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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350076/health-care-public-sector-share-and-the-u-s-life-expectancy-lag-a-country-level-longitudinal-study
#1
Megan M Reynolds
Growing research on the political economy of health has begun to emphasize sociopolitical influences on cross-national differences in population health above and beyond economic growth. While this research investigates the impact of overall public health spending as a share of GDP ("health care effort"), it has for the most part overlooked the distribution of health care spending across the public and private spheres ("public sector share"). I evaluate the relative contributions of health care effort, public sector share, and GDP to the large and growing disadvantage in U...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349264/life-course-influences-on-later-life-health-in-china-childhood-health-exposure-and-socioeconomic-mediators-during-adulthood
#2
Hal Kendig, Cathy Honge Gong, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Merril Silverstein, James Nazroo
China's unprecedented population aging and social and economic change raise important issues concerning life course determinants of advantage or disadvantage into later life. Data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2013 were analysed to identify the influence of childhood health on later life health as indicated by self-rated health and how this influence could be mediated by social and economic positions (SEP) and resources later in the life span. CHARLS provides nationally representative data on 18, 000 individuals aged 45 years and above in approximately 150 districts and 450 villages...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349222/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-mortality-experience-of-hispanic-subgroups-in-the-united-states-variation-by-age-country-of-origin-and-nativity
#3
Andrew Fenelon, Juanita J Chinn, Robert N Anderson
Although those identifying as "Hispanic or Latino" experience lower adult mortality than the more socioeconomically advantaged non-Hispanic white population, the ethnic category Hispanic conceals variation by country of origin, nativity, age, and immigration experience. The current analysis examines adult mortality differentials among 12 Hispanic subgroups by region of origin and nativity, and non-Hispanic whites, adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We use the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files pooled 1990-2009 to obtain sufficient sample of each subgroup to calculate mortality estimates by sex and age group (25-64, 65+)...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349207/gender-career-divide-and-women-s-disadvantage-in-depressive-symptoms-and-physical-limitations-in-france
#4
Emmanuelle Cambois, Clémentine Garrouste, Ariane Pailhé
This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348672/soluble-lrp1-is-an-independent-biomarker-of-epicardial-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Cristina Colom, David Vilades, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Abdel-Hakim Moustafa, Montserrat Pérez-Cuellar, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Antonio Pérez, Vicenta LLorente-Cortes
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active tissue intimately associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of EAT volume is an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of cardiometabolic disease. Nevertheless, current methodology presents serious disadvantages. The soluble form of the receptor LRP1 (sLRP1) is a non-invasive biomarker of EAT in general population. Here, we analysed the potential of circulating sLRP1 as biomarker of EAT volume in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346666/gypsy-roma-and-traveller-access-to-and-engagement-with-health-services-a-systematic-review
#6
Alison McFadden, Lindsay Siebelt, Anna Gavine, Karl Atkin, Kerry Bell, Nicola Innes, Helen Jones, Cath Jackson, Haggi Haggi, Steve MacGillivray
Background: Gypsy, Roma and Traveller people represent the most disadvantaged minority groups in Europe, having the poorest health outcomes. This systematic review addressed the question of how Gypsy, Roma and Traveller people access healthcare and what are the best ways to enhance their engagement with health services. Methods: Searches were conducted in 21 electronic databases complemented by a focussed Google search. Studies were included if they had sufficient focus on Gypsy, Roma or Traveller populations; reported data pertinent to healthcare service use or engagement and were published in English from 2000 to 2015...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340892/a-summer-prematriculation-program-to-help-students-succeed-in-medical-school
#7
Stephen D Schneid, April Apperson, Nora Laiken, Jess Mandel, Carolyn J Kelly, Katharina Brandl
Medical schools with a diverse student body face the challenge of ensuring that all students succeed academically. Many medical schools have implemented prematriculation programs to prepare students from diverse backgrounds; however, evidence on their impact is largely lacking. In this study, we analyzed participants' demographics as well as the impact of the prematriculation program on Year 1 performance. Predictive validity of the program was assessed and compared to other traditional predictors, including grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and subscores...
