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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938682/mental-health-of-the-old-and-new-generation-migrant-workers-in-china-who-are-at-greater-risk-for-psychological-distress
#1
Bao-Liang Zhong, Sandra S M Chan, Tie-Bang Liu, Dong Jin, Chi-Yi Hu, Helen F K Chiu
Rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) are a large vulnerable population in China and, recently, the new-generation MWs (those born in 1980 or later) have become the majority of this population. Examining difference in the epidemiology of poor mental health between the new- and old-generation (those born before 1980) MWs would facilitate mental health promotion efforts. However, very few related studies are available and they produced conflicting findings. This study investigated intergenerational difference in prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (PD) in MWs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#2
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937810/historical-biogeography-and-extinction-in-the-hawaiian-honeycreepers
#3
Robert E Ricklefs
Hawaiian honeycreepers, comprising an endemic radiation of passerine birds in the Hawaiian archipelago, have suffered losses of individual island populations and the extinction of many species as a result of colonization of the islands by Polynesians and, more recently, introduced avian pox virus and avian malaria. Here, I test the idea that populations have an intrinsic tendency toward extinction regardless of the cause. The distribution of each species before the arrival of humans in the archipelago was inferred from present distribution, historical records, and fossil remains...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935614/randomized-trial-of-interventions-to-improve-childhood-asthma-in-homes-with-wood-burning-stoves
#4
Curtis W Noonan, Erin O Semmens, Paul Smith, Solomon W Harrar, Luke Montrose, Emily Weiler, Marcy McNamara, Tony J Ward
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution due to biomass combustion for residential heating adversely affects vulnerable populations. Randomized controlled trials to improve indoor air quality in homes of children with asthma are limited, and no such studies have been conducted in homes using wood for heating. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to test the hypothesis that household-level interventions, specifically improved-technology wood-burning appliances or air-filtration devices, would improve health measures, in particular Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) scores, relative to placebo, among children living with asthma in homes with wood-burning stoves...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934724/integrating-health-into-local-climate-response-lessons-from-the-u-s-cdc-climate-ready-states-and-cities-initiative
#5
Mary C Sheehan, Mary A Fox, Charlotte Kaye, Beth Resnick
Public health has potential to serve as a frame to convey the urgency of behavior change needed to adapt to a changing climate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments form the backbone of climate-related public health preparedness. Yet local health agencies are often inadequately prepared and poorly integrated into climate change assessments and plans. We reviewed the climate health profiles of 16 states and two cities participating in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) that aims to build local capacity to assess and respond to the health impacts of climate change...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934628/the-heat-exposure-integrated-deprivation-index-heidi-a-data-driven-approach-to-quantifying-neighborhood-risk-during-extreme-hot-weather
#6
Nikolas Krstic, Weiran Yuchi, Hung Chak Ho, Blake B Walker, Anders J Knudby, Sarah B Henderson
Mortality attributable to extreme hot weather is a growing concern in many urban environments, and spatial heat vulnerability indexes are often used to identify areas at relatively higher and lower risk. Three indexes were developed for greater Vancouver, Canada using a pool of 20 potentially predictive variables categorized to reflect social vulnerability, population density, temperature exposure, and urban form. One variable was chosen from each category: an existing deprivation index, senior population density, apparent temperature, and road density, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934218/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-among-inmates-in-midwest-brazil
#7
Larissa Gabrielle Curval, Adriana de Oliveira França, Henrique Jorge Fernandes, Rinaldo Pôncio Mendes, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Minoru German Higa, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a public health issue in developing countries, with prevalence rates as high as 90%, a figure set to escalate as the socioeconomic status of affected populations deteriorates. Investigating the occurrence of these infections among inmates is critical, since this group is more vulnerable to the spread of a number of infectious illnesses. METHODS: This cross-sectional, analytical, quantitative study was conducted in July 2015 at prison facilities located in Midwest Brazil to estimate the prevalence of parasitic infection among inmates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932967/psychological-stress-inflammation-and-coronary-heart-disease
#8
REVIEW
Petra H Wirtz, Roland von Känel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize evidence on the risk factor psychological stress in the context of coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans and explore the role of inflammation as a potential underlying mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: While chronic stress increases the risk of incident CHD and poor cardiovascular prognosis, acute emotional stress can trigger acute CHD events in vulnerable patients. Evidence supporting a potential role for inflammation as a promising biological mechanism comes from population-based studies showing associations between chronic stress and increased inflammation...
September 20, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932046/analysis-of-lip-print-and-fingerprint-patterns-in-patients-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#9
P Manjusha, S Sudha, P M Shameena, R Chandni, Sujatha Varma, Deepak Pandiar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is soaring high in the recent times. There is an ardent search in the scientific community for a reliable and cheap early predictor which can serve the purpose of mass screening of a genetically vulnerable population. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the predictive role of cheiloscopy on type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have established the association of dermatoglyphics with diabetes. However, results are still far from satisfaction...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931349/human-rights-and-access-to-healthcare-services-for-indigenous-peoples-in-africa
#10
Ebenezer Durojaye
In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address among others poverty and inequality within and among countries of the world. In particular, the SDGs aim at ameliorating the position of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in societies. One of the over-arching goals of the SDGs is to ensure that no one is left behind in the realisation of their access to health care. African governments are obligated under international and regional human rights law to ensure access to healthcare services for everyone, including indigenous populations, on a non-discriminatory basis...
