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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#1
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#2
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913179/phytochemical-and-cytotoxic-studies-on-the-roots-of-euphorbia-fischeriana
#3
Qun Shi, Yi-Wei Sun, Dali Meng
With the aim of supporting the folk applications of Euphorbia fischeriana, a phytochemical study was performed, which led to the discovery of 9 compounds, including three new ones (1-3) and six known ones (4-9). Their structures were determined by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS analysis. In the cytotoxic assays on Hep-3B cell line, 2 showed stronger inhibitory effects (IC50 8.1μmol/L) than that of positive control, and 1, 8 and 9 also gave inhibitory effects in a certain degree with IC50 values of 12.5, 12.0 and 18...
November 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912212/knockdown-of-inhibitory-guanine-nucleotide-binding-protein-gi%C3%AE-2-by-antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides-attenuates-the-development-of-hypertension-and-tachycardia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#4
Yousra Ali El-Basyuni, Yuan Li, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the levels of both Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins were augmented in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) before the onset of hypertension. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin, which inactivates both Giα proteins, prevented the development of hypertension in SHRs. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific contributions of Giα-2 and Giα-3 proteins to the development of hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of Giα-2 and Giα-3 encapsulated in PEG/DOTAP/DOPE cationic liposomes were administrated intravenously into 3-week-old prehypertensive SHRs and Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas the control Wistar Kyoto rats and SHRs received PBS, empty liposomes, or sense...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912137/a-novel-continuous-two-phase-partitioning-bioreactor-operated-with-polymeric-tubing-performance-validation-for-enhanced-biological-removal-of-toxic-substrates
#5
M Concetta Tomei, Domenica Mosca Angelucci, Andrew J Daugulis
A continuous two-phase partitioning bioreactor (C-TPPB), operated with coiled tubing made of the DuPont polymer Hytrel 8206, was tested for the bioremediation of 4-chlorophenol, as a model toxic compound. The tubing was immersed in the aqueous phase, with the contaminated water flowing tube-side, and an adapted microbial culture suspended in the bioreactor itself, with the metabolic demand of the cells creating a concentration gradient to cause the substrate to diffuse into the bioreactor for biodegradation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911754/cortical-control-of-spatial-resolution-by-vip-interneurons
#6
Inbal Ayzenshtat, Mahesh Miikael Karnani, Jesse Jackson, Rafael Yuste
: Neuronal tuning, defined by the degree of selectivity to a specific stimulus, is a hallmark of cortical computation. Understanding the role of GABAergic interneurons in shaping cortical tuning is now possible with the ability to manipulate interneuron classes selectively. Here, we show that interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP(+)) regulate the spatial frequency (SF) tuning of pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex. Using two-photon calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulations of VIP(+) cell activity, we found that activating VIP(+) cells elicited a stronger network response to stimuli of higher SFs, whereas suppressing VIP(+) cells resulted in a network response shift toward lower SFs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910164/hplc-uv-and-lc-ms-analyses-of-acylquinic-acids-in-geigeria-alata-dc-oliv-hiern-and-their-contribution-to-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-capacity
#7
Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Reneta Gevrenova, Maya M Zaharieva, Hristo Najdenski, Silviya Ruseva, Valentin Lozanov, Vessela Balabanova, Sakina Yagi, Georgi Momekov, Vanio Mitev
INTRODUCTION: Geigeria alata is a traditional plant used in Sudanese folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, cough, epilepsy and intestinal complaints. OBJECTIVE: To analyze phenolic acids in Geigeria alata roots and leaves and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. METHODOLOGY: Phenolic acids in the aqueous-methanol extracts were identified by LC-MS. Major compounds were isolated using low-pressure liquid chromatography...
