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Qihong Huang, Qing Zhong, Joseph B A Mayaka, Jinfeng Ni, Yulong Shen
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most important post-translational modifications, regulates almost every cellular process. Although signal transduction by protein phosphorylation is extensively studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge of this process in archaea is greatly lagging behind, especially for Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation by eukaryotic-like protein kinases (ePKs). So far, only a few studies on archaeal ePKs have been reported, most of which focused on the phosphorylation activities in vitro, but their physiological functions and interacting network are still largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michaela Wagner, Lu Shen, Andreas Albersmeier, Nienke van der Kolk, Sujin Kim, Jaeho Cha, Christopher Bräsen, Jörn Kalinowski, Bettina Siebers, Sonja-Verena Albers
Sulfolobus spp. possess a great metabolic versatility and grow heterotrophically on various carbon sources such as different sugars and peptides. Known sugar transporters in Archaea predominantly belong to ABC transport systems. Although several ABC transporters for sugar uptake have been characterized in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, only one homologue of these transporters, the maltose/maltooligomer transporter, could be identified in the closely related Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Comparison of the transcriptome of S...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Tsubasa Washio, Tadao Oikawa
We successfully expressed the L-aspartate oxidase homolog gene (accession no: OCC_06611) of Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473 in the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a pET21b vector with 6X His tag at its C-terminus. The gene product (Tl-LASPO) showed L-aspartate oxidase activity in the presence of FAD in vitro, and this report is the first that details an L-aspartate oxidase derived from a Thermococcus species. The homologs of Tl-LASPO existed mainly in archaea, especially in the genus of Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, Sulfolobus, and Halobacteria...
November 15, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tian-Qing Song, Ming-Zhu Ding, Fang Zhai, Duo Liu, Hong Liu, Wen-Hai Xiao, Ying-Jin Yuan
Combinatorial design is an effective strategy to acquire the optimal solution in complex systems. In this study, the combined effects of pathway combination, promoters' strength fine-tuning, copy numbers and integration locus variations caused by δ-integration were explored in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using geranylgeraniol (GGOH) production as an example. Two GGOH biosynthetic pathway branches were constructed. In branch 1, GGOH was converted from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xue Zhang, Qing-Chuan Zheng
The hyperthermophilic Ssh10b from Sulfolobus shibatae is a member of the Sac10b family, which binds RNA in vivo as a physiological substrate, and it has been postulated to play a key role in chromosomal organization in Archaea. Even though the crystal structure of Ssh10b-RNA was resolved successively by X-ray diffraction (Protein Data Bank [PDB] code: 3WBM), the detailed dynamic characteristics of Ssh10b-RNA are still unclear. In this study, molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations at 6 temperatures (300, 350, 375, 400, 450, and 500 K) and molecular mechanics Generalized-Born surface area (MM-GB/SA) free energy calculations were performed to investigate the mechanism of how Ssh10b protects and stabilizes RNA...
October 25, 2017: Biopolymers
Wenjun Jiang, Baochang Zhang, Chuyao Fan, Min Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Qiang Deng, Xianyu Liu, Ji Chen, Jishen Zheng, Lei Liu, Ting F Zhu
The construction of mirror-image biological systems may open the next frontier for biomedical technology development and discovery. Here we have designed and chemically synthesized a mutant version of the thermostable Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) consisting of d-amino acids. With a total peptide length of 358 amino acid residues, it is the largest chemically synthesized d-amino acid protein reported to date. We show that the d-polymerase is able to amplify a 120-bp l-DNA sequence coding for the Escherichia coli 5S ribosomal RNA gene rrfB by mirror-image polymerase chain reaction, and that both the natural and mirror-image systems operate with strict chiral specificity...
2017: Cell Discovery
Changyi Zhang, Rachel J Whitaker
Sulfolobus islandicus is rapidly emerging as a model system for studying the biology and evolution within the TACK lineage of the Archaeal domain. As the tree of life grows, identifying the cellular function of genes within this lineage will have significant impacts on our understanding of the evolution of Last Archaeal Eukaryote Common Ancestor (LEACA) and the differentiation of Archaea from Eukaryotes during the evolution of the modernday cell. To progress our understanding of this key Archaeal organism, we report a novel high-throughput method for targeted gene inactivation in S...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kun Wang, Ann-Christin Lindås
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method used for identifying genome-wide DNA-protein interactions in vivo. A large number of essential intracellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, chromatin stability, and others are all dependent on protein interactions with DNA. The DNA fragments enriched from the ChIP assay are analyzed by downstream applications, for example, microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip), quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR), or deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). This chapter presents a stepwise protocol for ChIP performed in hyperthermophilic archaea that we have successfully used in the hyperthermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kyung-Chul Shin, Hye-Yeon Choi, Min-Ju Seo, Deok-Kun Oh
Ginsenoside compound K has been used as a key nutritional and cosmetic component because of its anti-fatigue and skin anti-aging effects. β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-BGL) is known as the most efficient enzyme for compound K production. The hydrolytic pathway from ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K via Rd and F2 is the most important because Rb1 is the most abundant component in ginseng extract. However, the enzymatic conversion of ginsenoside Rd to F2 is a limiting step in the hydrolytic pathway because of the relatively low activity for Rd...
