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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636479/decrements-in-knee-extensor-and-flexor-strength-are-associated-with-performance-fatigue-during-simulated-basketball-game-play-in-adolescent-male-players
#1
Aaron T Scanlan, Jordan L Fox, Nattai R Borges, Anne Delextrat, Tania Spiteri, Vincent J Dalbo, Robert Stanton, Crystal O Kean
This study quantified lower-limb strength decrements and assessed the relationships between strength decrements and performance fatigue during simulated basketball. Ten adolescent, male basketball players completed a circuit-based, basketball simulation. Sprint and jump performance were assessed during each circuit, with knee flexion and extension peak concentric torques measured at baseline, half-time, and full-time. Decrement scores were calculated for all measures. Mean knee flexor strength decrement was significantly (P < 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636435/effects-of-a-contrast-training-programme-on-jumping-sprinting-and-agility-performance-of-prepubertal-basketball-players
#2
Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Francisco Javier Villar Macias, Felipe García Pinillos
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 10 week contrast training (CT) programme (isometric + plyometric) on jumping, sprinting abilities and agility performance in prepubertal basketball players. Fifty-eight children from a basketball academy (age: 8.72 ± 0.97 years; body mass index: 17.22 ± 2.48 kg/m(2)) successfully completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental groups (EG, n = 30) and control groups (CG, n = 28). The CT programme was included in the experimental group's training sessions - twice a week - as part of their usual weekly training regime...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633001/impact-of-4-weeks-of-interval-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-fitness-and-health-related-outcomes
#3
Matthew M Schubert, Holly E Clarke, Rebekah F Seay, Katie K Spain
PURPOSE: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation (RER) are important indicators of health. The effects of interval training on RMR have not been thoroughly investigated, which was the purpose of the present study. METHODS: Thirty men and women (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 28.8 ± 7.6 yrs and 33.0 ± 8.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed 4 weeks of Wingate-based sprint interval training (SIT), repeated 1-minute high-intensity intervals (HIIT), or served as controls (CON)...
June 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632062/skeleton-sled-velocity-profiles-a-novel-approach-to-understand-critical-aspects-of-the-elite-athletes-start-phases
#4
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Aki I T Salo
The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632055/muscle-activity-in-sprinting-a-review
#5
Róisín M Howard, Richard Conway, Andrew J Harrison
The use of electromyography (EMG) is widely recognised as a valuable tool for enhancing the understanding of performance drivers and potential injury risk in sprinting. The timings of muscle activations relative to running gait cycle phases and the technology used to obtain muscle activation data during sprinting are of particular interest to scientists and coaches. This review examined the main muscles being analysed by surface EMG (sEMG), their activations and timing, and the technologies used to gather sEMG during sprinting...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630704/the-effects-of-a-post-exercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-supplement-on-repeat-performance-serum-chemistry-insulin-and-glucagon-in-competitive-weight-pulling-dogs
#6
Christopher W Frye, Gretchen M VanDeventer, Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Sabine Mann, Ella Pittman, Brian M Zanghi, Joseph J Wakshlag
The physiological demands of weight-pulling dogs have yet to be investigated. Two groups of competitive weight-pulling dogs both underwent two identical pull series 3 h apart. The control group (n 8) was compared with a group fed a rapidly digestible carbohydrate and protein supplement after the first pull series (n 9). Blood was drawn before and after each pull series as well as at 15 and 30 min after the first pull series finished. Biochemistry values remained unremarkable throughout the study in both groups regardless of supplementation or exercise over time...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630577/effects-of-high-velocity-elastic-band-versus-heavy-resistance-training-on-hamstring-strength-activation-and-sprint-running-performance
#7
Donatas Janusevicius, Audrius Snieckus, Albertas Skurvydas, Viktoras Silinskas, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Sigitas Kamandulis
Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630575/acute-and-post-exercise-physiological-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-endurance-and-sprint-athletes
#8
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE)...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624688/relation-between-peak-power-output-in-sprint-cycling-and-maximum-voluntary-isometric-torque-production
#9
Mehdi Kordi, Stuart Goodall, Paul Barratt, Nicola Rowley, Jonathan Leeder, Glyn Howatson
From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
June 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623175/elevated-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-is-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-hypertensive-patients
#11
Ariel Israel, Ehud Grossman
BACKGROUND: Recently, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure is beneficial, but is associated with more adverse events. Hyponatremia was notably more frequent in the intensive treatment group. Investigating its risk factors is crucial for preventing this complication. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for hyponatremia in the adult population. METHODS: We investigated the baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the 9,361 participants of SPRINT to identify the best predictors of hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤ 130mEq/L), and adverse events which could be attributed to hyponatremia, using machine learning and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622081/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-professional-women-football-players-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#12
Bruno Archiza, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, José Carlos Bonjorno, Cláudio Ricardo de Oliveira, Paula Angélica Ricci, André Capaldo do Amaral, Stela Márcia Mattiello, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Shane A Phillips, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
