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Exhaled breath

Yan G Fulcher, Martial Fotso, Chee-Hoon Chang, Hans Rindt, Carol R Reinero, Steven R Van Doren
Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma...
2016: PloS One
Katarzyna Górska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Rafał Krenke
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) seems a promising asthma biomarker. In earlier studies, mainly the serum concentration of TSLP was investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the TSLP concentration measured by two different ELISA kits in the serum, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate in asthma, COPD, and control subjects. The study included 24 asthmatics, 36 patients with COPD, and 12 controls. TSLP concentration was measured with the use of R&D and EIAab commercial ELISA kits. The results obtained with the EIAab kit were 3 to even 45-fold higher than those measured with the R&D kit...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daniela Pelclova, Vladimir Zdimal, Petr Kacer, Martin Komarc, Zdenka Fenclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Nadezda Zikova, Jaroslav Schwarz, Otakar Makes, Tomas Navratil, Sergey Zakharov, Dhimiter Bello
Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls...
October 18, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Laura Capelli, Gianluigi Taverna, Alessia Bellini, Lidia Eusebio, Niccolò Buffi, Massimo Lazzeri, Giorgio Guazzoni, Giorgio Bozzini, Mauro Seveso, Alberto Mandressi, Lorenzo Tidu, Fabio Grizzi, Paolo Sardella, Giuseppe Latorre, Rodolfo Hurle, Giovanni Lughezzani, Paolo Casale, Sara Meregali, Selena Sironi
The electronic nose is able to provide useful information through the analysis of the volatile organic compounds in body fluids, such as exhaled breath, urine and blood. This paper focuses on the review of electronic nose studies and applications in the specific field of medical diagnostics based on the analysis of the gaseous headspace of human urine, in order to provide a broad overview of the state of the art and thus enhance future developments in this field. The research in this field is rather recent and still in progress, and there are several aspects that need to be investigated more into depth, not only to develop and improve specific electronic noses for different diseases, but also with the aim to discover and analyse the connections between specific diseases and the body fluids odour...
October 14, 2016: Sensors
Sebastien Preau, Perrine Bortolotti, Delphine Colling, Florent Dewavrin, Vincent Colas, Benoit Voisin, Thierry Onimus, Elodie Drumez, Alain Durocher, Alban Redheuil, Fabienne Saulnier
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the collapsibility index of the inferior vena cava recorded during a deep standardized inspiration predicts fluid responsiveness in nonintubated patients. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized study. SETTING: ICUs at a general and a university hospital. PATIENTS: Nonintubated patients without mechanical ventilation (n = 90) presenting with sepsis-induced acute circulatory failure and considered for volume expansion...
September 30, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Mauro Maniscalco, Debora Paris, Dominique J Melck, Maria D'Amato, Anna Zedda, Matteo Sofia, Cristiana Stellato, Andrea Motta
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical evidence supports the existence of an obesity-related asthma phenotype. No distinct pathophysiological elements or specific biomarkers have been identified so far but increased oxidative stress has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at verifying whether metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from obese asthmatic (OA), lean asthmatic (LA) and obese non-asthmatic (ONA) patients could recognize specific, statistically validated biomarkers for a separate "asthma-obesity" respiratory metabolic phenotype, here defined as "metabotype"...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Chung-Hsuan Wu, Wei-Han Wang, Chien-Chong Hong, Kuo Chu Hwang
This paper presents a novel disposable breath-sensing tube with an on-tube single-nanowire (NW) sensor array for noninvasive, simple, and on-site detection of exhaled breath biomarkers. Although various noninvasive detection methods for lung cancer biomarkers in breath samples exist, they are unsuitable for self-diagnostics and immediate detection because they entail complicated handling procedures and are time intensive. In this study, we simulated, fabricated, and characterized disposable nanosensors by using single TiO2 and Ag NWs in flexible plastic tubes...
October 14, 2016: Lab on a Chip
R Fernández Del Río, M E O'Hara, P Pemberton, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether), C3H2ClF5O, is a commonly used inhalation anaesthetic. Using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) we have detected isoflurane in the breath of patients several weeks following major surgery. That isoflurane is detected in the breath of patients so long after being anaesthetised raises questions about when cognitive function has fully returned to a patient. Temporal profiles of isoflurane concentrations in breath are presented for five patients (F/M 3/2, mean age 50 years, min-max 36-58 years) who had undergone liver transplant surgery...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Sean W Harshman, Nilan Mani, Brian A Geier, Jae Kwak, Phillip Shepard, Maomian Fan, Gregory L Sudberry, Ryan S Mayes, Darrin K Ott, Jennifer A Martin, Claude C Grigsby
Exhaled breath is coming to the forefront of non-invasive biomarker discovery efforts. Concentration of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on thermal desorption (TD) tubes with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has dominated this field. As discovery experimentation increases in frequency, the need to evaluate the long-term storage stability of exhaled breath VOCs on thermal desorption adsorbent material is critical. To address this gap, exhaled breath was loaded on Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes and stored at various temperature conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
R M G E van de Goor, N Leunis, M R A van Hooren, E Francisca, A Masclee, B Kremer, K W Kross
Electronic nose (e-nose) technology has the potential to detect cancer at an early stage and can differentiate between cancer origins. Our objective was to compare patients who had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with patients who had colon or bladder cancer to determine the distinctive diagnostic characteristics of the e-nose. Feasibility study An e-nose device was used to collect samples of exhaled breath from patients who had HNSCC and those who had bladder or colon cancer, after which the samples were analyzed and compared...
