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Narrative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927656/human-experimentation-in-public-schools-how-schools-served-as-sites-of-vaccine-trials-in-the-20th-century
#1
Will D Schupmann
Schools have long been critical partners for public health authorities in achieving widespread vaccination. In the mid-20th century, however, public schools also served as sites of large-scale experiments on novel vaccines. Through examining the experimental diphtheria, polio, and measles vaccine trials, I explored the implications of using schools in this manner, as well as the continuities and discontinuities among the three cases. Common to all of them was that the use of schools brought decision-making into the public sphere, subjecting parents to social pressures and the influences of school officials and community members...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924349/aesthetic-journeys-a-review-of-cosmetic-surgery-tourism
#2
Ryan Terence Pereira, Carmel M Malone, Gerard T Flaherty
Background: Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism. Methods: Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922730/non-invasive-ventilation-in-the-ed-whom-when-how
#3
REVIEW
Erkan Göksu, Deniz Kılıç, Süleyman İbze
As emergency physicians, we encounter patients suffering from either hypoxemic and/or hypercarbic respiratory problems on a daily basis. A stepwise approach to solving this problem seems logical from an emergency medicine perspective. Current literature supports the notion that NIV decreases endotracheal intubation rates and, mortality in select patient populations. The key to the success of NIV is patient cooperation and support for the care givers. In this narrative review, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is discussed in terms of modes of delivery, interface and patient selection, as well as practical considerations...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922444/harnessing-extracellular-vesicles-to-direct-endochondral-repair-of-large-bone-defects
#4
E Ferreira, R M Porter
Large bone defects remain a tremendous clinical challenge. There is growing evidence in support of treatment strategies that direct defect repair through an endochondral route, involving a cartilage intermediate. While culture-expanded stem/progenitor cells are being evaluated for this purpose, these cells would compete with endogenous repair cells for limited oxygen and nutrients within ischaemic defects. Alternatively, it may be possible to employ extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by culture-expanded cells for overcoming key bottlenecks to endochondral repair, such as defect vascularization, chondrogenesis, and osseous remodelling...
April 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921680/contribution-of-physician-assistants-associates-to-secondary-care-a-systematic-review
#5
Mary Halter, Carly Wheeler, Ferruccio Pelone, Heather Gage, Simon de Lusignan, Jim Parle, Robert Grant, Jonathan Gabe, Laura Nice, Vari M Drennan
OBJECTIVE: To appraise and synthesise research on the impact of physician assistants/associates (PA) in secondary care, specifically acute internal medicine, care of the elderly, emergency medicine, trauma and orthopaedics, and mental health. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, ASSIA, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, EconLit and Cochrane), reference lists and related articles. INCLUDED ARTICLES: Peer-reviewed articles of any study design, published in English, 1995-2017...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916784/medical-maximizing-minimizing-preferences-predict-responses-to-information-about-prostate-specific-antigen-screening
#6
Laura D Scherer, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Tanner Caverly, Aaron M Scherer, Victoria A Shaffer, Angela Fagerlin, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
PURPOSE: The recently developed Medical Maximizer-Minimizer Scale (MMS) assesses individual differences in preferences for active v. passive medical treatment. We hypothesized that men's maximizing-minimizing preferences might have relevance in the case of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, since there is considerable variability in men's preference for being screened even among men who are informed that harm is more likely than benefit. The current research examined whether MMS preferences predict how men respond to didactic information and narrative stories about PSA screening...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913623/in-praise-of-anesthesia-two-case-studies-of-pain-and-suffering-during-major-surgical-procedures-with-and-without-anesthesia-in-the-united-states-civil-war-1861-65
#7
Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911484/the-need-for-an-alternative-method-to-determine-intravascular-volumes
#8
L M Lobigs, P Peeling, B Dawson, Y O Schumacher
It is well described that numerous environmental factors, including exercise, modulate plasma volume (PV). These modulations prove problematic when a number of haematological markers are measured as a concentration in blood plasma. A primary example is haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), a marker of erythropoiesis commonly used within medicine and also used to detect blood doping. Natural changes in PV can confound [Hb] values when a volume change is detected rather than a true change in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) (e...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905090/narrative-medicine-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-reveals-ways-to-improve-patient-awareness-quality-of-care
#9
Giuseppe De Vincentis, Fabio Monari, Sergio Baldari, Matteo Salgarello, Viviana Frantellizzi, Elisabetta Salvi, Luigi Reale, Silvia Napolitano, Giario Conti, Enrico Cortesi
AIM: To describe the journey of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in treatment with radium-223. METHODS: A multiperspective analysis was performed using narrative medicine in four Italian centers. RESULTS: The substantial impact of mCRPC on quality of life through all phases of the disease was described. After an initial lack of awareness of the disease or denial of its effects, symptoms of pain, fatigue and side effects often led to sadness, fear and loneliness...
