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Globalization impact on indigenous populations.

C Verde, D Giordano, C M Bellas, G di Prisco, A M Anesio
The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature...
2016: Advances in Microbial Physiology
Annette J Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Josée Lavoie, Victoria Smye, Sabrina T Wong, Murry Krause, David Tu, Olive Godwin, Koushambhi Khan, Alycia Fridkin
BACKGROUND: Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Kaitlin Patterson, Lea Berrang-Ford, Shuaib Lwasa, Didacus B Namanya, James Ford, Fortunate Twebaze, Sierra Clark, Blánaid Donnelly, Sherilee L Harper
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is projected to increase the burden of food insecurity (FI) globally, particularly among populations that depend on subsistence agriculture. The impacts of climate change will have disproportionate effects on populations with higher existing vulnerability. Indigenous people consistently experience higher levels of FI than their non-Indigenous counterparts and are more likely to be dependent upon land-based resources. The present study aimed to understand the sensitivity of the food system of an Indigenous African population, the Batwa of Kanungu District, Uganda, to seasonal variation...
September 13, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Jo Spangaro, Sigrid Herring, Jane Koziol-Mclain, Alison Rutherford, Mary-Anne Frail, Anthony B Zwi
OBJECTIVES: intimate partner violence is a significant global health problem but remains largely hidden. Understanding decisions about whether or not to disclose violence in response to routine enquiry in health settings can inform safe and responsive systems. Elevated rates of violence and systematic disadvantage found among Indigenous women globally, can impact on their decisions to disclose violence. This study aimed to test, among Indigenous women, a model for decisions on whether to disclose intimate partner violence in the context of antenatal routine screening...
October 2016: Midwifery
Flora Ihlow, Julien Courant, Jean Secondi, Anthony Herrel, Rui Rebelo, G John Measey, Francesco Lillo, F André De Villiers, Solveig Vogt, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau, Dennis Rödder
By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents...
2016: PloS One
Kelly Jones, David S Brennan, Eleanor Jane Parker, Helen Mills, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVES: Mediation analyses are critical to understanding why behavioral interventions work. Health literacy is a known mediator between socio-economic factors, health behavior and oral health outcomes in various populations, explaining gradients in oral health status and outcomes. We explore whether self-efficacy (SE) mediates the association between oral health literacy (OHL) and self-rated oral health (SROH) in an Indigenous population. METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected from 278 rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians evaluated OHL, SE, SROH, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Kristie S Gutierrez, Catherine E LePrevost
Climate justice is a local, national, and global movement to protect at-risk populations who are disproportionately affected by climate change. The social context for this review is the Southeastern region of the United States, which is particularly susceptible to climate change because of the geography of the area and the vulnerabilities of the inhabiting populations. Negative human health effects on variable and vulnerable populations within the Southeast region due to changing climate are concerning, as health threats are not expected to produce parallel effects among all individuals...
February 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Qiao Lin, Yunpeng Cao, Jie Gao
A GO game can enhance mental health, but its effects on Alzheimer Disease (AD) remains unknown. To address the issue, 147 AD patients were randomly assigned into control (without GO-game intervention), Short-time GO-Game Intervention (SGGI, 1 h daily) and Long-time GO-game Intervention (LGGI, 2 h daily) groups. After 6-month follow-up, the game reduced the mean score of Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales (MADRS) of 4.72 (95% CI, 0.69 to 9.12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) of 1.75 (95% CI, 0...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Roxanne Bainbridge, Komla Tsey, Janya McCalman, Irina Kinchin, Vicki Saunders, Felecia Watkin Lui, Yvonne Cadet-James, Adrian Miller, Kenny Lawson
BACKGROUND: There remains a concern that Indigenous Australians have been over-researched without corresponding improvements in their health; this trend is applicable to most Indigenous populations globally. This debate article has a dual purpose: 1) to open a frank conversation about the value of research to Indigenous Australian populations; and 2) to stimulate ways of thinking about potential resolutions to the lack of progress made in the Indigenous research benefit debate. DISCUSSION: Capturing the meaning of research benefit takes the form of ethical value-oriented methodological considerations in the decision-making processes of Indigenous research endeavours...
