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Event-related potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934778/the-effect-of-early-use-of-supplemental-therapy-on-preventing-postherpetic-neuralgia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Xiu-Fang Xing, Zhen-Feng Zhou, Feng-Jiang Zhang, Min Yan
BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and refractory complication of herpes zoster (HZ). Aggressive treatment of acute pain in HZ has the potential to prevent the development of PHN, but the preventive efficacy of supplemental therapy commonly used in clinical practice is controversial. OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to examine the efficacy of supplemental therapy in preventing PHN. STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis. SETTING: All of the selected studies are randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934597/the-recent-atlantic-cold-anomaly-causes-consequences-and-related-phenomena
#2
Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934332/end-member-modelling-as-a-tool-for-climate-reconstruction-an-eastern-mediterranean-case-study
#3
Sarah Beuscher, Stefan Krüger, Werner Ehrmann, Gerhard Schmiedl, Yvonne Milker, Helge Arz, Hartmut Schulz
The Eastern Mediterranean Sea is a sink for terrigenous sediments from North Africa, Europe and Asia Minor. Its sediments therefore provide valuable information on the climate dynamics in the source areas and the associated transport processes. We present a high-resolution dataset of sediment core M40/4_SL71, which was collected SW of Crete and spans the last ca. 180 kyr. We analysed the clay mineral composition, the grain size distribution within the silt fraction, and the abundance of major and trace elements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933906/neural-bases-of-automaticity
#5
Mathieu Servant, Peter Cassey, Geoffrey F Woodman, Gordon D Logan
Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this prediction, however, these experiments did not use the canonical paradigms used to study automaticity. Specifically, automaticity is typically studied using practice regimes with consistent mapping between targets and distractors and spaced practice with individual targets, features that these previous studies lacked...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933902/individual-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-underlie-a-tradeoff-between-semantic-and-structural-processing-difficulty-during-language-comprehension-an-erp-investigation
#6
Albert E Kim, Leif Oines, Akira Miyake
This study investigated the processes reflected in the widely observed N400 and P600 event-related potential (ERP) effects and tested the hypothesis that the N400 and P600 effects are functionally linked in a tradeoff relationship, constrained in part by individual differences in cognitive ability. Sixty participants read sentences, and ERP effects of semantic anomaly, relative to plausible words, were calculated for each participant. Results suggested qualitatively different ERP patterns across participants: Some individuals generated N400-dominated effects, whereas others generated P600-dominated effects, for the same stimuli...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933898/embodied-cognition-is-activation-of-the-motor-cortex-essential-for-understanding-action-verbs
#7
Jeff Miller, Kate Brookie, Sid Wales, Simon Wallace, Barbara Kaup
In 8 experiments using language processing tasks ranging from lexical decision to sensibility judgment, participants made hand or foot responses after reading hand- or foot-associated words such as action verbs. In general, response time (RT) tended to be faster when the hand- versus foot-associated word was compatible with the limb that was required to respond (e.g., hand response to a hand-associated word) than when it was incompatible (e.g., foot response to a hand-associated word). To see whether this compatibility effect reflects differential hand- versus foot-specific motor activation produced by the words, as suggested by some embodied theories of language understanding, we monitored 2 event-related potential (ERP) measures previously found to be sensitive to the activation of these limbs...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933805/perioperative-administration-of-buffered-versus-non-buffered-crystalloid-intravenous-fluid-to-improve-outcomes-following-adult-surgical-procedures
#8
REVIEW
Sohail Bampoe, Peter M Odor, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Suzie Cro, Tong J Gan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael Fm James, Michael G Mythen, Catherine Mn O'Malley, Anthony M Roche, Kathy Rowan, Edward Burdett
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933663/type-iii-hypersensitivity-reactions-to-a-b-cell-epitope-antigen-are-abrogated-using-a-depot-forming-vaccine-platform
#9