October 11, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Stefan Peters, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Karrasch, Petra A Neff, Matz Haaks, Andreas R Koczulla, Petra Reinhold, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Jackie Leung, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher, Andrea Kassner
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures the ability of cerebral blood vessels to change their diameter and, hence, their capacity to regulate regional blood flow in the brain. High resolution quantitative maps of CVR can be produced using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with a carbon dioxide stimulus, and these maps have become a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of cerebrovascular disorders. However, conventional CVR analysis does not fully characterize the BOLD response to a stimulus as certain regions of the brain are slower to react to the stimulus than others, especially in disease...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Michael Glenn O'Connor, Kelly Thomsen, Rebekah F Brown, Michael Laposata, Adam Seegmiller
BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Lei Liu, Diming Zhang, Qian Zhang, Xing Chen, Gang Xu, Yanli Lu, Qingjun Liu
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection is in high demand for clinic treatment, environment monitoring, and food quality control. Especially, VOCs from human exhaled breath can serve as significant biomarkers of some diseases, such as lung cancer and diabetes. In this study, a smartphone-based sensing system was developed for real-time VOCs monitoring using alternative current (AC) impedance measurement. The interdigital electrodes modified with zinc oxide (ZnO), graphene, and nitrocellulose were used as sensors to produce impedance responses to VOCs...
September 25, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ola A Dabbous, Mona M Soliman, Nagwa H Mohamed, Magda Y Elseify, Mai S Elsheikh, Asmaa A A Alsharkawy, Manal M Abd Al Aziz
Variable therapy of asthma is not sufficient yet to achieve good asthma control. Therapy decision requires serial investigations. Low-level laser acupuncture is a suitable non-invasive modality of complementary medicine. The exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is easy and useful to evaluate the efficacy of drugs or novel therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser biostimulation of acupuncture points on asthma improvement in children. Forty-eight asthmatic children were subdivided into case (laser) group, which received 12 direct contact low-power laser acupuncture sessions (three sessions/week) on specific traditional Chinese acupuncture points for bronchial asthma, and control asthmatic group, which received sham laser acupuncture on the same acupoints and number of sessions of the case (laser) group...
October 5, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Carlos Fernando de Magalhães Francesconi, Marta Brenner Machado, Flavio Steinwurz, Rodrigo Bremer Nones, Flávio Antonio Quilici, Wilson Roberto Catapani, Sender Jankiel Miszputen, Mauro Bafutto
Background: Primary hypolactasia is a common condition where a reduced lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa is present. The presence of abdominal symptoms due to poor absorption of lactose, which are present in some cases, is a characteristic of lactose intolerance. Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of a product containing exogenous lactase in tablet form compared to a reference product with proven effectiveness in patients with lactose intolerance. Methods: Multicentre, randomized, parallel group, single-blind, comparative non-inferiority study...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo
Cigarette smoke (CS) accounts for the outcome of several pathologies, even including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Under healthy conditions, lung immune system becomes tolerant in response to various external stimuli. CS exposure alters the pulmonary immune equilibrium, thus leading to a condition of hyper activation of the local innate and adaptive immunity. COPD is one of the major complications of chronic CS exposure where a pro-inflammatory profile of the pulmonary and systemic immunity is predominant...
September 27, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Huong Duong-Thi-Ly, Vu Thi Thom, Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong, Long Doan Dinh, Huong Le-Thi-Minh, Timothy John Craig, Sy Duong-Quy
INTRODUCTION: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Alexander A Aksenov, Mark Baird, Alberto Pasamontes, Celeste Parry, Soraya Foutouhi, Stephanie Venn-Watson, Bart C Weimer, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Cristina E Davis
Chemical analysis of exhaled breath metabolites is an emerging alternative to traditional clinical testing for many physiological conditions. The main advantage of breath analysis is its inherent non-invasive nature and ease of sample collection. Therefore, there exists a great interest in further development of this method for both humans and animals. The physiology of cetaceans is exceptionally well suited for breath analysis due to their explosive breathing behavior and respiratory tract morphology. At the present time, breath analysis in cetaceans has very limited practical applications, in large part due to lack of widely adopted sampling device(s) and methodologies that are well-standardized...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
G E Carpagnano, D Lacedonia, P Soccio, I Caccavo, G Patricelli, M P Foschino Barbaro
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disease of lung interstitium of unknown etiology with poor prognosis. In patients with IPF, the incidence of lung cancer is much higher than that in the general population. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of IPF is of great relevance in consideration of the management of these patients. Among the noninvasive omic markers, an increasing interest has been directed toward the study of genetic alterations of microsatellites (MAs) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)...
November 2016: Medical Oncology
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