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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813240/when-does-therapeutic-misconception-affect-surrogates-or-subjects-decision-making-about-whether-to-participate-in-dementia-research
#1
Laura B Dunn, Barton W Palmer
"Therapeutic misconception" (TM) refers to inappropriate assumptions and beliefs on the part of research participants regarding key distinctions between the purpose, methods, intended benefits, and potential disadvantages of research compared to those of clinical care. Despite an extensive literature describing TM across varied types of research and populations, minimal work has addressed TM in the context of dementia research. This is a serious gap, for several reasons: people with dementia are at significant risk of diminished capacity; surrogate decision makers are typically asked to provide consent on behalf of the person with dementia; and available treatments for dementia are quite limited...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810434/unhealthy-weight-control-strategies-an-outcome-of-body-image-and-eating-tensions-in-women-of-mexican-origin-living-in-rural-farming-communities
#2
Karen F Stein, Nicole Trabold, Kay Connelly
Unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors are important but modifiable factors that contribute to obesity in majority and minority populations. Studies suggest that these behaviors are common in Mexican American women, but most studies completed to date have focused on college enrolled Mexican American women. Little is known about body weight concerns, eating and weight control behaviors in low acculturated immigrant Mexican women. This qualitative descriptive study utilized two focus groups with 15 women to identify and describe body weight and shape perceptions, and thoughts and behaviors related to eating and weight control of low acculturated Mexican American living in disadvantaged economic situations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808545/dioecious-plants-are-more-precocious-than-cosexual-plants-a-comparative-study-of-relative-sizes-at-the-onset-of-sexual-reproduction-in-woody-species
#3
Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806362/harnessing-implementation-science-to-increase-the-impact-of-health-equity-research
#4
Matthew Chinman, Eva N Woodward, Geoffrey M Curran, Leslie R M Hausmann
BACKGROUND: Health disparities are differences in health or health care between groups based on social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Disparity research often follows 3 steps: detecting (phase 1), understanding (phase 2), and reducing (phase 3), disparities. Although disparities have narrowed over time, many remain. OBJECTIVES: We argue that implementation science could enhance disparities research by broadening the scope of phase 2 studies and offering rigorous methods to test disparity-reducing implementation strategies in phase 3 studies...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804395/social-exclusion-of-older-persons-a-scoping-review-and-conceptual-framework
#5
REVIEW
Kieran Walsh, Thomas Scharf, Norah Keating
As a concept, social exclusion has considerable potential to explain and respond to disadvantage in later life. However, in the context of ageing populations, the construct remains ambiguous. A disjointed evidence-base, spread across disparate disciplines, compounds the challenge of developing a coherent understanding of exclusion in older age. This article addresses this research deficit by presenting the findings of a two-stage scoping review encompassing seven separate reviews of the international literature pertaining to old-age social exclusion...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804384/migration-and-changes-in-loneliness-over-a-4-year-period-the-case-of-older-former-soviet-union-immigrants-in-israel
#6
Pnina Dolberg, Sharon Shiovitz-Ezra, Liat Ayalon
Both older adult and immigrant populations are at a high risk of loneliness. The current research compares older veteran Israelis to older immigrants who arrived in Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) after 1989. Early studies have found high levels of loneliness among older FSU immigrants; however, little is known regarding changes in loneliness among this group over time. The present study examines change in loneliness among older FSU immigrants and older veteran Jewish Israelis and its potential predictors...
