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Cartilage imaging

M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Liting Jiang, Xing Shen, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Yiming Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate microarchitectural changes in condylar cartilage and associated subchondral bone after bisphosphonates treatment using an ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis rat model. METHODS: Thirty six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, OVX, and risedronate (RIS)-treated groups. Both OVX and RIS groups received bilateral ovariectomy. OVX group was treated subcutaneously with saline, whereas RIS group received risedronate treatment (2...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Joshua J Leeman, Daria Motamedi, Ben Wildman-Tobriner, Richard J O'Donnell, Thomas M Link
We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion's proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided...
June 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Corinne R Henak, Lena R Bartell, Itai Cohen, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Kristine M Fischenich, Hannah M Pauly, Keith D Button, Ryan S Fajardo, Charles E DeCamp, Roger C Haut, Tammy L Haut Donahue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. METHODS: A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic MRI record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of ACL and meniscal transection (mACLT)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jonathan T Kaplan, Corey P Neu, Hicham Drissi, Nancy C Emery, David M Pierce
Osteoarthritis and articular cartilage injuries are common conditions in human joints and a frequent cause of pain and disability. Unfortunately, cartilage is avascular and has limited capabilities for self-repair. Despite the societal impact, there is little information on the dynamic process of cartilage degeneration. We performed a series of cyclic unconfined compression tests motivated by in vivo loading conditions and designed to generate mechanical fatigue. We examined the functional (both stress-stretch and creep) responses of the tissue after recovery from a specified number of loading cycles, as well as histology and second harmonic generation microscopy images...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Christian H Roux, Violaine Foltz, Emmanuel Maheu, Gabriel Baron, Frederique Gandjbakhch, Cédric Lukas, Daniel Wendling, Damien Loeuille, Pierre Lafforgue, Liana Euler-Ziegler, Pascal Richette, Xavier Chevalier
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between clinical findings, biologic biomarkers, conventional radiography and MRI in patients with painful hand OA. METHODS: The following patient baseline data from the DORA study (evaluating anti-TNF-α agents against painful hand OA) were used: clinical assessment (pain, swelling, stiffness and function: Dreiser functional hand index [FIHOA] and Cochin hand functional scale [CHFS]); measurement of biomarkers (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), type IIA collagen N-propeptid (PIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and urinary CTXII); radiological staging (Verbruggen, Kallman, Kellgren-Lawrence); anatomical evaluation by contrast-enhanced MRI of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of dominant hand...
September 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Federico Canavese, Alain Dimeglio, Davide Barbetta, Marco Galeotti, Bartolomeo Canavese, Fabio Cavalli
BACKGROUND: This experimental study provides a qualitative description and the morpho-structural features of the fusions taking place in the thoracic spine between prepubertal age and skeletal maturity. There is a lack of informations regarding the influence of partial or total dorso-thoracic vertebral arthrodesis on the development of the thoracic cage as well as its potential effects on different intra and extra-thoracic organs. This study admits the hypothesis that vertebral arthrodesis may have influence on other body areas and so, it intends to verify the possible secondary involvement of other body parts, such as intervertebral discs, cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia, sternocostal cartilage, ovaries and lungs...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Faysal F Altahawi, Kevin J Blount, Nicholas P Morley, Esther Raithel, Imran M Omar
PURPOSE: To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm(3); ∼10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm(3); ∼7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0...
October 15, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Beatriz Rocha, Francisco J Blanco, Cristina Ruiz-Romero
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique used to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, lipids or other organic compounds by their molecular masses. Among the different MSI strategies, MALDI-MSI provides a sensitive and label-free approach for imaging of a wide variety of protein or peptide biomarkers from the surface of tissue sections, being currently used in an increasing number of biomedical applications such as biomarker discovery and tissue classification...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nancy A Chauvin, Asef Khwaja
The hallmark of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is synovial inflammation, and the goal of treatment is to suppress inflammation to prevent cartilage damage and bone erosions. Ultrasound and MRI are widely used imaging modalities in evaluating disease burden and response to treatments and are superior to clinical examination alone. However, differentiating between the normal appearance of the developing skeleton and pathologic conditions can be difficult, particularly in early disease. Larger, long-term studies are needed to standardize imaging definitions and protocols and to fully understand the clinical implications of imaging findings...
