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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#1
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774245/evaluation-of-phylogenetic-reconstruction-methods-using-bacterial-whole-genomes-a-simulation-based-study
#2
John A Lees, Michelle Kendall, Julian Parkhill, Caroline Colijn, Stephen D Bentley, Simon R Harris
Background : Phylogenetic reconstruction is a necessary first step in many analyses which use whole genome sequence data from bacterial populations. There are many available methods to infer phylogenies, and these have various advantages and disadvantages, but few unbiased comparisons of the range of approaches have been made. Methods : We simulated data from a defined "true tree" using a realistic evolutionary model. We built phylogenies from this data using a range of methods, and compared reconstructed trees to the true tree using two measures, noting the computational time needed for different phylogenetic reconstructions...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773560/establishment-of-locally-adapted-mutations-under-divergent-selection
#3
Matteo Tomasini, Stephan Peischl
We study the establishment probabilities of locally adapted mutations using a multi-type branching process framework. We find a surprisingly simple and intuitive analytical approximation for the establishment probabilities in a symmetric two-deme model under the assumption of weak (positive) selection. This is the first analytical closed-form approximation for arbitrary migration rate to appear in the literature. We find that the establishment probability lies between the weak and the strong migration limits if we condition the origin of the mutation to the deme where it is advantageous...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770077/outbreaks-in-the-age-of-syndemics-new-insights-for-improving-indigenous-health
#4
A Andermann
Conventional approaches for the prevention and control of communicable diseases within Indigenous contexts may benefit from new insights arising from the growing interest in syndemics. Syndemics is a term used to describe a conceptual framework for understanding diseases or health conditions, and how these are exacerbated by the social, economic, environmental and political milieu in which a population is immersed. The use of conventional approaches for outbreak prevention and control remains the bedrock of intervention in the field of communicable diseases; yet on their own, these strategies are not always successful, especially within contexts of marginalization and disadvantage...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768658/detrimental-effects-of-rhizobial-inoculum-early-in-the-life-of-partridge-pea-chamaecrista-fasciculata
#5
Rachel E Pain, Ruth G Shaw, Seema N Sheth
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Mutualistic relationships with microbes may aid plants in overcoming environmental stressors and increase the range of abiotic environments where plants can persist. Rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes, often confer fitness benefits to their host plants by increasing access to nitrogen in nitrogen-limited soils, but effects of rhizobia on host fitness under other stresses, such as drought, remain unclear. METHODS: In this greenhouse study, we varied the application of rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767828/a-digitally-facilitated-citizen-science-driven-approach-accelerates-participant-recruitment-and-increases-study-population-diversity
#6
Milo A Puhan, Nina Steinemann, Christian P Kamm, Stephanie Müller, Jens Kuhle, Roland Kurmann, Pasquale Calabrese, Jürg Kesselring, Viktor von Wyl, Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. METHODS: The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland...
May 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764488/interventions-to-improve-physical-activity-among-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-groups-an-umbrella-review
#7
REVIEW
Melinda Craike, Glen Wiesner, Toni A Hilland, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea
BACKGROUND: People from socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups are less likely to be physically active and more likely to experience adverse health outcomes than those who are less disadvantaged. In this umbrella review we examined across all age groups, (1) the effectiveness of interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, (2) the characteristics of effective interventions, and (3) directions for future research. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus were searched up to May 2017 to identify systematic reviews reporting physical activity interventions in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations or sub-groups...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762730/the-impact-of-free-access-to-swimming-pools-on-children-s-participation-in-swimming-a-comparative-regression-discontinuity-study
#8
J Higgerson, E Halliday, A Ortiz-Nunez, B Barr
Objective: Investigating the extent to which providing children with free swimming access during school holidays increased participation in swimming and whether this effect differed according to the socioeconomic deprivation of the neighbourhoods in which children lived. Setting: A highly disadvantaged local authority (LA) in North West England. Intervention: Provision of children with free swimming during the summer holidays. Outcome measures: Number of children swimming, and the number of swims, per 100 population in 2014...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762517/the-potential-cost-effectiveness-and-equity-impacts-of-restricting-television-advertising-of-unhealthy-food-and-beverages-to-australian-children
#9
Vicki Brown, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Lennert Veerman, Gary Sacks, Anita Lal, Anna Peeters, Kathryn Backholer, Marjory Moodie
Television (TV) advertising of food and beverages high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) influences food preferences and consumption. Children from lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have higher exposure to TV advertising due to more time spent watching TV. This paper sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of legislation to restrict HFSS TV advertising until 9:30 pm, and to examine how health benefits and healthcare cost-savings differ by SEP. Cost-effectiveness modelling was undertaken (i) at the population level, and (ii) by area-level SEP...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760227/socioeconomic-status-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-challenges-and-interventions
#10
REVIEW
William M Schultz, Heval M Kelli, John C Lisko, Tina Varghese, Jia Shen, Pratik Sandesara, Arshed A Quyyumi, Herman A Taylor, Martha Gulati, John G Harold, Jennifer H Mieres, Keith C Ferdinand, George A Mensah, Laurence S Sperling
Socioeconomic status (SES) has a measurable and significant effect on cardiovascular health. Biological, behavioral, and psychosocial risk factors prevalent in disadvantaged individuals accentuate the link between SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Four measures have been consistently associated with CVD in high-income countries: income level, educational attainment, employment status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. In addition, disparities based on sex have been shown in several studies. Interventions targeting patients with low SES have predominantly focused on modification of traditional CVD risk factors...