June 15, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904884/narrative-medicine-an-innovative-approach-to-migraine-management
#10
Maria Clara Tonini, Paola Chesi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897560/creating-a-common-language-defining-individualized-personalized-and-precision-prevention-in-public-health
#11
K Bíró, V Dombrádi, A Jani, K Boruzs, M Gray
Background: Because of the limited success of population-based prevention methods and due to developments in genomic screening, public health professionals and health policy makers are increasingly interested in more individualized prevention strategies. However, the terminology applied in this field is still ambiguous and thus has the potential to create misunderstandings. Methods: A narrative literature review was conducted to identify how individualized, personalized and precision prevention are used in research papers and documents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895169/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-characteristics-and-regenerative-potential-in-cardiovascular-disease-implications-for-cellular-therapy
#12
F C C van Rhijn-Brouwer, H Gremmels, J O Fledderus, M C Verhaar
Administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD). As progenitor cells may be negatively affected by both age and comorbidity, characterization of MSC function is important to guide decisions regarding use of allogeneic or autologous cells. Definitive answers on which factors affect MSC function can also aid in selecting which MSC donors would yield the most therapeutically efficacious MSCs. Here we provide a narrative review of MSC function in CVD based on a systematic search...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889849/social-capital-and-resilience-among-people-living-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-resource-poor-uganda
#13
Esther Kalule Nanfuka, David Kyaddondo, Sarah N Ssali, Narathius Asingwire
BACKGROUND: Despite the national roll-out of free HIV medicines in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African countries, many HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at risk of non-adherence due to poverty and other structural and health system related constraints. However, several patients exhibit resilience by attaining and sustaining high levels of adherence amid adversity. Social capital, defined as resources embedded within social networks, is key in facilitating resilience but the mechanism through which it operates remains understudied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889710/evidence-review-conducted-for-the-agency-for-healthcare-research-and-quality-safety-program-for-improving-surgical-care-and-recovery-focus-on-anesthesiology-for-total-knee-arthroplasty
#14
Ellen M Soffin, Melinda M Gibbons, Clifford Y Ko, Stephen L Kates, Elizabeth Wick, Maxime Cannesson, Michael J Scott, Christopher L Wu
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has rapidly gained popularity in a variety of surgical subspecialities. A large body of literature suggests that ERAS leads to superior outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, reduced length of hospital stay, and cost benefits, without affecting rates of readmission after surgery. These patterns have been described for patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, adoption of ERAS to orthopedic surgery has lagged behind other surgical disciplines...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889707/postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-noncardiac-surgery
#15
Lisbeth A Evered, Brendan S Silbert
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an objectively measured decline in cognition postoperatively compared with preoperative function. POCD has been considered in the anesthetic and surgical literature in isolation of cognitive decline which is common in the elderly within the community and where it is labeled as mild cognitive impairment, neurocognitive disorder, or dementia. This narrative review seeks to place POCD in the broad context of cognitive decline in the general population. Cognitive change after anesthesia and surgery was described over 100 years ago, initially as delirium and dementia...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881351/mining-patients-narratives-in-social-media-for-pharmacovigilance-adverse-effects-and-misuse-of-methylphenidate
#16
Xiaoyi Chen, Carole Faviez, Stéphane Schuck, Agnès Lillo-Le-Louët, Nathalie Texier, Badisse Dahamna, Charles Huot, Pierre Foulquié, Suzanne Pereira, Vincent Leroux, Pierre Karapetiantz, Armelle Guenegou-Arnoux, Sandrine Katsahian, Cédric Bousquet, Anita Burgun
Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have recognized social media as a new data source to strengthen their activities regarding drug safety. Objective: Our objective in the ADR-PRISM project was to provide text mining and visualization tools to explore a corpus of posts extracted from social media. We evaluated this approach on a corpus of 21 million posts from five patient forums, and conducted a qualitative analysis of the data available on methylphenidate in this corpus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880453/prescriber-and-institutional-barriers-and-facilitators-of-clozapine-use-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Hélène Verdoux, Clélia Quiles, Christian J Bachmann, Dan Siskind
BACKGROUND: As clozapine is under-prescribed in persons with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), it is necessary to better identify the determinants of health inequalities in access to clozapine use. OBJECTIVE: To identify mental health professionals' characteristics or attitudes and institutional characteristics facilitating or limiting clozapine prescribing. METHOD: We systematically searched multiple electronic databases for articles reporting: (i) mental health professionals' attitudes and characteristics favoring or limiting clozapine prescribing; (ii) institutional characteristics associated with variations in clozapine prescribing; (iii) interventions aimed at enhancing clozapine prescribing...
June 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878343/migraine-care-challenges-and-strategies-in-us-uninsured-and-underinsured-adults-a-narrative-review-part-2
#18
REVIEW
Larry Charleston, Jeffrey Royce, Teshamae S Monteith, Susan W Broner, Hope L O'Brien, Salvador L Manrriquez, Matthew S Robbins
OBJECTIVE: To review the challenges and potential solutions in treatment options for quality migraine care in adult patients who are under or uninsured. BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act has improved access to health care for many; however, those who are underserved continue to face treatment disparities and have inadequate access to appropriate migraine management. METHODS: This manuscript is the second of a 2-part narrative review which was performed after a series of discussions within the Underserved Populations in Headache Medicine Special Interest Section meetings of the American Headache Society...
May 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871701/reconsidering-the-role-of-language-in-medicine
#19
Berkeley Franz, John W Murphy
BACKGROUND: Despite an expansive literature on communication in medicine, the role of language is dealt with mostly indirectly. Recently, narrative medicine has emerged as a strategy to improve doctor-patient communication and integrate patient perspectives. However, even in this field which is predicated on language use, scholars have not specifically reflected on how language functions in medicine. METHODS: In this theoretical paper, the authors consider how different models of language use, which have been proposed in the philosophical literature, might be applied to communication in medicine...
June 5, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871685/medicine-market-and-communication-ethical-considerations-in-regard-to-persuasive-communication-in-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-services
#20
Manuel Schaper, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Commercial genetic testing offered over the internet, known as direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), currently is under ethical attack. A common critique aims at the limited validation of the tests as well as the risk of psycho-social stress or adaption of incorrect behavior by users triggered by misleading health information. Here, we examine in detail the specific role of advertising communication of DTC GT companies from a medical ethical perspective. Our argumentative analysis departs from the starting point that DTC GT operates at the intersection of two different contexts: medicine on the one hand and the market on the other...
June 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
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