December 1, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#8
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909152/involvement-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-network-in-neuropathic-pain-relief-by-treadmill-exercise-a-study-for-specific-neural-control-with-gi-dreadd-in-mice
#9
Kenta Wakaizumi, Takashige Kondo, Yusuke Hamada, Michiko Narita, Rui Kawabe, Hiroki Narita, Moe Watanabe, Shigeki Kato, Emiko Senba, Kazuto Kobayashi, Naoko Kuzumaki, Akihiro Yamanaka, Hiroshi Morisaki, Minoru Narita
BACKGROUND: Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909009/association-of-protein-distribution-and-gene-expression-revealed-by-pet-and-post-mortem-quantification-in-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-human-brain
#10
A Komorowski, G M James, C Philippe, G Gryglewski, A Bauer, M Hienert, M Spies, A Kautzky, T Vanicek, A Hahn, T Traub-Weidinger, D Winkler, W Wadsak, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, S Kasper, R Lanzenberger
Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908935/posttranslational-regulation-of-smads
#11
REVIEW
Pinglong Xu, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling dictates highly complex programs of gene expression responses, which are extensively regulated at multiple levels and vary depending on the physiological context. The formation, activation, and destruction of two major functional complexes in the TGF-β signaling pathway (i.e., the TGF-β receptor complexes and the Smad complexes that act as central mediators of TGF-β signaling) are direct targets for posttranslational regulation. Dysfunction of these complexes often leads or contributes to pathogenesis in cancer and fibrosis and in cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#12
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908592/activation-of-gpr30-stimulates-gtp-binding-of-g%C3%AE-i1-protein-to-sustain-activation-of-erk1-2-in-inhibition-of-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-and-modulates-metastatic-properties
#13
Lau Kin-Mang, Ma Fanny Man-Ting, Xia Jenny Tian, Chan Queeny Kwan Yi, Ng Chi-Fai, To Ka-Fai
Previously, we reported that GPR30 activation by the receptor-specific, non-estrogenic ligand G-1 inhibited in vitro and in vivo growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells via sustained Erk1/2 activation. Mechanism underlying the sustained Erk1/2 activation for PCa cell growth inhibition remains unclear. Here we report that G-1, through GPR30, activated Gαi1 proteins to sustain Erk1/2 activation but failed to activate adenylyl cyclase (AC) for cAMP production in PCa cells. The chemical-induced activation of AC-cAMP-PKA signaling attenuated Erk1/2 activity and blocked the cell growth inhibitory effects of G-1...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#14
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907839/influence-of-picolinic-acid-on-seizure-susceptibility-in-mice
#15
Anna Cioczek-Czuczwar, Piotr Czuczwar, Waldemar Andrzej Turski, Jolanta Parada-Turska
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of drug resistance in epilepsy remains unknown. Picolinic acid (PIC) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway and a chelating agent added to dietary supplements. Both inhibitory and excitatory properties of PIC were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenously applied PIC upon the electroconvulsive threshold and the activity of chemical convulsants in eight models of epilepsy in mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on adult male Swiss albino mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907195/novel-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonist-suppresses-migration-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Hamza Hanieh, Omar Mohafez, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul-Islam, Abdullah Alzahrani, Mohammad Bani Ismail, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
BACKGROUND: Despite the remarkable progress to fight against breast cancer, metastasis remains the dominant cause of treatment failure and recurrence. Therefore, control of invasiveness potential of breast cancer cells is crucial. Accumulating evidences suggest Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor, as a promising target to control migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. Thus, an Ahr-based exploration was performed to identify a new Ahr agonist with inhibitory potentials on cancer cell motility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905820/evidence-based-validation-of-quorum-quenching-from-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-and-geobacillus-sp-in-bioremediation-of-oil-sludge
#17
Camilo Gómez-Garzón, Jenny Dussán
Many studies on quorum quenching focus on the discovery and characterization of novel acyl-homoserine lactonases (AHL-lactonases) because these enzymes could be used in the control of diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The effects of quorum quenching are also remarkable in the performance of bacterial consortia in applications such as bioremediation. In the current work, we demonstrated the presence of a potential novel AHL-lactonase-encoding locus (Bsph_3377) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Geobacillus sp...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#18
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904672/t3-inhibits-the-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-the-potential-mechanism
#19
Xiaodan Chang, Baohong Zhang, Li Lihua, Zhichun Feng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanism underlying the T3 induced vascular calcification and phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: Rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were cultured in vitro and randomly assigned into normal control group, calcification group, T3 group and inhibitor group. RESULTS: When compared with normal control group, the osteocalcin content, ALP activity, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression and OPN protein expression increased significantly (P<0...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904529/anti-aggregatory-effect-of-boswellic-acid-in-high-fat-fed-rats-involvement-of-redox-and-inflammatory-cascades
#20
Mona Kamal Tawfik
INTRODUCTION: A high-fat diet is one of the main dietary factors promoting platelet aggregation. The present study was conducted to elucidate the involvement of boswellic acid (BA) on the platelet hyperaggregability in HFD-fed rats. As platelet hyperaggregability in HFD rats is closely linked to inflammation and enhanced free radical production, the present study was extended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of BA on HFD-promoted platelet aggregation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were assigned to normal, HFD-fed, aspirin-treated (30 mg/kg), and BA-treated (250 and 500 mg/kg) groups...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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