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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651895/structural-biology-of-solute-carrier-slc-membrane-transport-proteins
#1
Xiaoyun Bai, Trevor F Moraes, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The human solute carriers (SLCs) comprise over 400 different transporters, organized into 65 families ( http://slc.bioparadigms.org/ ) based on their sequence homology and transport function. SLCs are responsible for transporting extraordinarily diverse solutes across biological membranes, including inorganic ions, amino acids, lipids, sugars, neurotransmitters and drugs. Most of these membrane proteins function as coupled symporters (co-transporters) utilizing downhill ion (H+ or Na+ ) gradients as the driving force for the transport of substrate against its concentration gradient into cells...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649427/vegfr-3-signaling-is-regulated-by-a-g-protein-activator-activator-of-g-protein-signaling-8-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#2
Miho Sakima, Hisaki Hayashi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Motohiko Sato
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and its cognate receptor VEGFR-3 play a key role in lymphangiogenesis. We previously reported that an ischemia-inducible Gβγ signal regulator, activator of G-protein signaling 8 (AGS8), regulated the subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and influenced VEGFA-induced signaling in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we report that AGS8 regulates VEGFR-3, which is another subtype of the VEGF receptor family, and mediates VEGFC signaling in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs)...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649411/the-in-vitro-differentiation-of-gdnf-gene-engineered-amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells-into-renal-tubular-epithelial-like-cells
#3
Ying Lu, Zhuojun Wang, Lu Chen, Jia Wang, Shulin Li, Caixia Liu, Dong Sun
Amniotic fluid is an alternative source of stem cells, and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) obtained from a small amount of amniotic fluid collected during the second trimester represent a novel source for use in regenerative medicine. These AFSCs are characterized by lower diversity, a higher proliferation rate and a wider differentiation capability than adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). AFSCs are selected based on the cell surface marker c-kit receptor (CD117) using immunomagnetic sorting...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644751/disease-modification-in-parkinson-s-disease-current-approaches-challenges-and-future-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Anthony E Lang, Alberto J Espay
The greatest unmet therapeutic need in Parkinson's disease is the development of treatment that slows the relentless progression of the neurodegenerative process. The concept of "disease modification" encompasses intervention types ranging from those designed to slow the underlying degeneration to treatments directed at regenerating or replacing lost neurons. To date all attempts to develop effective disease-modifying therapy have failed. Many reasons have been proposed for these failures including our rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis and the assumption that each targeted mechanisms of disease apply to most patients with the same clinical diagnosis...
April 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643528/-comparison-of-the-properties-of-cd146-positive-and-cd146-negative-subpopulations-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#5
X T Wang, N Q Rao, T Jz Fang, Y M Zhao, L H Ge
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from human exfoliated teeth (SHED) were sorted by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) technique to obtain the CD146 positive and negative cell subpopulation. Then the biological characteristics of these subpopulations were compared to explore their specific application potential in tissue engineering. METHODS: In this study, freshly extracted deciduous teeth without any caries or dental pulp disease were obtained. SHED was isolated using enzyme digestion method and then sorted by MACS, CD146 positive cells and CD146 negative cells were obtained after cell sorting...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643474/histone-deacetylase-6-controls-notch3-trafficking-and-degradation-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#6
Marica Pinazza, Margherita Ghisi, Sonia Minuzzo, Valentina Agnusdei, Gianluca Fossati, Vincenzo Ciminale, Laura Pezzè, Yari Ciribilli, Giorgia Pilotto, Carolina Venturoli, Alberto Amadori, Stefano Indraccolo
Several studies have revealed that endosomal sorting controls the steady-state levels of Notch at the cell surface in normal cells and prevents its inappropriate activation in the absence of ligands. However, whether this highly dynamic physiologic process can be exploited to counteract dysregulated Notch signaling in cancer cells remains unknown. T-ALL is a malignancy characterized by aberrant Notch signaling, sustained by activating mutations in Notch1 as well as overexpression of Notch3, a Notch paralog physiologically subjected to lysosome-dependent degradation in human cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643425/a-novel-two-score-system-for-interferon-status-segregates-autoimmune-diseases-and-correlates-with-clinical-features
