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Event-related potentials

Audrey M B Wong-Kee-You, Scott A Adler
Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Pál Czobor, Brigitta Kakuszi, Kornél Németh, Livia Balogh, Szilvia Papp, László Tombor, István Bitter
Deficits in error-processing are postulated in core symptoms of ADHD. Our goal was to investigate the neurophysiological basis of abnormal error-processing and adaptive adjustments in ADHD, and examine whether error-related alterations extend beyond traditional Regions of Interest (ROIs), particularly to those involved in adaptive adjustments, such as the Salience Network system. We obtained event-related potentials (ERPs) during a Go/NoGo task from 22 adult-ADHD patients and 29 matched healthy controls using a high-density 256-electrode array...
October 17, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juan A Montero, Cristina Sanchez-Fernandez, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle
DNA damage independent of caspase activation accompanies programmed cell death in different vertebrate embryonic organs. We analyzed the significance of DNA damage during the regression of the interdigital tissue, which sculpts the digits in the embryonic limb. Interdigit remodeling involves oxidative stress, massive apoptosis and cell senescence. Phosphorylation of H2AX mediated by ATM precedes caspase dependent apoptosis and cell senescence during interdigit regression. The association of γH2AX with other downstream DNA repair factors, including MDC1, Rad50 and 53BP1 suggests a defensive response of cells against DNA damage...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood...
October 14, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Brice Faraut, Thomas Andrillon, Marie-Françoise Vecchierini, Damien Leger
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity)...
September 13, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Katherine K M Stavropoulos, Michaela Viktorinova, Adam Naples, Jennifer Foss-Feig, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: Difficulty with emotion perception is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is also associated with the broader autism phenotype. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the neural underpinnings of conscious and non-conscious perceptions of affect in typically developing individuals with varying levels of autistic-like traits, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ). We investigated the relationship between autistic traits and face processing efficiency using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Hiroshi Yamazaki
Research over the past 30 years has elucidated the roles of polymorphic human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes associated with toxicological and/or pharmacological actions. Thalidomide exerts its various pharmacological and toxic actions in primates through multiple mechanisms, including nonspecific modification of many protein networks after bioactivation by autoinduced human P450 enzymes. To overcome species-differences between rodents, currently, nonhuman primates and/or mouse models with transplanted human hepatocytes are used...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Jone Corrales, Lauren A Kristofco, W Baylor Steele, Gavin N Saari, Jakub Kostal, Edward Spencer Williams, Margaret Mills, Evan P Gallagher, Terrance J Kavanagh, Nancy Simcox, Longzhu Q Shen, Fjodor Melnikov, Julie B Zimmerman, Adelina M Voutchkova-Kostal, Paul T Anastas, Bryan W Brooks
Sustainable molecular design of less hazardous chemicals presents a potentially transformative approach to protect public health and the environment. Relationships between molecular descriptors and toxicity thresholds previously identified the octanol-water distribution coefficient, log D, and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, ∆E, as two useful properties in the identification of reduced aquatic toxicity. To determine whether these two property-based guidelines are applicable to sublethal oxidative stress (OS) responses, two common aquatic in vivo models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were employed to examine traditional biochemical biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, total glutathione) and antioxidant gene activation following exposure to eight structurally diverse industrial chemicals (bisphenol A, cumene hydroperoxide, dinoseb, hydroquinone, indene, perfluorooctanoic acid, R-(-)-carvone, tert-butyl hydroperoxide)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Martin Strömdahl, Johan Helgeson, Evangelos Kalaitzakis
OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution in 2009-2011 were retrospectively identified. All medical records were scrutinized and relevant data (such as comorbid illness and medications, endoscopy, rebleeding, inhospital mortality, and 30-day emergency readmission) were extracted...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrea Matucci, Francesca Nencini, Sara Pratesi, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents have been a treatment option for many chronic immune-mediated diseases as well as oncological conditions. The issue of infusion reactions is of particular importance and at least in some cases related to the immunogenicity of these drugs with the production of antidrug antibodies. Infectious diseases are a well described side-effect of certain biological agents, even if, at least regarding the biological agents used for the treatment of allergic diseases and immune-mediated diseases, the risk has been reduced...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Swarup China, Bingbing Wang, Johannes Weis, Luciana Rizzo, Joel Brito, Glauber G Cirino, Libor Kovarik, Paulo Artaxo, Mary K Gilles, Alexander Laskin
Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ashley V Makela, Donna H Murrell, Katie M Parkins, Jenna Kara, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an evolving field of imaging with strong translational and research potential. The ability to detect, track, and quantify cells in vivo and over time allows for studying cellular events related to disease processes and may be used as a biomarker for decisions about treatments and for monitoring responses to treatments. In this review, we discuss methods for labeling cells, various applications for cellular MRI, the existing limitations, strategies to address these shortcomings, and clinical cellular MRI...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Yu-Yang Chen, Qi Liu, Li Liu, Xiao-Rong Shu, Zi-Zhuo Su, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ru-Qiong Nie, Jing-Feng Wang, Shuang-Lun Xie
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism event. Left atrial or LA appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus is a surrogate of potential stroke. The relationship between MS and atrial thrombus remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of MS on risk stratification of LA/LAA thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 294 consecutive NVAF patients without prior anticoagulant and lipid-lowering therapies...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Daniel C Hyde, Charline E Simon, Ilaria Berteletti, Yi Mou
Two non-verbal cognitive systems, an approximate number system (ANS) for extracting the numerosity of a set and a parallel individuation (PI) system for distinguishing between individual items, are hypothesized to be foundational to symbolic number and mathematics abilities. However, the exact role of each remains unclear and highly debated. Here we used an individual differences approach to test for a relationship between the spontaneously evoked brain signatures (using event-related potentials) of PI and the ANS and initial development of symbolic number concepts in preschool children as displayed by counting...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Edna Pereira Gomes Morais, Rachel Riera, Gustavo Jm Porfírio, Cristiane R Macedo, Vivian Sarmento Vasconcelos, Alexsandra de Souza Pedrosa, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: Caesarean sections (CS) are the most frequent major surgery in the world. A transient impairment of bowel motility is expected after CS. Although this usually resolves spontaneously within a few days, it can cause considerable discomfort, require symptomatic medication and delay hospital discharge, thus increasing costs. Chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period is a simple intervention that may be effective in enhancing recovery of bowel function in other types of abdominal surgeries...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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