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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046875/asymmetric-rna-distribution-among-cells-and-their-secreted-exosomes-biomedical-meaning-and-considerations-on-diagnostic-applications
#1
REVIEW
Marco Ragusa, Cristina Barbagallo, Matilde Cirnigliaro, Rosalia Battaglia, Duilia Brex, Angela Caponnetto, Davide Barbagallo, Cinzia Di Pietro, Michele Purrello
Over the past few years, exosomes and their RNA cargo have been extensively studied because of the fascinating biological roles they play in cell-to-cell communication, including the signal exchange among cancer, stromal, and immune cells, leading to modifications of tumor microenvironment. RNAs, especially miRNAs, stored within exosomes, seem to be among the main determinants of such signaling: their sorting into exosomes appears to be cell-specific and related to cellular physiopathology. Accordingly, the identification of exosomal miRNAs in body fluids from pathological patients has become one of the most promising activity in the field of biomarker discovery...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046463/flow-cytometric-detection-of-prp-sc-in-neurons-and-glial-cells-from-prion-infected-mouse-brains
#2
Takeshi Yamasaki, Akio Suzuki, Rie Hasebe, Motohiro Horiuchi
In prion diseases, an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in the brains of animals affected with prions. Detailed analyses of PrP(Sc)-positive neurons and glial cells are required to clarify their pathophysiological roles in the disease. Here we report a novel method for the detection of PrP(Sc) in neurons and glial cells from the brains of prion-infected mice by flow cytometry using PrP(Sc)-specific staining with mAb 132. The combination of PrP(Sc) staining and immunolabeling of neural cell markers clearly distinguished neurons, astrocytes, and microglia that were positive for PrP(Sc) from those that were PrP(Sc) negative...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046462/distinct-roles-of-cellular-escrt-i-and-escrt-iii-proteins-in-efficient-entry-and-egress-of-budded-virions-of-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#3
Qi Yue, Qianlong Yu, Qi Yang, Ye Xu, Ya Guo, Gary W Blissard, Zhaofei Li
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is necessary for budding by many enveloped viruses. Recently, it was demonstrated that Vps4, the key regulator for recycling of the ESCRT-III complex, is required for efficient infection of the baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). However, ESCRT assembly, regulation and function are complex and little is known regarding details of participation of specific ESCRT complexes in AcMNPV infection. In this study, the core components of ESCRT-I (Tsg101 and Vps28) and ESCRT-III (Vps2B, Vps20, Vps24, Snf7, Vps46, and Vps60) were cloned from Spodoptera frugiperda Using a viral complementation system and RNAi assays, we found that ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III complexes are required for efficient entry of AcMNPV into insect cells...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046440/innate-sensing-of-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-glycoproteins-by-the-host-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathway-triggers-a-potent-antiviral-response-via-er-associated-protein-degradation
#4
Dylan A Frabutt, Bin Wang, Sana Riaz, Richard C Schwartz, Yong-Hui Zheng
Innate immunity provides an immediate defense against infection after host cells sense "danger" signals from microbes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress arises from accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins when protein load overwhelms the ER folding capacity, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore the ER homeostasis. Here, we show that a mechanism for antiviral innate immunity is triggered after the ER stress pathway senses viral glycoproteins. When hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins from influenza A virus (IAV) are expressed in cells, ER stress is induced, resulting in rapid HA degradation via proteasomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045879/probing-cell-adhesion-profiles-with-a-microscale-adhesive-choice-assay
#5
Harsha Kittur, Andy Tay, Avery Hua, Min Yu, Dino Di Carlo
In this work, we introduce, to our knowledge, a new set of adhesion-based biomarkers for characterizing mammalian cells. Mammalian cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix influences numerous physiological processes. Current in vitro methods to probe adhesion focus on adhesive force to a single surface, which can investigate only a subcomponent of the adhesive, motility, and polarization cues responsible for adhesion in the 3D tissue environment. Here, we demonstrate a method to quantify the transhesive properties of cells that relies on the microscale juxtaposition of two extracellular matrix-coated surfaces...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045817/transcriptomic-characterization-of-the-human-cell-cycle-in-individual-unsynchronized-cells
#6
Joakim Karlsson, Thomas Kroneis, Emma Jonasson, Erik Larsson, Anders Ståhlberg
The highly fine-tuned dynamics of cell cycle gene expression have been intensely studied for several decades. However, some previous observations may be difficult to fully decouple from artifacts induced by traditional cell synchronization procedures. In addition, bulk cell measurements may have disguised intricate details. Here, we address this by sorting and transcriptomic sequencing of single cells progressing through the cell cycle without prior synchronization. Genes and pathways with known cell cycle roles are confirmed, associated regulatory sequence motifs are determined and we also establish ties between other biological processes and the unsynchronized cell cycle...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045406/microrna-profiling-of-human-primary-macrophages-exposed-to-dengue-virus-identifies-mirna-3614-5p-as-antiviral-and-regulator-of-adar1-expression
#7
Mayra Diosa-Toro, Liliana Echavarría-Consuegra, Jacky Flipse, Geysson Javier Fernández, Joost Kluiver, Anke van den Berg, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima, Jolanda M Smit
BACKGROUND: Due to the high burden of dengue disease worldwide, a better understanding of the interactions between dengue virus (DENV) and its human host cells is of the outmost importance. Although microRNAs modulate the outcome of several viral infections, their contribution to DENV replication is poorly understood. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the microRNA expression profile of primary human macrophages challenged with DENV and deciphered the contribution of microRNAs to infection...