December 2016: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802709/sex-differences-in-cancer-risk-and-survival-a-swedish-cohort-study
#7
Cecilia Radkiewicz, Anna L V Johansson, Paul W Dickman, Mats Lambe, Gustaf Edgren
AIM: The aim of this study is to firmly delineate temporal and age trends regarding sex discrepancies in cancer risk and survival as well as quantifying the potential gain achieved by eliminating this inequality. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all adult incident cancer cases (n = 872,397) recorded in the Swedish Cancer Register in 1970-2014. To assess the associations between sex and cancer risk and sex and survival, male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and excess mortality ratios (EMRs) adjusted for age and year of diagnosis were estimated using Poisson regression...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802675/grade-equity-guidelines-4-guidance-on-how-to-assess-and-address-health-equity-within-the-evidence-to-decision-process
#8
Kevin Pottie, Vivian Welch, Rachael Morton, Elie A Akl, Javier H Eslava-Schmalbach, Vittal Katikireddi, Jasvinder Singh, Lorenzo Moja, Eddy Lang, Nicola Magrini, Lehana Thabane, Roger Stanev, Elizabeth Matovinovic, Alexandra Snellman, Matthias Briel, Beverly Shea, Peter Tugwell, Holger Schunemann, Gordon Guyatt, Pablo Alonso-Coello
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide detailed guidance on how to incorporate health equity within the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) evidence to decision process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We developed this guidance based on the GRADE evidence to decision (EtD) framework, iteratively reviewing and modifying draft documents, in person discussion of project group members and input from other GRADE members. RESULTS: Considering the impact on health equity may be required, both in general guidelines, and guidelines that focus on disadvantaged populations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801917/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-interaction-between-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-history-of-adhd-determines-prevalence
#9
Andrew S Rowland, Betty J Skipper, David L Rabiner, Fares Qeadan, Richard A Campbell, A Jack Naftel, David M Umbach
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported a higher prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among disadvantaged populations, but few have considered how parental history of ADHD might modify that relationship. We evaluated whether the prevalence of ADHD varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and parental history of ADHD in a population-sample of elementary school children age 6-14 years. METHODS: We screened all children in grades 1-5 in 17 schools in one North Carolina (U...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799240/adaptive-functioning-and-its-associated-factors-among-girl-children-residing-in-slum-areas-of-bhubaneswar-india
#10
Ansuman Panigrahi, Sai C Das, Prabhudarsan Sahoo
AIM: Adaptive functioning develops throughout early childhood, and its limitation is a reflection that the child has developmental or emotional problems or even mental retardation. Little is known about the adaptive functioning or developmental status of slum children. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during the year 2014 to assess the status of adaptive functioning among girl children aged between 3 and 9 years residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar and to explore the factors associated with poor adaptive functioning...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798507/family-background-and-contemporary-changes-in-young-adults-school-work-transitions-and-family-formation-in-the-united-states
#11
Chelsea Smith, Robert Crosnoe, Shih-Yi Chao
The oft-discussed lengthening of the transition into adulthood is unlikely uniform across diverse segments of the population. This study followed youth in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts (n = 12,686 and 8,984, respectively) from 16 to 32 years old to investigate this trend in the United States, examining cross-cohort changes in transitions with a focus on differences by family background. Logistic regressions revealed that young adults in the most recent cohort were less likely to have completed schooling, fully entered the labor force, married, or become parents by their 30s than those in the older cohort...
December 2016: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797940/values-for-the-icecap-supportive-care-measure-icecap-scm-for-use-in-economic-evaluation-at-end-of-life
#12
Elisabeth Huynh, Joanna Coast, John Rose, Philip Kinghorn, Terry Flynn
End of life care may have elements of value that go beyond health. A generic measure of the benefits of end of life care could be helpful to decision makers. Such a measure, based on the capability approach, has recently been developed: the ICECAP Supportive Care Measure. This paper reports the first valuation exercise for that measure, with data from 6020 individuals collected from an on-line general population panel during June 2013. Individuals were asked to complete a stated choice experiment that combined best-worst scaling and a standard discrete choice experiment...
July 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797935/children-s-collaboration-induces-fairness-rather-than-generosity
#13
John Corbit, Katherine McAuliffe, Tara C Callaghan, Peter R Blake, Felix Warneken
Children across diverse societies reject resource allocations that place them at a disadvantage (disadvantageous inequity aversion; DI). In certain societies, older children also reject advantageous allocations (advantageous inequity aversion; AI). Other work demonstrates that after collaboration, children reduce inequity by sharing. However, it is unknown whether collaboration leads to greater sharing because it encourages prosociality (Generosity Hypothesis) or because collaboration elicits stronger equitable tendencies (Equity Hypothesis)...