#7
Y M El-Sherbiny, A Psarras, M Y Md Yusof, E M A Hensor, R Tooze, G Doody, A A A Mohamed, D McGonagle, M Wittmann, P Emery, E M Vital
Measurement of type I interferon (IFN-I) has potential to diagnose and stratify autoimmune diseases, but existing results have been inconsistent. Interferon-stimulated-gene (ISG) based methods may be affected by the modularity of the ISG transcriptome, cell-specific expression, response to IFN-subtypes and bimodality of expression. We developed and clinically validated a 2-score system (IFN-Score-A and -B) using Factor Analysis of 31 ISGs measured by TaqMan selected from 3-IFN-annotated modules. We evaluated these scores using in-vitro IFN stimulation as well as in sorted cells then clinically validated in a cohort of 328 autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643247/the-pathway-to-establishing-hiv-latency-is-critical-to-how-latency-is-maintained-and-reversed
#8
Simin D Rezaei, Hao K Lu, J Judy Chang, Ajantha Rhodes, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
HIV infection requires lifelong antiretroviral therapy because of the persistence of latently infected CD4+ T cells. Induction of viral expression from latently infected cells occurs following T cell receptor (TCR) activation but not all latently infected cells respond to TCR stimulation. We compared two models of latently infected cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter virus to infect CCL19 treated resting CD4+ (rCD4) T cells (pre-activation latency) or activated CD4+ T cells that returned to a resting state (post-activation latency)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630078/applications-of-zeolites-in-biotechnology-and-medicine-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Lucie Bacakova, Marta Vandrovcova, Ivana Kopova, Ivan Jirka
Zeolites are microporous tectosilicates of natural or synthetic origin, which have been extensively used in various technological applications, e.g. as catalysts and as molecular sieves, for separating and sorting various molecules, for water and air purification, including removal of radioactive contaminants, for harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy, for adsorption refrigeration, as detergents, etc. These applications of zeolites were typically related with their porous character, their high adsorption capacity, and their ion exchange properties...
April 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630039/g2-seq-a-high-throughput-sequencing-based-technique-for-identifying-late-replicating-regions-of-the-genome
#10
Eric J Foss, Uyen Lao, Antonio Bedalov
Numerous techniques have been developed to follow the progress of DNA replication through the S phase of the cell cycle. Most of these techniques have been directed toward elucidation of the location and timing of initiation of genome duplication rather than its completion. However, it is critical that we understand regions of the genome that are last to complete replication, because these regions suffer elevated levels of chromosomal breakage and mutation, and they have been associated with both disease and aging...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628923/evaluation-of-antigen-conjugated-fluorescent-beads-to-identify-antigen-specific-b-cells
#11
Isabel Correa, Kristina M Ilieva, Silvia Crescioli, Sara Lombardi, Mariangela Figini, Anthony Cheung, James F Spicer, Andrew N J Tutt, Frank O Nestle, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis
Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627827/lgr5-cd44-epcam-strictly-defines-cancer-stem-cells-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#12
Zhengwei Leng, Qinghua Xia, Jinhuang Chen, Yong Li, Jiqian Xu, Ende Zhao, Hai Zheng, Walden Ai, Jiangchuan Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although EpCAM+CD44+ cells exhibit more stem-like properties than did EpCAM-CD44- cells, the specificity of EpCAM combined with CD44 in defining CSCs needs further improvement. Lgr5 is used as a biomarker to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear whether Lgr5, along with EpCAM and CD44, can further identify and define CSCs in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM+, Lgr5+CD44+EpCAM-, Lgr5+CD44-EpCAM+, Lgr5-CD44+EpCAM+, and Lgr5-CD44-EpCAM-cells were separately isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627745/sorting-cells-alters-their-redox-state-and-cellular-metabolome
#13
Elizabeth M Llufrio, Lingjue Wang, Fuad J Naser, Gary J Patti
A growing appreciation of the metabolic artifacts of cell culture has generated heightened enthusiasm for performing metabolomics on populations of cells purified from tissues and biofluids. Fluorescence activated cell sorting, or FACS, is a widely used experimental approach to purify specific cell types from complex heterogeneous samples. Here we show that FACS introduces oxidative stress and alters the metabolic state of cells. Compared to unsorted controls, astrocytes subjected to FACS prior to metabolomic analysis showed altered ratios of GSSG to GSH, NADPH to NADP+ , and NAD+ to NADH...
