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Exhaled breath

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783172/headspace-sorptive-extraction-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-to-measure-volatile-emissions-from-human-airway-cell-cultures
#1
Mei S Yamaguchi, Mitchell M McCartney, Angela L Linderholm, Susan E Ebeler, Michael Schivo, Cristina E Davis
The human respiratory tract releases volatile metabolites into exhaled breath that can be utilized for noninvasive health diagnostics. To understand the origin of this metabolic process, our group has previously analyzed the headspace above human epithelial cell cultures using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In the present work, we improve our model by employing sorbent-covered magnetic stir bars for headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). Sorbent-coated stir bar analyte recovery increased by 52 times and captured 97 more compounds than SPME...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776545/evolution-of-clinical-and-environmental-health-applications-of-exhaled-breath-research-review-of-methods-and-instrumentation-for-gas-phase-condensate-and-aerosols
#2
REVIEW
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical health assessment tool. Although less common in comparison to contemporary bio-fluids analyses, breath has become an attractive diagnostic medium as sampling is non-invasive, unlimited in timing and volume, and does not require clinical personnel...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#3
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771243/breath-volatile-organic-compounds-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-and-without-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#4
Lucas Küppers, Olaf Holz, Sven Schuchardt, Jens Gottlieb, Jan Fuge, Mark Greer, Jens Hohlfeld
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) with its clinical correlative of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major limiting factor for long-term graft survival. Currently there are no established methods for the early diagnosis or prediction of BOS. To assess the feasibility of breath collection as a non-invasive tool and the potential of breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the early detection of BOS, we compared the breath VOC composition between transplant patients without and different stages of BOS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771240/power-efficient-self-cleaning-hydrophilic-condenser-surface-for-portable-exhaled-breath-condensate-ebc-metabolomic-sampling
#5
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Alexander James Schmidt, Eva Borras, Mitchell M McCartney, Michael Schivo, Nicholas J Kenyon, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Cristina E Davis
In this work, we present a hydrophilic self-cleaning condenser surface for collection of biological and environmental aerosol samples. The condenser is installed in a battery-operated, hand-held breath sampling device. The device performance is characterized with collection and analysis of exhaled breath samples from a group of volunteers. The exhaled breath condensate is collected on a sub-cooled condenser surface, transferred into a storage vial, and its chemical content is analyzed with mass spectrometric methods...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767961/real-time-monitoring-of-tricarboxylic-acid-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#6
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767956/humidity-independent-oxide-semiconductor-chemiresistors-using-terbium-doped-sno2-yolk-shell-spheres-for-real-time-breath-analysis
#7
Chang-Hoon Kwak, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong-Yong Jeong, Ji-Won Yoon, Jun-Sik Kim, Jong-Heun Lee
The chemiresistive sensing characteristics of metal oxide gas sensors depend closely on ambient humidity. Herein, we report that gas sensors using Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres can be used for reliable acetone detection regardless of the variations in humidity. Pure SnO2 and Tb-doped SnO2 yolk-shell spheres were prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and their chemiresistive sensing characteristics were studied. The sensor resistance and gas response of the pure SnO2 yolk-shell spheres significantly changed and deteriorated upon exposure to moisture...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762314/effectiveness-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-propofol-on-extubation-times-length-of-stay-and-mortality-rates-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
John Nguyen, Noel Nacpil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on extubation time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates in cardiac surgery patients. INTRODUCTION: Recovery from cardiovascular surgery involves weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation decreases the work of breathing for patients by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide via a ventilator or breathing machine...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761475/exhaled-breath-analysis-in-evaluation-of-psychological-stress-a-short-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Tonacci, Francesco Sansone, Anna Paola Pala, Raffaele Conte
Physiological stress is pervasive in today's society. Its detection is normally performed through several unobtrusive methods, driving both caregivers and patients to take measures to reduce the burden of this condition on human health. Among the methods for assessing stress, exhaled breath analysis represents a non-invasive, real-time alternative to classic laboratory tests. Therefore, a literature review was performed to assess the presence of altered parameters, related to psychological stress, in exhaled breath...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760294/breath-profiles-of-children-on-ketogenic-therapy
#10
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Péter Kalapos, Christine Schmidl, Daniela Karall, Sabine Scholl-Buergi, Matthias Baumann
Ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to clinical practice as alimentary approaches with the aim to control drug-resistant epilepsies. Therapy control, particularly at initiation, happens through regular blood analysis and control of urine ketone levels. However, there is a lack of fast, reliable and preferably non-invasive methods of analysis. The exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be modified by diet. The instrumental development of VOC detection converges in the direction of low cost sensors, which can facilitate the self-monitoring of the patients in the future if reliable breath markers are available...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757966/cnt-foam-embedded-micro-gas-preconcentrator-for-low-concentration-ethane-measurements
#11
Janghyeon Lee, Si-Hyung Lim
Breath analysis has become increasingly important as a noninvasive process for the clinical diagnosis of patients suffering from various diseases. Many commercial gas preconcentration instruments are already being used to overcome the detection limits of commercial gas sensors for gas concentrations which are as low as ~100 ppb in exhaled breath. However, commercial instruments are large and expensive, and they require high power consumption and intensive maintenance. In the proposed study, a micro gas preconcentrator (μ-PC) filled with a carbon nanotube (CNT) foam as an adsorbing material was designed and fabricated for the detection of low-concentration ethane, which is known to be one of the most important biomarkers related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma...