May 15, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757883/blended-tube-feeding-prevalence-efficacy-and-safety-what-does-the-literature-say
#11
Holly Carter, Kelly Johnson, Teresa W Johnson, Amy Spurlock
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For most of human history, physicians used blended whole foods for patients who are unable to eat by mouth. However, by the 1960s and 1970s, advances in enteral nutrition resulted in the gradual displacement of blenderized tube feedings (BTFs) with commercial formulas. There are advantages and disadvantages to commercial formulas and BTFs. The purpose of this article was to review the literature for the incidence of blended tube feeding use and its safety, efficacy, and implications for clinical practice...
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756676/impact-of-serious-mental-illness-on-surgical-patient-outcomes
#12
Kate E McBride, Michael J Solomon, Jane M Young, Daniel Steffens, Tim J Lambert, Nick Glozier, Paul G Bannon
BACKGROUND: People with comorbid mental illness have poorer health status and disparate access to healthcare. Several studies internationally have reported mixed findings regarding the association between mental illness and surgical patient outcomes. This study examines the surgical outcomes in people with decompensated serious mental illness (SMI) within the setting of the Australian universal healthcare system. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study involving elective overnight surgical patients aged 18 years and above who attended a large public tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia, between 2010 and 2014...
May 14, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755964/cross-jurisdictional-resource-sharing-in-local-health-departments-implications-for-services-quality-and-cost
#13
Debbie L Humphries, Justeen Hyde, Ethan Hahn, Adam Atherly, Elaine O'Keefe, Geoffrey Wilkinson, Seth Eckhouse, Steve Huleatt, Samuel Wong, Jennifer Kertanis
Background: Forty one percent of local health departments in the U.S. serve jurisdictions with populations of 25,000 or less. Researchers, policymakers, and advocates have long questioned how to strengthen public health systems in smaller municipalities. Cross-jurisdictional sharing may increase quality of service, access to resources, and efficiency of resource use. Objective: To characterize perceived strengths and challenges of independent and comprehensive sharing approaches, and to assess cost, quality, and breadth of services provided by independent and sharing health departments in Connecticut (CT) and Massachusetts (MA)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742755/family-socioeconomic-status-cortisol-and-physical-health-in-early-childhood-the-role-of-advantageous-neighborhood-characteristics
#14
Danielle S Roubinov, Melissa J Hagan, W Thomas Boyce, Nancy E Adler, Nicole R Bush
OBJECTIVE: Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. METHODS: In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (n = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health...
May 7, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741788/cumulative-childhood-risk-is-associated-with-a-new-measure-of-chronic-inflammation-in-adulthood
#15
Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen, Terrie E Moffitt, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Daniel W Belsky, Andrea Danese, HonaLee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Avshalom Caspi
BACKGROUND: Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736489/promoting-oral-health-and-quality-of-life-of-older-people-the-need-for-public-health-action
#16
Poul Erik Petersen, Hiroshi Ogawa
PURPOSE: This report intends to review the global burden of oral disease among older people and to examine their oral health needs. The evidence on the inter-relationships between poor oral health conditions of older people, general health and quality of life is highlighted. Finally, WHO strategies to improve oral health of older people are reviewed. METHODS: The information relevant to this review was extracted from the WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank, the PubMed database, and the Cochrane Library...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734059/intergenerational-pathways-linking-maternal-early-life-adversity-to-offspring-birthweight
#17
Jennifer B Kane, Kathleen Mullan Harris, Anna Maria Siega-Riz
Adverse birth outcomes can lead to problematic long-term outcomes for children, and are also known to transmit socioeconomic disadvantage across generations, thereby amplifying the importance of identifying their social determinants. However, the full set of factors causing adverse birth outcomes remains unknown. Drawing together theory describing intragenerational (life course) processes linking early life adversity to adult health, and intergenerational transmissions of inequality via birthweight, this study tests a chain of risk that originates within early adolescence, impacts young women's risky health behaviors in late adolescence/early adulthood and risky health behaviors during pregnancy, and ultimately decreases offspring's birthweight...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725194/impact-of-ethnicity-sex-and-socio-economic-status-on-the-risk-for-heart-failure-readmission-the-importance-of-context
#18
Sonia G Ponce, Jeffrey Norris, Diane Dodendorf, Melissa Martinez, Bart Cox, Warren Laskey
Background: Hispanics are a fast-growing minority in the United States and have a high risk for the development of heart failure (HF). Hispanics have higher HF-related hospital readmission rates compared with non-Hispanics. However, the risk of readmission in a largely disadvantaged and majority Hispanic population has not been evaluated. Methods: We analyzed data for patients discharged with a principal discharge diagnosis of HF from the University of New Mexico Hospital from 2010-2014...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725193/the-healthkick-study-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-in-primary-caregivers-of-primary-school-learners-from-two-school-districts-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#19
Anniza de Villiers, Marjanne Senekal, Johanna Nel, Catherine E Draper, Estelle Lambert, Nelia P Steyn
Background: The HealthKick (HK) study showed that educators (teachers) had a high prevalence of risk factors for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Little data are available on parents or other primary caregivers of learners from disadvantaged schools. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine modifiable risk factors for the development of NCDs in a sample of caregivers of schools included in the HK intervention program. Participants: Caregivers of grade 4 children from 25 schools were invited to take part in the study and 175 participated...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724702/electronic-health-use-in-the-european-union-and-the-effect-of-multimorbidity-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Dimitra Anastasiadou, Cristiano Codagnone, Roberto Nuño-Solinís, Maria Begona Garcia-Zapirain Soto
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is becoming increasingly common and is a leading challenge currently faced by societies with aging populations. The presence of multimorbidity requires patients to coordinate, understand, and use the information obtained from different health care professionals, while simultaneously striving to distinguish the symptoms of different diseases and self-manage their sometimes conflicting health problems. Electronic health (eHealth) tools provide a means to disseminate health information and education for both patients and health professionals and hold promise for more efficient and cost-effective care processes...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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