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Heather A Richbourg, Matthew J Martin, Emma R Schachner, Margaret A McNulty
Rodent models are used for a variety of orthopedic research applications; however, anatomy references include mostly artistic representations. Advanced imaging techniques, including micro-computed tomography (microCT), can provide more accurate representations of subtle anatomical characteristics. A recent microCT atlas of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anatomy depicts the central and tarsal bone III (T3) as a single bone, differing from previous references. Fusion of tarsal bones is generally characterized as pathological secondary to mutations associated with growth factors, and normal variation has not been documented in the mouse tarsus...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Weiyu Han, Dawn Aitken, Zhaohua Zhu, Andrew Halliday, Xia Wang, Benny Antony, Flavia Cicuttini, Graeme Jones, Changhai Ding
BACKGROUND: There are few clinical and epidemiological studies reporting the association between abnormal changes within the IPFP and knee osteoarthritic changes. This study aims to describe the associations between hypointense signals in the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) and knee structural change and symptoms in older adults. METHODS: Participants (n = 874) were selected randomly from local community and followed up 2.7 years later (range 2.6-3.3 years). T1- or T2-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was assessed for IPFP hypointense signal, cartilage volume, cartilage defects, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs)...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Carmen Burtea, Sophie Laurent, Tuba Sanli, Deborah Fanfone, Aude Devalckeneer, Sébastien Sauvage, Marie-Claire Beckers, Sandrine Rorive, Isabelle Salmon, Luce Vander Elst, Bernard R Lauwerys, Robert N Muller
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Rα) represents a biomarker with potential applications in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosis and therapy. We have therefore searched by phage display potential IL-7Rα specific peptides with the primary goal being to develop in vivo molecular imaging tools. METHODS: IL-7Rα-targeted peptides were searched within a disulfide-constrained combinatorial phage displayed library of random linear heptapeptides. The apparent dissociation constant (Kd) and half maximal inhibition constant (IC50) were estimated for phage clones and synthesized peptides by ELISA...
October 12, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Connie Y Chang, Daniel I Rosenthal, Deborah M Mitchell, Atsuhiko Handa, Susan V Kattapuram, Ambrose J Huang
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormalities of (a) bone mass, (b) structure mineral homeostasis, (c) bone turnover, or (d) growth. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, results in generalized loss of bone mass and deterioration in the bone microarchitecture. Impaired chondrocyte development and failure to mineralize growth plate cartilage in rickets lead to widened growth plates and frayed metaphyses at sites of greatest growth. Osteomalacia is the result of impaired mineralization of newly formed osteoid, which leads to characteristic Looser zones...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Andrew R Palisch, Ronald R Winters, Marc H Willis, Collin D Bray, Theodore B Shybut
The menisci play an important biomechanical role in axial load distribution of the knees by means of hoop strength, which is contingent on intact circumferentially oriented collagen fibers and meniscal root attachments. Disruption of the meniscal root attachments leads to altered biomechanics, resulting in progressive cartilage loss, osteoarthritis, and subchondral edema, with the potential for development of a subchondral insufficiency fracture. Identification of meniscal root tears at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is crucial because new arthroscopic surgical techniques (transtibial pullout repair) have been developed to repair meniscal root tears and preserve the tibiofemoral cartilage of the knee...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Megan K Mills, Colin D Strickland, Mary K Jesse, Peter A Lowry, Omer Mei-Dan, Jonathan A Flug
Osteoarthritis of the hip remains a prevalent disease condition that influences ever-changing treatment options. Procedures performed to correct anatomic variations, and, in turn, prevent or slow the progression of osteoarthritis, are aptly referred to as types of hip preservation surgery (HPS). Conditions that predispose individuals to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), including pincer- and cam-type morphology, and hip dysplasia are specifically targeted in HPS. Common surgical interventions include acetabuloplasty, osteochondroplasty, periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), and derotational femoral osteotomy (DFO)...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Tarek M Hegazi, Jeffrey A Belair, Eoghan J McCarthy, Johannes B Roedl, William B Morrison
Injuries of the hip and surrounding structures represent a complex and commonly encountered scenario in athletes, with improper diagnosis serving as a cause of delayed return to play or progression to a more serious injury. As such, radiologists play an essential role in guiding management of athletic injuries. Familiarity with hip anatomy and the advantages and limitations of various imaging modalities is of paramount importance for accurate and timely diagnosis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often the modality of choice for evaluating many of the injuries discussed, although preliminary evaluation with conventional radiography and use of other imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy may be supplementary or preferred in certain situations...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Richard Kijowski, Humberto Rosas, Alexey Samsonov, Kevin King, Rob Peters, Fang Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using compressed sensing (CS) to accelerate three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) imaging of the knee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3D-FSE sequence was performed at 3T with CS (CUBE-CS with 3:16-minute scan time) and without CS (CUBE with 4:44-minute scan time) twice on the knees of 10 healthy volunteers to assess signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using the addition-subtraction method and once on the knees of 50 symptomatic patients to assess diagnostic performance...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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