January 16, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338951/small-incentives-improve-weight-loss-in-women-from-disadvantaged-backgrounds
#8
Tricia M Leahey, Jessica Gokee LaRose, Marc S Mitchell, Carnisha M Gilder, Rena R Wing
INTRODUCTION: Women from lower-income backgrounds have the highest rates of obesity. Thus, effective programs for this high-risk population are urgently needed. Evidence suggests that adding financial incentives to treatment helps to engage and promote health behavior change in lower-income populations; however, this has never been tested in women for obesity treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adding small financial incentives to Internet weight loss treatment yields better weight loss outcomes in women from lower-income backgrounds compared with the same treatment without incentives...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336748/an-update-on-the-current-management-of-perforated-diverticulitis
#9
Evon Zoog, W Heath Giles, Robert A Maxwell
The management of perforated diverticulitis is a challenging aspect of general surgery. The prevalence of colonic diverticular disease has increased over the last decade and will continue to increase as the baby boomers add to the elderly population. Improvements in diagnostic imaging modalities, efforts to maintain intestinal continuity, and percutaneous drainage procedures now result in several alternatives when selecting a management strategy for complicated presentations. Specifically, laparoscopic lavage and resection with primary anastomosis have emerged as options for treatment of Hinchey III and IV diverticulitis in place of diversion in the appropriately selected patient...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334953/care-relationships-at-stake-home-healthcare-professionals-experiences-with-digital-medicine-dispensers-a-qualitative-study
#10
Sigrid Nakrem, Marit Solbjør, Ida Nilstad Pettersen, Hanne Hestvik Kleiven
BACKGROUND: Although digital technologies can mitigate the burdens of home healthcare services caused by an ageing population that lives at home longer with complex health problems, research on the impacts and consequences of digitalised remote communication between patients and caregivers is lacking. The present study explores how home healthcare professionals had experienced the introduction of digital medicine dispensers and their influence on patient-caregiver relationships. METHODS: The multi-case study comprised semi-structured interviews with 21 healthcare professionals whose home healthcare service involved using the digital medicine dispensers...
January 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333660/interventions-to-increase-attendance-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#11
REVIEW
John G Lawrenson, Ella Graham-Rowe, Fabiana Lorencatto, Jennifer Burr, Catey Bunce, Jillian J Francis, Patricia Aluko, Stephen Rice, Luke Vale, Tunde Peto, Justin Presseau, Noah Ivers, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy screening (DRS) in reducing the risk of sight loss, attendance for screening is consistently below recommended levels. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the review was to assess the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions that seek to increase attendance for DRS in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Secondary objectives were:To use validated taxonomies of QI intervention strategies and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to code the description of interventions in the included studies and determine whether interventions that include particular QI strategies or component BCTs are more effective in increasing screening attendance;To explore heterogeneity in effect size within and between studies to identify potential explanatory factors for variability in effect size;To explore differential effects in subgroups to provide information on how equity of screening attendance could be improved;To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, costs and cost effectiveness...