October 4, 2017: AMB Express
Wenyuan Han, Saifu Pan, Blanca López-Méndez, Guillermo Montoya, Qunxin She
CRISPR-Cas systems protect prokaryotes against invading viruses and plasmids. The system is associated with a large number of Cas accessory proteins among which many contain a CARF (CRISPR-associated Rossmann fold) domain implicated in ligand binding and a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) nuclease domain. Here, such a dual domain protein, i.e. the Sulfolobus islandicus Csx1 (SisCsx1) was characterized. The enzyme exhibited metal-independent single-strand specific ribonuclease activity...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Valentina Kalichuk, Axelle Renodon-Cornière, Ghislaine Béhar, Federico Carrión, Gonzalo Obal, Mike Maillasson, Barbara Mouratou, Véronique Préat, Frédéric Pecorari
Affitins are highly stable engineered affinity proteins, originally derived from Sac7d and Sso7d, two 7 kDa DNA-binding polypeptides from Sulfolobus genera. Their efficiency as reagents for intracellular targeting, enzyme inhibition, affinity purification, immunolocalization and various other applications has been demonstrated. Recently, we have characterized the 7 kDa DNA-binding family, and Aho7c originating from Acidianus hospitalis was shown to be its smallest member with thermostability comparable to those of Sac7d and Sso7d...
October 4, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Valeria Visone, Wenyuan Han, Giuseppe Perugino, Giovanni Del Monaco, Qunxin She, Mosè Rossi, Anna Valenti, Maria Ciaramella
Protein imaging, allowing a wide variety of biological studies both in vitro and in vivo, is of great importance in modern biology. Protein and peptide tags fused to proteins of interest provide the opportunity to elucidate protein location and functions, detect protein-protein interactions, and measure protein activity and kinetics in living cells. Whereas several tags are suitable for protein imaging in mesophilic organisms, the application of this approach to microorganisms living at high temperature has lagged behind...
2017: PloS One
Igor P Oscorbin, Ekaterina A Belousova, Ulyana A Boyarskikh, Aleksandr I Zakabunin, Evgeny A Khrapov, Maksim L Filipenko
At the moment, one of the actual trends in medical diagnostics is a development of methods for practical applications such as point-of-care testing, POCT or research tools, for example, whole genome amplification, WGA. All the techniques are based on using of specific DNA polymerases having strand displacement activity, high synthetic processivity, fidelity and, most significantly, tolerance to contaminants, appearing from analysed biological samples or collected under purification procedures. Here, we have designed a set of fusion enzymes based on catalytic domain of DNA polymerase I from Geobacillus sp...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Tao Liu, Zhenzhen Liu, Qing Ye, Saifu Pan, Xiaodi Wang, Yingjun Li, Wenfang Peng, Yunxiang Liang, Qunxin She, Nan Peng
CRISPR-Cas system provides the adaptive immunity against invading genetic elements in prokaryotes. Recently, we demonstrated that Csa3a regulator mediates spacer acquisition in Sulfolobus islandicus by activating the expression of Type I-A adaptation cas genes. However, links between the activation of spacer adaptation and CRISPR transcription/processing, and the requirement for DNA repair genes during spacer acquisition remained poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that de novo spacer acquisition required Csa1, Cas1, Cas2 and Cas4 proteins of the Sulfolobus Type I-A system...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Birgit Märtens, Kundan Sharma, Henning Urlaub, Udo Bläsi
Sm and Sm-like proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family with key roles in RNA metabolism in Pro- and Eukaryotes. In this study, a collection of 53 mRNAs that co-purified with Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) SmAP2 were surveyed for a specific RNA binding motif (RBM). SmAP2 was shown to bind with high affinity to the deduced consensus RNA binding motif (SmAP2-cRBM) in vitro. Residues in SmAP2 interacting with the SmAP2-cRBM were mapped by UV-induced crosslinking in combination with mass-spectrometry, and verified by mutational analyses...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
K B Uldahl, S T Walk, S C Olshefsky, M J Young, X Peng
AIMS: Analysis of the stability and safety of Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) during passage through the mammalian GI tract. METHODS AND RESULTS: A major challenge of using nano-vectors to target gut microbiome is their survival during passage through the extremely acidic and proteolytic environment of the mammalian GI tract. Here, we investigated the thermo-acidophilic archaeal virus SMV1 as a candidate therapeutic nano-vector for the distal mammalian GI tract microbiome...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gihan Mahmoud, Jarmila Jedelská, Boris Strehlow, Samia Omar, Marc Schneider, Udo Bakowsky
Tetraether lipids (TELs) derived from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are dominated by polyisoprenoid skeleton. The unique molecular stability of TELs is attributed to the presence of cyclopentane rings, methyl side groups and sugar residues that create extensive hydrogen bond network. In addition, the presence of ether linkages and the lacking of double bonds make them an epitome candidate for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A subtle blend of formulation design to trigger efficient photo responses of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) exploiting TELs was developed...
August 30, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Wenyuan Han, Yanqun Xu, Xu Feng, Yun X Liang, Li Huang, Yulong Shen, Qunxin She
To investigate DNA damage response in the model crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus, four different DNA damage agents were tested for their effects on cell death of this archaeon, including UV irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (NQO). Cell death featured with DNA-less cell formation was revealed in DNA damage treatment with each agent. Cellular responses upon NQO treatment were characterized in details, and following sequential events were revealed, including: a modest accumulation of G1/S phase cells, membrane depolarization, proteolytic degradation of chromatin proteins, and chromosomal DNA degradation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Linping Wu, Kristine Buch Uldahl, Fangfang Chen, Halli Benasutti, Deborah Logvinski, Vivian Vu, Nirmal K Banda, Xu Peng, Dmitri Simberg, Seyed Moein Moghimi
Archaeal viruses offer exceptional biophysical properties for modification and exploration of their potential in bionanotechnology, bioengineering and nanotherapeutic developments. However, the interaction of archaeal viruses with elements of the innate immune system has not been explored, which is a necessary prerequisite if their potential for biomedical applications to be realized. Here we show complement activation through lectin (via direct binding of MBL/MASPs) and alternative pathways by two extremophilic archaeal viruses (Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 and Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 2) in human serum...
October 2017: Molecular Immunology
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