September 20, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931310/the-management-and-treatment-of-acute-leukemias-in-the-elderly-population
#11
Xavier Thomas
Treatment of elderly patients with acute leukemia is challenging. Older age is associated with increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. Currently, no consensus exists regarding optimal therapy in this patient population. Areas covered. The following review is a comprehensive summary of various therapeutic options reported over the past few years in elderly patients with acute leukemia. Expert commentary. While evidences can guide identification of frail older patients, sensitive assessment strategies are required to identify fit and vulnerable patients regardless of chronologic age...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931228/civil-registration-and-vital-statistics-emergencies-and-international-law-understanding-the-intersection
#12
Claire E Brolan, Hebe Gouda
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts...
May 1, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930901/hip-fracture-in-the-frail-elderly-making-the-case-for-early-integration-of-palliative-care-and-timely-hospice-referral
#13
Mary Atkinson Smith, Kristi Acker, Lisa Torres
With the projected increase of an aging population in the upcoming decades, coupled with increasing elderly longevity, the incidence of hip fractures among this vulnerable population is expected to grow. Current evidence reveals high mortality rates within 6 months to 1 year among frail elderly patients who suffer hip fracture. In addition, the presence of multiple chronic conditions negatively impacts mortality rates in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this article is to discuss both the importance of integrating early palliative care and the appropriateness for hospice referral among frail elderly hip fracture patients...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930763/a-new-community-health-center-academic-medicine-partnership-for-medicaid-cost-control-powered-by-the-mega-teaching-health-center
#14
Richard E Rieselbach, Ted Epperly, Aaron Friedman, David Keahey, Eleanor McConnell, Karen Nichols, Greg Nycz, Jeanette Roberts, Kenneth Schmader, Peter Shin, Derri Shtasel
Community health centers (CHCs), a principal source of primary care for over 24 million patients, provide high-quality affordable care for medically underserved and lower-income populations in urban and rural communities. The authors propose that CHCs can assume an important role in the quest for health care reform by serving substantially more Medicaid patients. Major expansion of CHCs, powered by mega teaching health centers (THCs) in partnership with regional academic medical centers (AMCs) or teaching hospitals, could increase Medicaid beneficiaries' access to cost-effective care...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#15
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930000/higher-parental-perceptions-of-wealth-associated-with-the-birth-of-more-sons-in-an-australian-population
#16
A M Behie, M H O'Donnell
Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929728/-undocumented-immigrants-what-do-we-know-about-their-health
#17
Giovanni Baglio, Raffaele Di Palma, Erica Eugeni, Antonio Fortino
In Italy, immigrants represent a "fuzzy" set, to which it is difficult to apply dichotomous categories as a classification (i.e., regular/irregular, economic/forced, etcetera). These categories lose its meaning when used to study health phenomena. Rather, the epidemiological profile of such a heterogeneous population depends on the varying influence of health determinants in the life-course of migration. This article builds on those assumptions, and analyses the health of irregularly- staying immigrants by adopting a global approach to the migration phenomenon...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929726/-factors-associated-to-medical-visits-comparison-among-italians-and-immigrants-resident-in-italy
#18
Anteo Di Napoli, Monica Perez, Alessandra Rossi, Daniele Spizzichino, Laura Iannucci, Lidia Gargiulo, Daniela Panaccione, Concetta Mirisola, Alessio Petrelli
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the role of factors potentially associated with the use of medical visits by the immigrant population living in Italy, making a comparison with the Italian population. DESIGN: cross-sectional study based on the representative sample of the population residing in Italy considered in the Survey "Health and use of health services" conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) in 2013. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study was conducted on a sample of citizens aged 18-64 years (72,476 individuals) representing a population of 37,290,440 residents in Italy (33...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929716/-developing-an-algorithm-based-on-health-and-social-sources-to-stratify-general-population-in-different-levels-of-health-socio-sanitary-frailty-and-disability
#19
Laura Andreoni, Antonio Giampiero Russo
OBJECTIVES: to describe an innovative algorithm to classify the general population, in homogeneous groups of severity and complexity of disease and real needs, by using three dimensions: health, frailty, and disability. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study includes the population covered by the Agency for health protection of Metropolitan Area of Milan (3,4 million of habitants). We identified two cohorts of residents: the first at 01...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929014/impacts-of-land-use-and-invasive-species-on-native-avifauna-of-mo-orea-french-polynesia
#20
Vanessa M ZoBell, Brett J Furnas
Oceanic islands are among the most endemically biodiverse ecosystems in the world. They have been adversely impacted by human expansion, which affects regional biodiversity by altering the natural habitats of vulnerable, indigenous species. Birds represent a valuable indicator species of environmental change due to their ability to adapt quickly. Investigating the relationship between environmental change, abundance, and behaviors of birds can help us better anticipate potential impacts to island ecosystems...
2017: PeerJ
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