May 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752619/a-feasibility-study-into-adenosine-triphosphate-measurement-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-a-potential-bedside-method-to-monitor-alveolar-deformation
#12
Philip van der Zee, Peter Somhorst, Jeroen Molinger, Djo Hasan, Diederik Gommers
Recent research suggested an important role for pulmonary extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the development of ventilation-induced lung injury. This injury is induced by mechanical deformation of alveolar epithelial cells, which in turn release ATP to the extracellular space. Measuring extracellular ATP in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be a non-invasive biomarker for alveolar deformation. Here, we study the feasibility of bedside ATP measurement in EBC. We measured ATP levels in EBC in ten subjects before and after an exercise test, which increases respiratory parameters and alveolar deformation...
May 12, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751135/brief-report-on-the-detection-of-the-egfr-t790m-mutation-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-from-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Robert J Smyth, Sinead M Toomey, Alexander Sartori, Emer O Hanrahan, Sinead D Cuffe, Oscar S Breathnach, Ross K Morgan, Bryan T Hennessy
The EGFR-T790M somatic mutation is the most common mechanism of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with advanced disease are not always amenable to repeat biopsy for further molecular analysis. Developing non-invasive methods to detect T790M in cell-free DNA (cfDNA), in the absence of tissue is being actively investigated. Unfortunately the low sensitivity of plasma for T790M detection has limited its clinical use. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an easily collected sample, known to harbour cfDNA, including lung cancer mutations...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750030/validation-of-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-using-electronic-nose-as-index-of-copd-severity
#14
Panaiotis Finamore, Claudio Pedone, Simone Scarlata, Alessandra Di Paolo, Simone Grasso, Marco Santonico, Giorgio Pennazza, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Aim: Six-minute walking test distance (6MWD) and body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise (BODE) index are measures of functional status in COPD patients, but require space, time and patient's compliance. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis via electronic nose is a quick and easy method that has already been used to discriminate COPD phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether VOCs analysis can predict functional status and its variation over time in COPD patients...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746613/aging-effects-on-alveolar-sacs-under-mechanical-ventilation
#15
Parya Aghasafari, Rebeca L Heise, Angela Reynolds, Ramana Pidaparti
Alveolar sacs are primarily responsible for gas exchange in the human respiratory system and lose their functionality with aging. Three-dimensional (3D) models of young and old human alveolar sacs were constructed and fluid-solid interaction (FSI) was employed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to decline in alveolar sacs function under mechanical ventilation (MV). Simulations results illustrated that compliance and pressure reduced in the alveolar sacs of the elderly, and they have to work harder to breathe...
May 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745370/moo-3-nano-si-heterostructure-based-highly-sensitive-and-acetone-selective-sensor-prototype-a-key-to-non-invasive-detection-of-diabetes
#16
Priyanka Dwivedi, Saakshi Dhanekar, Samaresh Das
This paper presents the development of an extremely sensitive and selective acetone sensor prototype which can be used as a platform for non-invasive diabetes detection through exhaled human breath. The miniaturized sensors were produced in high yield with the use of standard microfabrication processes. The sensors were based on a heterostructure composed of MoO3 and nano-porous silicon (NPS). Features like acetone selective, enhanced sensor response and 0.5 ppm detection limit were observed upon introduction of MoO3 on the NPS...
July 6, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735804/volatile-fingerprinting-of-i-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-i-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-an-i-in-vitro-i-cystic-fibrosis-co-infection-model
#17
Giorgia Purcaro, Christiaan Rees, Jeffrey A Melvin, Jennifer M Bomberg, Jane E Hill
Volatile molecules in exhaled breath represent potential biomarkers in the setting of infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the respiratory tract. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critically-important respiratory pathogen in specific subsets of the population, such as those with cystic fibrosis. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa can be particularly problematic when co-infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occurs, as this is correlated with the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728093/pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-can-be-detected-by-analysis-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-in-alveolar-air
#18
Andrea Princivalle, Lorenzo Monasta, Giovanni Butturini, Claudio Bassi, Luigi Perbellini
BACKGROUND: In the last decade many studies showed that the exhaled breath of subjects suffering from several pathological conditions has a peculiar volatile organic compound (VOC) profile. The objective of the present work was to analyse the VOCs in alveolar air to build a diagnostic tool able to identify the presence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in patients with histologically confirmed disease. METHODS: The concentration of 92 compounds was measured in the end-tidal breath of 65 cases and 102 controls...
May 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725275/td-gc-ms-analysis-of-volatile-markers-emitted-from-mono-and-co-cultures-of-enterobacter-cloacae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-artificial-sputum
#19
Oluwasola Lawal, Hugo Knobel, Hans Weda, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler
Introduction: Infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be caused by one or more pathogens. Current methods for identifying these pathogenic microbes often require invasive sampling, and can be time consuming, due to the requirement for prolonged cultural enrichment along with selective and differential plating steps. This results in delays in diagnosis which in such critically ill patients can have potentially life-threatening consequences. Therefore, a non-invasive and timely diagnostic method is required...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724960/cluster-analysis-on-breath-print-of-newly-diagnosed-copd-patients-effects-of-therapy
#20
Simone Scarlata, Panaiotis Finamore, Simona Santangelo, Gilda Giannunzio, Giorgio Pennazza, Simone Grasso, Marco Santonico, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly heterogeneous disease and airflow limitation and symptoms only partially capture such heterogeneity. Since COPD is known to affect the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we aimed at verifying to which extent exhaled VOCs can characterize newly diagnosed COPD patients and changes in response to inhaled therapy.
 Materials and methods: Fifty newly diagnosed COPD patients were consecutively recruited among those attending the pulmonary medicine outpatient clinic at "Campus Bio-Medico" University Hospital...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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