Lisa D MacDonald, Alecia MacKay, Valarmathy Kaliaperumal, Genevieve Weir, Andrea Penwell, Rajkannan Rajagopalan, Joanne Langley, Scott Halperin, Marc Mansour, Marianne M Stanford
Peptide antigens are combined with an adjuvant in order to increase immunogenicity in vivo. The immunogenicity and safety of a RSV vaccine formulated in a novel oil-based platform, DepoVax™ (DPX), was compared to an alum formulation. A peptide B cell epitope derived from RSV small hydrophobic ectodomain (SHe) served as the antigen. Both vaccines induced SHe-specific antibodies after immunization of mice. A single dose of the DPX-based formulation resulted in anti-SHe titres for up to 20 weeks. Boosting with Alum-SHe, but not with DPX-SHe, led to unexpected clinical signs such as decreased activity, cyanosis and drop in body temperature in mice but not in rabbits...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933047/the-right-touch-stroking-of-ct-innervated-skin-promotes-vocal-emotion-processing
#10
Annett Schirmer, Thomas C Gunter
Research has revealed a special mechanoreceptor, called C-tactile (CT) afferent, that is situated in hairy skin and that seems relevant for the processing of social touch. We pursued a possible role of this receptor in the perception of other social signals such as a person's voice. Participants completed three sessions in which they heard surprised and neutral vocal and nonvocal sounds and detected rare sound repetitions. In a given session, participants received no touch or soft brushstrokes to the arm (CT innervated) or palm (CT free)...
September 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933038/methodological-considerations-for-comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-versus-authorized-generic-adverse-event-reports-in-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#11
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David C Page, Richard A Hansen
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), a post-marketing safety database, can be used to differentiate brand versus generic safety signals. OBJECTIVE: To explore the methods for identifying and analyzing brand versus generic adverse event (AE) reports. METHODS: Public release FAERS data from January 2004 to March 2015 were analyzed using alendronate and carbamazepine as examples. Reports were classified as brand, generic, and authorized generic (AG)...
September 20, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931881/contrasting-subtropical-pv-intrusion-frequency-and-their-impact-on-tropospheric-ozone-distribution-over-pacific-ocean-in-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-la-ni%C3%A3-a-conditions
#12
Debashis Nath, Wen Chen, Hans-F Graf, Xiaoqiang Lan, Hainan Gong
Upper tropospheric equatorial westerly ducts over the Pacific Ocean are the preferred location for Rossby wave breaking events during boreal winter and spring. These subtropical wave breaking events lead to the intrusion of high PV (potential vorticity) air along the extra-tropical tropopause and transport ozone rich dry stratospheric air into the tropics. The intrusion frequency has strong interannual variability due to ENSO (El-Niño/Southern Oscillation), with more events under La-Niña and less under El-Niño conditions...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931604/sublethal-total-body-irradiation-causes-long-term-deficits-in-thymus-function-by-reducing-lymphoid-progenitors
#13
Shiyun Xiao, Ivo D Shterev, Wen Zhang, Lauren Young, Jae-Hung Shieh, Malcolm Moore, Marcel van den Brink, Gregory D Sempowski, Nancy R Manley
Total body irradiation (TBI) damages hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and thymus; however, the long-term effects of irradiation with aging remain unclear. In this study, we found that the impact of radiation on thymopoiesis in mice varied by sex and dose but, overall, thymopoiesis remained suppressed for ≥12 mo after a single exposure. Male and female mice showed a long-term dose-dependent reduction in thymic cKit(+) lymphoid progenitors that was maintained throughout life. Damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow was dose dependent, with as little as 0...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931508/corticosteroids-for-treatment-of-sore-throat-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#14
Behnam Sadeghirad, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Davide Papola, Lyubov Lytvyn, Per Olav Vandvik, Arnaud Merglen, Gordon H Guyatt, Thomas Agoritsas
Objective To estimate the benefits and harms of using corticosteroids as an adjunct treatment for sore throat.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), trial registries up to May 2017, reference lists of eligible trials, related reviews.Study selection Randomised controlled trials of the addition of corticosteroids to standard clinical care for patients aged 5 or older in emergency department and primary care settings with clinical signs of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, or the clinical syndrome of sore throat...
