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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353114/toxic-hazards-of-ammonia-release-and-population-vulnerability-assessment-using-geographical-information-system
#1
N S Anjana, A Amarnath, M V Harindranathan Nair
Today, chemical industries manufacture, store and transport evermore hazardous substances and hence the risk of accidental releases of these chemicals can become more and more catastrophic in the context of increasing population and their requirements. The damage potential is proportional to the population characteristics of the location as well as various meteorological factors and geographical features. For the risk assessment of ammonia toxicity, the storage facility at Eloor industrial area is taken as a sample...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351785/theorizing-the-complexity-of-hiv-disclosure-in-vulnerable-populations-a-grounded-theory-study
#2
Subash Thapa, Karin Hannes, Anne Buve, Shivani Bhattarai, Catharina Mathei
BACKGROUND: HIV disclosure is an important step in delivering the right care to people. However, many people with an HIV positive status choose not to disclose. This considerably complicates the delivery of adequate health care. METHODS: We conducted a grounded theory study to develop a theoretical model explaining how local contexts impact on HIV disclosure and what the mechanisms are that determine whether people choose to disclose or not. We conducted in-depth interviews among 23 people living with HIV, 8 health workers and 5 family and community members, and 1 community development worker in Achham, Nepal...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351650/are-evidence-based-community-engaged-energy-balance-interventions-enough-for-extremely-vulnerable-populations
#3
Nancy E Schoenberg, Yelena N Tarasenko, Claire Snell-Rood
Well-documented associations between lifestyle behaviors and disease outcomes necessitate evidence-based health promotion interventions. To enhance potential efficacy and effectiveness, interventionists increasingly respond to community priorities, employ comprehensive theoretical frameworks, invest heavily to ensure cultural fit, implement evidence-based programming, and deploy research gold standards. We describe a project that followed all of these recommended strategies, but did not achieve desired outcomes...
January 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351587/heat-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-the-male-germ-line
#4
Brendan J Houston, Brett Nixon, Jacinta H Martin, Geoffry N D E Iuliis, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Kristen E McEwen, R John Aitkena
The reproductive consequences of global warming are not currently understood. In order to address this issue we have examined the reproductive consequences of exposing male mice to a mild heat stress. For this purpose, adult male mice were exposed to an elevated ambient temperature of 35°C under two exposure models. The first involved acute exposure for 24 hours, followed by recovery periods of between 1 day and 6 weeks. The alternative heating regimen involved a daily exposure of 8 hours for periods of 1 or 2 weeks...
January 17, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351126/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-falls-in-women-with-end-stage-hip-osteoarthritis
#5
Hisashi Ikutomo, Koutatsu Nagai, Keiichi Tagomori, Namika Miura, Norikazu Nakagawa, Kensaku Masuhara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fall-induced injuries and resulting deaths are a serious health problem among older adults. The most common risk factors for falls in older adults are muscle weakness, gait deficiencies, and balance deficits. Patients with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA) also have many hip dysfunctions, and these all have the potential to increase the risk of falls. However, the incidence and risk factors for falls in patients with end-stage hip OA remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of falls in women with end-stage hip OA and to identify risk factors for falls in this patient population...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349254/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-and-its-association-with-socio-demographic-and-hiv-risk-factors-in-south-africa-findings-of-the-2012-hiv-prevalence-incidence-and-behaviour-survey
#6
J C Mthembu, M L H Mabaso, G Khan, L C Simbayi
Background: In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. Methods: The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349218/comparing-methods-of-targeting-obesity-interventions-in-populations-an-agent-based-simulation
#7
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Mehdi Jalalpour, Thomas A Glass
Social networks as well as neighborhood environments have been shown to effect obesity-related behaviors including energy intake and physical activity. Accordingly, harnessing social networks to improve targeting of obesity interventions may be promising to the extent this leads to social multiplier effects and wider diffusion of intervention impact on populations. However, the literature evaluating network-based interventions has been inconsistent. Computational methods like agent-based models (ABM) provide researchers with tools to experiment in a simulated environment...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348264/employment-among-patients-starting-dialysis-in-the-united-states
#8
Kevin F Erickson, Bo Zhao, Vivian Ho, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with ESRD face significant challenges to remaining employed. It is unknown when in the course of kidney disease patients stop working. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We examined employment trends over time among patients ages 18-54 years old who initiated dialysis in the United States between 1996 and 2013 from a national ESRD registry. We compared unadjusted trends in employment at the start of dialysis and 6 months before ESRD and used linear probability models to estimate changes in employment over time after adjusting for patient characteristics and local unemployment rates in the general population...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347467/increased-persistence-via-asynchrony-in-oscillating-ecological-populations-with-long-range-interaction
#9
Anubhav Gupta, Tanmoy Banerjee, Partha Sharathi Dutta
Understanding the influence of the structure of a dispersal network on the species persistence and modeling a realistic species dispersal in nature are two central issues in spatial ecology. A realistic dispersal structure which favors the persistence of interacting ecological systems was studied [M. D. Holland and A. Hastings, Nature (London) 456, 792 (2008)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07395], where it was shown that a randomization of the structure of a dispersal network in a metapopulation model of prey and predator increases the species persistence via clustering, prolonged transient dynamics, and amplitudes of population fluctuations...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346543/the-impact-of-reported-beta-lactam-allergy-in-hospitalized-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-requiring-antibiotics