This study was conducted to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM (n = 8) or IMT (n = 10). After a maximal incremental exercise test, all participants performed (on a different day) a time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) test. Peripheral and respiratory muscles oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy, breath-by-breath ventilatory and metabolic variables, and blood lactate concentration were measured...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620483/utilisation-of-supplemented-l-carnitine-for-fuel-efficiency-as-an-antioxidant-and-for-muscle-recovery-in-labrador-retrievers
#13
Jessica L Varney, J W Fowler, W C Gilbert, C N Coon
The primary goal was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine on fuel efficiency, as an antioxidant, and for muscle recovery in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were split into two groups, with one group being supplemented with 250 mg/d of Carniking™ l-carnitine powder. Two experiments (Expt 1 and Expt 2) were performed over a 2-year period which included running programmes, activity monitoring, body composition scans and evaluation of recovery using biomarkers. Each experiment differed slightly in dog number and design: fifty-six v...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620311/physiological-adaptations-to-hypoxic-vs-normoxic-training-during-intermittent-living-high
#14
Stefan De Smet, Paul van Herpt, Gommaar D'Hulst, Ruud Van Thienen, Marc Van Leemputte, Peter Hespel
In the setting of "living high," it is unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) should be performed "low" or "high" to stimulate muscular and performance adaptations. Therefore, 10 physically active males participated in a 5-week "live high-train low or high" program (TR), whilst eight subjects were not engaged in any altitude or training intervention (CON). Five days per week (~15.5 h per day), TR was exposed to normobaric hypoxia simulating progressively increasing altitude of ~2,000-3,250 m...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613960/the-effect-of-air-pollution-on-diurnal-variation-of-performance-in-anaerobic-tests-cardiovascular-and-hematological-parameters-and-blood-gases-on-soccer-players-following-the-yo-yo-intermittent-recovery-test-level-1
#15
Nesrin Boussetta, Salma Abedelmalek, Khouloud Aloui, Nizar Souissi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of air pollution on diurnal variation of performance in anaerobic tests, cardiovascular and hematological parameters, and blood gases on soccer players following the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT1). In a randomized order, 11 healthy soccer players (mean age: 21.8 [range: 20-24] years; height: 178.00 [range: 1.64-1.83] cm; body mass index [BMI]: 23.57 [range: 20.45-28.03] kg.m(-2)) performed a YYIRT1 at two different times of day (TOD) (08:00 h and 18:00 h) in two areas (i...
June 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612327/the-j-shaped-curve-for-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-historical-context-and-recent-updates
#16
REVIEW
Faisal Rahman, John W McEvoy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The definition and treatment of hypertension have both changed dramatically over the last century, with recent trials suggesting benefit for lower blood pressure (BP) targets than ever before considered. However, tempering the enthusiasm for more intensive BP targets are long-held concerns that BP reduction below a certain threshold may pose dangers, the so-called "J-curve." In this review, we summarize the evidence for a J-curve in the treatment of hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) reported that achieving a systolic BP target of 120 mmHg reduces cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals, supporting more intensive BP reduction...
August 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606731/cognitive-function-and-kidney-disease-baseline-data-from-the%C3%A2-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-sprint
#17
Daniel E Weiner, Sarah A Gaussoin, John Nord, Alexander P Auchus, Gordon J Chelune, Michel Chonchol, Laura Coker, William E Haley, Anthony A Killeen, Paul L Kimmel, Alan J Lerner, Suzanne Oparil, Mohammad G Saklayen, Yelena M Slinin, Clinton B Wright, Jeff D Williamson, Manjula Kurella Tamura
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is common and is associated with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive function, although the nature of this relationship remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort using baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants in SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial of blood pressure targets in older community-dwelling adults with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or high cardiovascular disease risk and without diabetes or known stroke, who underwent detailed neurocognitive testing in the cognition substudy, SPRINT-Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (SPRINT-MIND)...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605277/ground-reaction-forces-during-sprinting-in-unilateral-transfemoral-amputees
#18
Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Understanding the characteristics of ground reaction forces (GRFs) on both limbs during sprinting in unilateral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses would provide important information that could be utilized in the evaluation of athletic performance and development of training methods in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare GRFs between intact and prosthetic limbs during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Nine sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation wearing the same type of prosthesis performed maximal sprinting on a 40 m of runway...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605265/associations-between-individual-lower-limb-muscle-volumes-and-100-m-sprint-time-in-male-sprinters
#19
Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower limb muscles and 100-m race time (t100) in young adult male sprinters. METHODS: A total of 31 young adult male sprinters took part in this study (age, 19.9 ± 1.4 years; height, 173.5 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 67.0 ± 4.9 kg; t100, 10.23-11.71 s). The cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower limb muscles were obtained with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602550/examining-the-applicability-of-sprint-in-patients-with-subclinical-or-established-atherothrombotic-disease-a-reach-registry-analysis
#20
Anubodh Varshney, Ph Gabriel Steg, Yedid Elbez, Emmanuel Sorbets, Kim A Eagle, Deepak L Bhatt
BACKGROUND: The optimal blood pressure (BP) target to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events remains uncertain, especially in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) suggest that targeting a systolic BP<120mmHg decreases the rate of death and CV events in patients with hypertension and increased CV risk. We sought to evaluate the real-world applicability of SPRINT to patients with atherothrombosis. METHODS: We divided 35,411 hypertensive patients from the REACH registry into SPRINT-eligible and SPRINT-ineligible based on the trial's inclusion and exclusion criteria...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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