September 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931304/racial-discrimination-binge-drinking-and-negative-drinking-consequences-among-black-college-students-serial-mediation-by-depressive-symptoms-and-coping-motives
#15
Jessica M Desalu, Jueun Kim, Michelle J Zaso, Sydnee R Corriders, Jacoby A Loury, Monique L Minter, Aesoon Park
OBJECTIVES: Experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with diverse negative health outcomes among racial minorities. However, extant findings of the association between racial discrimination and alcohol behaviors among Black college students are mixed. The current study examined mediating roles of depressive symptoms and coping drinking motives in the association of perceived racial discrimination with binge drinking and negative drinking consequences. DESIGN: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of Black college students attending a predominantly White institution in the northeastern US (N = 251, 66% female, mean age = 20 years)...
September 21, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931240/influenza-like-illness-incidence-is-not-reduced-by-influenza-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-older-adults-despite-effectively-reducing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-virus-infections
#16
Josine van Beek, Reinier H Veenhoven, Jacob P Bruin, Renée A J van Boxtel, Marit M A de Lange, Adam Meijer, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Nynke Y Rots, Willem Luytjes
Background: Data on the relative contribution of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens to respiratory infections in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) are needed. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the Netherlands during 2 winters. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected during influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes and from controls. Viruses and bacteria were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and conventional bacterial culture...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931147/the-quantified-self-during-travel-mapping-health-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-travellers
#17
Andrea Farnham, Reinhard Furrer, Ulf Blanke, Emily Stone, Christoph Hatz, Milo A Puhan
Background: Travel medicine research has remained relatively unchanged in the face of rapid expansion of international travel and is unlikely to meet health challenges beyond infectious diseases. Our aim was to identify the range of health outcomes during travel using real-time monitoring and daily reporting of health behaviours and outcomes and identify traveller subgroups who may benefit from more targeted advice before and during travel. Methods: We recruited a prospective cohort of travellers ≥ 18 years and planning travel to Thailand for <5 weeks from the travel clinics in Zurich and Basel (Switzerland)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#18
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930543/eeg-and-erp-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-critical-review
#19
Andras Horvath, Anna Szucs, Gabor Csukly, Anna Sakovics, Gabor Stefanics, Anita Kamondi
Here we critically review studies that used electroencephalography (EEG) or event-related potential (ERP) indices as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In the first part we overview studies that relied on visual inspection of EEG traces and spectral characteristics of EEG. Second, we survey analysis methods motivated by dynamical systems theory (DST) as well as more recent network connectivity approaches. In the third part we review studies of sleep.  Next, we compare the utility of early and late ERP components in dementia research...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928380/predictors-of-responses-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-advanced-melanoma
#20
N Jacquelot, M P Roberti, D P Enot, S Rusakiewicz, N Ternès, S Jegou, D M Woods, A L Sodré, M Hansen, Y Meirow, M Sade-Feldman, A Burra, S S Kwek, C Flament, M Messaoudene, C P M Duong, L Chen, B S Kwon, A C Anderson, V K Kuchroo, B Weide, F Aubin, C Borg, S Dalle, O Beatrix, M Ayyoub, B Balme, G Tomasic, A M Di Giacomo, M Maio, D Schadendorf, I Melero, B Dréno, A Khammari, R Dummer, M Levesque, Y Koguchi, L Fong, M Lotem, M Baniyash, H Schmidt, I M Svane, G Kroemer, A Marabelle, S Michiels, A Cavalcanti, M J Smyth, J S Weber, A M Eggermont, L Zitvogel
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) have become pivotal therapies in the clinical armamentarium against metastatic melanoma (MMel). Given the frequency of immune related adverse events and increasing use of ICB, predictors of response to CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blockade represent unmet clinical needs. Using a systems biology-based approach to an assessment of 779 paired blood and tumor markers in 37 stage III MMel patients, we analyzed association between blood immune parameters and the functional immune reactivity of tumor-infiltrating cells after ex vivo exposure to ICB...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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