2015: BMC Public Health
Hannah J Wilson, Tatiana M Klimova, Kristen L Knuston, Valentina I Fedorova, Afanasy Fedorov, Baltakhinova M Yegorovna, William R Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Socio-demographic indicators closely relate to sleep in industrialized populations. However we know very little about how such factors impact sleep in populations undergoing industrialization. Within populations transitioning to the global economy, the preliminary evidence has found an inconsistent relationship between socio-demographics and sleep complaints across countries and social strata. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveys were conducted on a sample of rural Sakha (Yakut) adults (n = 168) during the autumn of 2103 to assess variation in socio-demographics and sleep complaints, including trouble sleeping and daytime sleepiness...
August 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Nhung Nghiem, Tony Blakely, Linda J Cobiac, Amber L Pearson, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Given the high importance of dietary sodium (salt) as a global disease risk factor, our objective was to compare the impact of eight sodium reduction interventions, including feasible and more theoretical ones, to assist prioritisation. METHODS: Epidemiological modelling and cost-utility analysis were performed using a Markov macro-simulation model. The setting was New Zealand (NZ) (2.3 million citizens, aged 35+ years) which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data...
2015: PloS One
Elizabeth J Elliott
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia...
2015: Public Health Research & Practice
Tim K Mackey, Steffanie A Strathdee
In this commentary, we review a set of "Big Events" from around the world that have adversely impacted substance using populations by first identifying common thematic areas between them, and then describing the unique challenges faced by the diverse and vulnerable populations impacted. The Big Events reviewed are multifaceted and complex in nature, and include the recent global financial crisis, economic and trade sanctions, political transition and its impact on ethnic minorities, colonialism and indigenous communities, and ecological disasters...
2015: Substance Use & Misuse
Raúl Iglesias, José M García-Estévez, César Ayres, Antonio Acuña, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
The importance of disease-mediated invasions and the role of parasite spillover as a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity are now well known. Although competition between invasive sliders Trachemys scripta elegans and indigenous European turtles has been extensively studied, the impact of this invasive species on diseases affecting native populations is poorly known. During winter 2012-2013 an unusual event was detected in a population of Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) inhabiting a pond system in Galicia (NW Spain)...
February 10, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Arnab Mukherjea, Mary V Modayil, Elisa K Tong
Two products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and popular among South Asians globally - paan and paan masala - are inconsistently categorised as tobacco by researchers, clinicians, program planners and policymakers. This article calls for a universally standard classification of these smokeless carcinogenic products as tobacco products and thus, subject to the same public health and clinical protections applied to other forms of tobacco. This recommendation is guided by scientific evidence strongly indicating the common presence of tobacco in paan and paan masala...
December 2015: Tobacco Control
Susana Ramírez Hita
This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups...
October 2014: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
David Johnston-Monje, Walaa Kamel Mousa, George Lazarovits, Manish N Raizada
BACKGROUND: Endophytes are microbes that live within plants such as maize (corn, Zea mays L.) without causing disease. It is generally assumed that most endophytes originate from soil. If this is true, then as humans collected, domesticated, bred and migrated maize globally from its native Mexico, they moved the species away from its native population of endophyte donors. The migration of maize persists today, as breeders collect wild and exotic seed (as sources of diverse alleles) from sites of high genetic diversity in Mexico for breeding programs on distant soils...
2014: BMC Plant Biology
L Y Kwok, L Wang, J Zhang, Z Guo, H Zhang
Ageing of the population is an imminent global problem. Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LcZ) was isolated from Inner Mongolian fermented milk, koumiss. LcZ possesses numerous probiotic properties in in vitro tests and in animal models. However, it has never been tested in any human trial. In the current study, the impact of oral consumption of LcZ on different age groups was tested. Chinese subjects, including 10 young, 7 middle-aged and 7 elderly volunteers (with mean age of 24.3, 47.6 and 64.7, respectively), were recruited...
September 2014: Beneficial Microbes
Mohamed A Sheikh, Frederick Makokha, Abdullahi M Hussein, Gedi Mohamed, Ondrej Mach, Kabir Humayun, Samuel Okiror, Leila Abrar, Orkhan Nasibov, John Burton, Ahmed Unshur, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Concepcion F Estivariz
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has continued without interruption in only three countries: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. During April-December 2013, a polio outbreak caused by WPV type 1 (WPV1) of Nigerian origin resulted in 217 cases in or near the Horn of Africa, including 194 cases in Somalia, 14 cases in Kenya, and nine cases in Ethiopia (all cases were reported as of March 10, 2014). During December 14-18, 2013, Kenya conducted the first-ever campaign providing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) together with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) as part of its outbreak response...
March 21, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Stuart J Vincent, Brenda A Coutts, Roger A C Jones
The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (<185 years), making it possible to distinguish between introduced and indigenous viruses readily...
2014: PloS One
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