January 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332812/thrombodynamics-a-new-global-coagulation-test-measurement-of-heparin-efficiency
#12
Elena I Sinauridze, Tatiana A Vuimo, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Ruzanna A Ovsepyan, Stepan S Surov, Natalia G Korotina, Ilya I Serebriyskiy, Maxim M Lutsenko, Alexander L Sokolov, Fazoil I Ataullakhanov
The actual coagulation status may be reliably measured using only highly sensitive global functional tests; however, they are not numerous and all of them have disadvantages. Thrombodynamics (TD), a novel global coagulation test, is sensitive to hypo- and hypercoagulable states. The main properties of this test were investigated, and its capabilities for hemostasis analysis were verified through pharmacodynamic monitoring of the most widely used anticoagulants, heparins. The anticoagulant effects in the plasma of donors (n = 20) and patients after hip replacement (n = 20) spiked with unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin were measured in vitro to eliminate the influence of pharmacokinetic factors...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332655/research-on-tuberculosis-in-tribal-areas-in-india-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
V G Rao, M Muniyandi, J Bhat, R Yadav, R Sharma
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in resource-poor countries including India. Scientific knowledge is used to guide policy and practice. There is however, a limited, systematically collected data required for guiding the scale-up of interventions particularly amongst vulnerable populations including tribal groups in the country. In view of this, a systematic review of the TB research studies carried out in tribal areas of different parts of the country was undertaken...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332173/is-the-use-of-emergency-departments-socially-patterned
#14
Hélène Colineaux, Fanny Le Querrec, Laure Pourcel, Jean-Christophe Gallart, Olivier Azéma, Thierry Lang, Michelle Kelly-Irving, Sandrine Charpentier, Sébastien Lamy
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the association between patients' socioeconomic position (SEP) and the use of emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: This population-based study included all visits to ED in 2012 by inhabitants of the French Midi-Pyrénées region, recorded by the Regional Emergency Departments Observatory. We compared ED visit rates and the proportion of non-severe visits according to the patients' SEP as assessed by the European Deprivation Index. RESULTS: We analysed 496,388 visits...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331519/understanding-and-misunderstanding-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Angus Deaton, Nancy Cartwright
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are increasingly popular in the social sciences, not only in medicine. We argue that the lay public, and sometimes researchers, put too much trust in RCTs over other methods of investigation. Contrary to frequent claims in the applied literature, randomization does not equalize everything other than the treatment in the treatment and control groups, it does not automatically deliver a precise estimate of the average treatment effect (ATE), and it does not relieve us of the need to think about (observed or unobserved) covariates...
December 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331352/factors-associated-with-voice-disorders-among-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#16
Amanda Cibelly Brito Gois, Leandro de Araújo Pernambuco, Kenio Costa de Lima
INTRODUCTION: During the aging process, natural modifications occur in the larynx and the structures involved in phonation which explain the specific characteristics found in the voices of elderly persons. When, at any moment, a voice fails and there is interference with communication, a voice disorder has occurred. This can generate disadvantages in communicative efficiency and have a negative impact on quality of life, compromising mechanisms of socialization, the maintenance of autonomy, and the sense of well-being...
December 26, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330932/influences-for-gender-disparity-in-dermatology-in-north-america
#17
Ahmed Shah, Sabeena Jalal, Faisal Khosa
BACKGROUND: Despite constituting half the population, women represent a minority of active physicians and hold a small proportion of faculty leadership positions in North America. However, dermatology is one of the few specialties where women comprise a substantial portion of the workforce. This study explores extent and contributors to gender disparity in academic dermatology faculty positions, leadership, and research. METHODS: We collected data on academic faculty including leadership from the websites of accredited U...
February 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330166/impact-of-free-access-to-leisure-facilities-and-community-outreach-on-inequalities-in-physical-activity-a-quasi-experimental-study
#18
James Higgerson, Emma Halliday, Aurora Ortiz-Nunez, Richard Brown, Ben Barr
BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330165/survival-in-relation-to-multimorbidity-patterns-in-older-adults-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-spain-2010-2014-a-longitudinal-study-based-on-electronic-health-records
#19
Carolina Ibarra-Castillo, Marina Guisado-Clavero, Concepció Violan-Fors, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Tomàs López-Jiménez, Albert Roso-Llorach
BACKGROUND: Several studies have analysed the characteristics of multimorbidity patterns but none have evaluated the relationship with survival. The purpose of this study was to compare survival across older adults with different chronic multimorbidity patterns (CMPs). METHODS: Prospective longitudinal observational study using electronic health records for 190 108 people aged ≥65 years in Barcelona, Spain (2009-2014). CMPs were identified by cluster analysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329167/a-physician-s-recommendation-for-hpv-vaccination-what-makes-african-american-mothers-compliant
#20
Jennifer L Cunningham-Erves, Kendria D Kelly-Taylor, Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Jason A Deakings, Laura L Talbott
BACKGROUND: Improving HPV vaccination among African American (AA) female adolescents to reduce the cervical cancer burden is important and cost-effective. The study objective is to identify factors most influential to AA mothers' likelihood to comply with a physician's recommendation to get their daughters the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited through online and community sites (i.e. schools, community centers, etc...
January 11, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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