March 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625551/foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-isolation-and-gene-profiling
#14
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) become an attractive research topic because of their crucial roles in tissue repair and regenerative medicine. Foreskin is considered as a valuable tissue source containing immunotherapeutic MSCs (FSK-MSCs). RESULTS: In this work, we used aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH) assay (ALDEFLUOR™) to isolate and therefore characterize subsets of FSK-MSCs. According to their ALDH activity, we were able to distinguish and sort by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) two subsets of FSK-MSCs (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH- )...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625512/%C3%AE-arrestin2-affects-cardiac-progenitor-cell-survival-through-cell-mobility-and-tube-formation-in-severe-hypoxia
#15
Seul Ki Seo, Nari Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Sang Min Kim, Sang Yeub Lee, Jang Whan Bae, Kyung Kuk Hwang, Dong Woon Kim, Walter J Koch, Myeong Chan Cho
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: β-arrestin2 (β-arr2) basically regulates multiple signaling pathways in mammalian cells by desensitization and internalization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We investigated impacts of β-arr2 on survival, mobility, and tube formation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) obtained from wild-type (WT) mouse (CPC-WT), and β-arr2 knock-out (KO) mouse (CPC-KO) cultured in presence or absence of serum and oxygen as non-canonical roles in GPCR system. METHODS: CPCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 -based media containing fetal bovine serum and growth factors...
April 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622675/sorting-nexin-9-snx9-regulates-levels-of-the-transmembrane-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-adam-9-at-the-cell-surface
#16
Kasper Johansen Mygind, Theresa Störiko, Marie L Freiberg, Jacob Samsøe-Petersen, Jeanette Schwarz, Olav M Andersen, Marie Kveiborg
ADAM9 is an active member of the family of transmembrane a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs). It plays a role in processes such as bone formation and retinal neovascularization, and importantly, its expression in human cancers correlates with disease stage and poor prognosis. Functionally, ADAM9 can cleave several transmembrane proteins, thereby shedding their ectodomains from the cell surface. Moreover, ADAM9 regulates cell behaviour by binding cell-surface receptors such as integrin and membrane-type matrix metalloproteases...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622626/triggered-recruitment-of-escrt-machinery-promotes-endolysosomal-repair
#17
Michael L Skowyra, Paul H Schlesinger, Teresa V Naismith, Phyllis I Hanson
Endolysosomes can be damaged by diverse materials. Terminally damaged compartments are degraded by lysophagy, but pathways that repair salvageable organelles are poorly understood. Here we found that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, known to mediate budding and fission on endolysosomes, also plays an essential role in their repair. ESCRTs were rapidly recruited to acutely injured endolysosomes through a pathway requiring calcium and ESCRT-activating factors that was independent of lysophagy...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622035/ccl17-blockade-as-a-therapy-for-osteoarthritis-pain-and-disease
#18
Ming-Chin Lee, Reem Saleh, Adrian Achuthan, Andrew J Fleetwood, Irmgard Förster, John A Hamilton, Andrew D Cook
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases and in osteoarthritis (OA). We identified previously a new GM-CSF→Jmjd3→interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4)→chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) pathway, which is important for the development of inflammatory arthritis pain and disease. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) can also be linked with this pathway. Here we investigated the involvement of the pathway in OA pain and disease development using the GM-CSF-dependent collagenase-induced OA (CiOA) model...
April 5, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620414/cd24-and-cd49f-expressions-of-e14-5-mouse-mammary-anlagen-cells-defines-putative-distribution-of-earlier-embryonic-mammary-stem-cell-activities
#19
Jiazhe Song, Fang Rong Ding, Song Li, Wenzhe Li, Ning Li, Kai Xue
Stem cell biology offers promise for understanding the origins of mammary gland. However, the distribution of mammary stem cell (MaSC) activities at earlier embryonic stage has not been fully identified. As the markers for sorting adult MaSC, CD24, CD29 and CD49f have been applied to analyze fetal MaSCs. Here we explored mammary anlagen MaSCs by investigating CD24/CD49f expressions. According to the comparative analysis between adult mammary gland and fetal mammary anlagen, we found that fetal mouse mammary anlagen might possess high percentage of potential MaSCs...
April 5, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619372/irradiated-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-undergo-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-snail-mir-199a-5p-axis-to-promote-the-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-into-myofibroblasts
#20
Minxiao Yi, Bo Liu, Yang Tang, Fang Li, Wan Qin, Xianglin Yuan
Radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is one of the major side effects of radiotherapy for lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that endothelial cells and activated myofibroblasts play a key role in RIPF. However, the interaction between irradiated endothelial cells and activation of myofibroblasts has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine whether irradiated endothelial cells would affect the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in the process of RIPF. In the current study, we used a coculture system that allowed direct contact between human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
2018: BioMed Research International
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