-performance-evaluation-after-50-clinical-scale-depletions-with-spectra-optia-bmc
#20
Soo-Zin Kim-Wanner, Gesine Bug, Juliane Steinmann, Salem Ajib, Nadine Sorg, Carolin Poppe, Milica Bunos, Eva Wingenfeld, Christiane Hümmer, Beate Luxembourg, Erhard Seifried, Halvard Bonig
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) depletion is a standard graft manipulation technique for ABO-incompatible bone marrow (BM) transplants. The BM processing module for Spectra Optia, "BMC", was previously introduced. We here report the largest series to date of routine quality data after performing 50 clinical-scale RBC-depletions. METHODS: Fifty successive RBC-depletions from autologous (n = 5) and allogeneic (n = 45) BM transplants were performed with the Spectra Optia BMC apheresis suite...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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