October 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045353/impaired-il-10-receptor-mediated-suppression-in-monocyte-from-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#8
Moran Y Nunberg, Lael Werner, Uri Kopylov, Yael Haberman, Avishay Lahad, Batia Weiss, Dror S Shouval
OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that has a central role in suppressing pro-inflammatory responses. Patients with deleterious mutations in IL-10 or IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) genes develop severe colitis and perianal disease in the first months of life. Whether IL-10R expression and signaling in pediatric- or adult-onset Crohn's disease (CD) are altered is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize IL-10R expression and IL-10R-mediated suppression in patients with CD...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045142/measuring-intracellular-secondary-structure-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-in-situ
#9
Frederik Fleissner, Sabine Pütz, Mischa Schwendy, Mischa Bonn, Sapun H Parekh
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptide sequences that can translocate across cellular plasma membranes and are thus potential delivery vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Many CPPs exhibit some sort structural polymorphism, where the secondary structure of the peptide is altered strongly by its local environment, which is believed to facilitate membrane translocation. However, the fate and structure of CPPs within cells is much less known due to measurement difficulty. Here we employ isotopic labelling combined with hyperspectral, quantitative coherent-Raman vibrational microscopy to localize a model CPP - deuterated Penetratin (d-Pen) - and determine its secondary structure in different cellular compartments...
October 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044176/proteomic-analysis-reveals-dab2-mediated-receptor-endocytosis-promotes-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-dedifferentiation
#10
Yuanxiang Lao, Yanyan Li, Yufang Hou, Huahai Chen, Bintao Qiu, Weiran Lin, Aihua Sun, Handong Wei, Ying Jiang, Fuchu He
Sinusoidal dedifferentiation is a complicated process induced by several factors, and exists in early stage of diverse liver diseases. The mechanism of sinusoidal dedifferentiation is poorly unknown. In this study, we established a NaAsO2-induced sinusoidal dedifferentiation mice model. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells were isolated and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was adopted to globally examine the effects of arsenic on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) during the progression of sinusoidal dedifferentiation...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042443/mammalian-numb-protein-antagonizes-notch-by-controlling-postendocytic-trafficking-of-the-notch-ligand-delta-like-4
#11
Ximing Shao, Zhihao Ding, Ming Zhao, Ke Liu, Haiyan Sun, Juntao Chen, Xianming Liu, Yuzhen Zhang, Yang Hong, Huashun Li, Hongchang Li
The biological antagonism between the signaling proteins Numb and Notch has been implicated in the regulation of many developmental processes, especially in asymmetric cell division. Mechanistic studies show that Numb inactivates Notch via endocytosis and proteasomal degradation that directly reduce Notch protein levels at the cell surface. However, some aspects of how Numb antagonizes Notch remain unclear. Here, we report a novel mechanism in which Numb acts as a Notch antagonist by controlling the intracellular destination and stability of the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) through a postendocytic-sorting process...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040564/n-cadherin-identifies-human-endometrial-epithelial-progenitor-cells-by-in-vitro-stem-cell-assays
#12
Hong P T Nguyen, L Xiao, James A Deane, Ker-Sin Tan, Fiona L Cousins, Hirotaka Masuda, Carl N Sprung, Anna Rosamilia, Caroline E Gargett
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific surface marker that identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with adult stem cell activity using in vitro assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: N-cadherin isolates clonogenic, self-renewing human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with high proliferative potential that differentiate into cytokeratin+ gland-like structures in vitro and identifies their location in some cells of gland profiles predominantly in basalis endometrium adjacent to the myometrium...