August 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797923/opportunity-for-interprofessional-collaborative-care-findings-from-a-sample-of-federally-qualified-health-center-patients-in-the-midwest
#14
L J Smith, V Johnson-Lawrence, M Andrews, S Parker
OBJECTIVES: Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) frequently serve more socio-economically disadvantaged populations; existing literature suggests that underserved groups are more likely to experience various chronic physical and mental health conditions. FQHC patients may have significant needs for various specialty services that are beyond common FQHC providers. This study examines chronic condition prevalence, healthcare satisfaction, and use of multiprovider services in a Midwest FQHC patient population...
August 7, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795425/gender-and-survival-in-essential-thrombocythemia-a-two-center-study-of-1-494-patients
#15
Ayalew Tefferi, Silvia Betti, Daniela Barraco, Mythri Mudireddy, Sahrish Shah, Curtis A Hanson, Rhett P Ketterling, Animesh Pardanani, Naseema Gangat, Giacomo Coltro, Paola Guglielmelli, Alessandro M Vannucchi
Based on suggestive information from recent epidemiologic data and earlier retrospective studies, we revisited the effect of gender on survival in 1,494 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). The primary study population included 904 patients from the Mayo Clinic (median age 58 years; 65% females); risk distribution, according to the international prognostic score for ET (IPSET), was 23% high, 42% intermediate and 35% low. Multivariable analysis that included IPSET-relevant risk factors identified male sex (HR 1...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793133/prevalence-of-12-month-alcohol-use-high-risk-drinking-and-dsm-iv-alcohol-use-disorder-in-the-united-states-2001-2002-to-2012-2013-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions
#16
Bridget F Grant, S Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Roger P Pickering, Bradley T Kerridge, W June Ruan, Boji Huang, Jeesun Jung, Haitao Zhang, Amy Fan, Deborah S Hasin
Importance: Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information. Objective: To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013...
August 9, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791681/hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-neglected-disease-in-indigenous-australians
#17
Dunja Ana Vekic, Jane Woods, Geoffrey D Cains
We report the first case series of hidradenitis suppurativa in patients of Indigenous Australian heritage. The incidence and ethnicity of populations affected by this condition are not known. The high comorbid disease burden and socioeconomic disadvantage that is well recognised in the Indigenous Australian population poses significant challenges to therapeutic outcomes.
August 9, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789643/factors-associated-with-the-effectiveness-and-reach-of-nhs-stop-smoking-services-for-pregnant-women-in-england
#18
L R Vaz, T Coleman, S J Fahy, S Cooper, L Bauld, L Szatkowski, J Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: The UK National Health Service provides Stop Smoking Services for pregnant women (SSSP) but there is a lack of evidence concerning how these are best organised. This study investigates influences on services' effectiveness and also on their propensity to engage pregnant smokers with support in stopping smoking. METHODS: Survey data collected from 121/141 (86%) of SSSP were augmented with data from Hospital Episode Statistics and the 2011 UK National Census...
August 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782902/gambling-involvement-among-native-americans-blacks-and-whites-in-the-united-states
#19
Grace M Barnes, John W Welte, Marie-Cecile O Tidwell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This paper examines risk factors of gambling and problem gambling among racial subgroups in the U.S. population, namely Native Americans and blacks, for whom research data are lacking. METHODS: Findings are based on a large representative general population survey (n = 3,474) of gambling in the U.S. with an oversample of Native Americans (n = 549). Multiple domains were assessed including sociodemographic factors; ecological factors (census-defined neighborhood disadvantage, geocoded density of casinos within 30 miles of respondents' homes, and perceived gambling convenience); impulsivity; and alcohol abuse...
August 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782114/cancer-survivorship-and-opioid-prescribing-rates-a-population-based-matched-cohort-study-among-individuals-with-and-without-a-history-of-cancer
#20
Rinku Sutradhar, Armend Lokku, Lisa Barbera
BACKGROUND: Little is known about opioid prescribing among individuals who have survived cancer. Our aim is to examine a predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged population for differences in opioid prescribing rates among cancer survivors compared with matched controls without a prior diagnosis of cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective population-wide matched cohort study. Starting in 2010, individuals residing in Ontario, Canada, who were 18 to 64 years of age and at least 5 years past their cancer diagnosis were matched to controls without a prior cancer diagnosis based on sex and calendar year of birth...
August 7, 2017: Cancer
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