#10
Kuan-Hsiang Gary Huang, Valerie Cluzet, Keith Hamilton, Olajumoke Fadugba
Background: Patients hospitalized with hematologic malignancy are particularly vulnerable to infection. The impact of reported beta-lactam (BL) allergy in this population remains unknown. Objective: To define the impact of reported BL-only allergy (BLOA) label on clinical outcomes compared to those with no BL allergy (NBLA) in hematologic malignancy inpatients requiring systemic antibiotics. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with hematologic malignancy admitted at two tertiary care hospitals 2010-2015...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346272/viral-and-antibody-kinetics-and-mosquito-infectivity-of-an-imported-case-of-zika-fever-due-to-asian-genotype-american-strain-in-singapore
#11
Cheong Huat Tan, Li Kiang Tan, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi, Yee Ling Lai, Pei Sze Jeslyn Wong, Grace Yap, Keng Wai Mak, Wing Yan Wong, Yee Sin Leo, Mei Chun Wong, Lee Ching Ng
We report a case of a Singaporean who acquired Zika virus (ZIKV) during a visit to Cuba. The infection was confirmed using molecular and serological methods. This report highlights potential drawbacks of using IgG serology for diagnosis of flavivirus infections in endemic regions. The low viremia detected during the early phase of this case resulted in low mosquito infectivity rates, suggesting the possibility of ZIKV transmission prior to clinical onset. The report also emphasizes the challenges of public health interventions for Zika fever and the importance of sustaining a low vector population to reduce the risk of arbovirus transmission in vulnerable regions...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#12
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#13
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344828/neuroprotective-effect-of-p-coumaric-acid-in-mice-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries
#14
Romgase Sakamula, Wachiryah Thong-Asa
Cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) is associated with neuronal death, which leads to disability and cognitive decline. The pathomechanism occurs because ischemia is exacerbated during the reperfusion period. Neuronal damage susceptibility depends on the affected brain areas and the duration of ischemia. Prevention and supplementation to neurons may help them endure during IR and further benefit them in rehabilitation. We investigated the protective effect of p-coumaric acid (PC) on cerebral IR injuries in mice...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342226/don-t-judge-a-book-by-its-cover-examiner-expectancy-effects-predict-neuropsychological-performance-for-individuals-judged-as-chronic-cannabis-users
#15
Louise M Sodos, Rayna B Hirst, Jessica Watson, Dylan Vaughn
Objective: The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Method: Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342009/how-academic-health-systems-can-achieve-population-health-in-vulnerable-populations-through-value-based-care-the-critical-importance-of-establishing-trusted-agency
#16
Donald E Wesson, Heather E Kitzman
Improving population health may require health systems to proactively engage patient populations as partners in the implementation of healthy behaviors as a shared value using strategies that incentivize healthy outcomes for the population as a whole. The current reactive health care model, which focuses on restoring the health of individuals after it has been lost, will not achieve the goal of improved population health. To achieve this goal, health systems must proactively engage in partnerships with the populations they serve...
January 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341586/development-of-a-novel-cytopathic-effect-based-phenotypic-screening-assay-against-cryptosporidium
#17
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341115/non-volant-mammals-from-the-upper-paran%C3%A3-river-basin-a-data-set-from-a-critical-region-for-conservation-in-brazil
#18
Fernando Gonçalves, Wellington Hannibal, Mauricio N Godoi, Fernando I Martins, Roniel F Oliveira, Valquiria V Figueiredo, Janaina Casella, Érica F G G de Sá
The data set represents the first attempt at a large-scale inventory of non-volant mammals, with potential applications to performing macroecological studies, developing conservation strategies, and undertaking population and community ecology research, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation. Our objectives for compiling these data were to summarize information about inventories of non-volant mammals in the critically important area of the Upper Paraná River Basin by focusing on species richness and index of frequency of occurrence and to identify gaps in knowledge regarding non-volant mammal communities in order to guide future sampling efforts...
January 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341056/-researching-crisis-plans-in-long-term-mental-health-care-more-complicated-than-expected
#19
J Fockens, Chr Boumans, D Postulart
BACKGROUND Crisis plans are highly valued because they can help to reduce the number of persons subjected to compulsory treatment in mental health care. The evidence however that crisis plans are effective is scarce, partly due to insufficient implementation by professionals.<br/> AIM: To assess the fidelity, relevance and applicability of crisis plans and to estimate to what extent such plans are appreciated by those working in long-term care.<br/> METHOD: Semi-structured interview with patients and nurses...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340911/prevalence-of-sexual-violence-and-its-association-with-depression-among-male-and-female-patients-with-risky-drug-use-in-urban-federally-qualified-health-centers
#20
Curtis W Bone, Amelia M Goodfellow, Mani Vahidi, Lillian Gelberg
Sexual violence (SV) is common; however, the prevalence of SV and its long term sequela vary geographically and among subpopulations within the USA. As such, the aims of this study are the following: (1) to determine the prevalence of SV, (2) to identify correlates of SV, and (3) to determine if SV is associated with depression among male and female risky drug users in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles. This study includes adult patients of five urban FQHCs who self-reported risky drug use...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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