September 27, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040472/optogenetic-modulation-of-a-minor-fraction-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-specifically-affects-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activity-in-mouse-somatosensory-cortex-in-vivo
#13
Jenq-Wei Yang, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Maik C Stüttgen, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons exert strong effects on the neocortical excitatory network, but it remains unclear how they impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex. Here, we characterized the effects of optogenetic inhibition and activation of PV interneurons on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse barrel cortex in vivo. Inhibiting PV interneurons led to a broad-spectrum power increase both in spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity. Whisker-evoked responses were significantly increased within 20 ms after stimulus onset during inhibition of PV interneurons, demonstrating high temporal precision of PV-shaped inhibition...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040326/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-modulates-adipose-tissue-biology
#14
Macarena Beigier-Bompadre, Georgina N Montagna, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, January Weiner, Andreas Kupz, Alexis Vogelzang, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Delia Löwe, Silke Bandermann, Anca Dorhoi, Volker Brinkmann, Kai Matuschewski, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily resides in the lung but can also persist in extrapulmonary sites. Macrophages are considered the prime cellular habitat in all tissues. Here we demonstrate that Mtb resides inside adipocytes of fat tissue where it expresses stress-related genes. Moreover, perigonadal fat of Mtb-infected mice disseminated the infection when transferred to uninfected animals. Adipose tissue harbors leukocytes in addition to adipocytes and other cell types and we observed that Mtb infection induces changes in adipose tissue biology depending on stage of infection...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040163/adipose-tissue-is-enriched-for-activated-and-late-differentiated-cd8-t-cells-and-shows-distinct-cd8-receptor-usage-compared-to-blood-in-hiv-infected-persons
#15
John R Koethe, Wyatt McDonnell, Arion Kennedy, Chike O Abana, Mark Pilkinton, Ian Setliff, Ivelin Georgiev, Louise Barnett, Cindy C Hager, Rita Smith, Spyros A Kalams, Alyssa Hasty, Simon Mallal
BACKGROUND: Adverse viral and medication effects on adipose tissue contribute to the development of metabolic disease in HIV-infected persons, but T cells also have a central role modulating local inflammation and adipocyte function. We sought to characterize potentially pro-inflammatory T cell populations in adipose tissue among persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy, and assess whether adipose tissue CD8 T cells represent an expanded, oligoclonal population. METHODS: We recruited 10 HIV-infected, overweight and obese adults on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine for >4 years with consistent viral suppression...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039908/a-comprehensive-high-resolution-targeted-workflow-for-the-deep-profiling-of-sphingolipids
#16
Bing Peng, Susan T Weintraub, Cristina Coman, Srigayatri Ponnaiyan, Rakesh Sharma, Björn Tews, Dominic Winter, Robert Ahrends
Sphingolipids are a highly diverse group of biomolecules that are not only membrane components but are also involved in various cellular functions such as signaling and protein sorting. In order to obtain a quantitative view of the sphingolipidome, sensitive, accurate and comprehensive methods are needed. Here, we present a targeted reversed-phase liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry-based workflow that significantly increases the accuracy of measured sphingolipids by resolving nearly-isobaric and isobaric species; this is accomplished by a use of: i) an optimized extraction procedure, ii) a segmented gradient and iii) parallel reaction monitoring of a sphingolipid specific fragmentation pattern...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039777/the-specific-mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-msk1-inhibitor-sb-747651a-modulates-chemokine-induced-neutrophil-recruitment
#17
Mokarram Hossain, Entesar Omran, Najia Xu, Lixin Liu
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is involved in a variety of cellular functions. MAPK-dependent functions rely on phosphorylation of target proteins such as mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 participates in the early gene expression and in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of MSK1 in neutrophil recruitment remains elusive. Here, we show that chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2) enhances neutrophil MSK1 expression...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039582/curcumol-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-gastric-adenocarcinoma-mgc-803-cells-via-downregulation-of-idh1
#18
Shilei Zang, Qiling Tang, Fangrui Dong, Huan Liu, Lili Li, Fang Guo, Xuediao Pan, Haorong Lin, Weibin Zeng, Zhaoxu Cai, Qibin Zhong, Ning Zang, Linquan Zang
Curcumol, a polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of Curcuma, has been established as an antitumor compound against multiple types of cancer, including gastric (GC), lung, liver and breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms undelying its anticancer activity in GC are still unclear. In this study, the antitumor efficacy of curcumol was ascertained in human gastric adenocarcinoma MGC-803 cells. An MTT assay was used to assess the viability of the MGC-803 cells treated by curcumol. The results of the Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the cell cycle was arrested in the G2/M phase by curcumol...
October 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038567/stabilization-of-mouse-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells-with-combined-kinase-and-signal-modulation
#19
Haisen Li, Ao Guo, Zhenfei Xie, Wanzhi Tu, Jiali Yu, Huihan Wang, Jian Zhao, Cuiqing Zhong, Jiuhong Kang, Jinsong Li, Shichao Huang, Li Shen
Mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) provide new possibilities for large-scale genetic screens because they bear only one copy of each chromosome. However, haESCs are prone to spontaneous diploidization through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that a small molecule combination could restrain mouse haESCs from diploidization by impeding exit from naïve pluripotency and by shortening the S-G2/M phases. Combined with 2i and PD166285, our chemical cocktail could maintain haESCs in the haploid state for at least five weeks without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037921/tlr-expression-profile-of-human-alveolar-bone-proper-derived-stem-progenitor-cells-and-osteoblasts
#20
Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed, Josephine Boeckler, Christof E Dörfer
Alveolar bone proper-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (AB-MSCs) and alveolar osteoblasts (OBs) are pivotal cells with positive attributes in regenerative medicine. During regenerative approaches, AB-MSCs may interact with their surrounding environment via their expressed toll-like-receptors (TLRs). This study aimed to depict for the first time the TLRs expression profile of AB-MSCs and OBs. Cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, and STRO-1-immunomagnetically sorted to segregate AB-MSCs and OBs...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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