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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231276/alterations-in-cellular-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-elvitegravir-in-response-to-ethanol-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-monocytic-u1-cells
#1
Narasimha M Midde, Namita Sinha, Pradeep B Lukka, Bernd Meibohm, Santosh Kumar
Ethanol consumption is negatively associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and general health in HIV positive individuals. Previously, we demonstrated ethanol-mediated alterations to metabolism of elvitegravir (EVG) in human liver microsomes. In the current study, we investigated ethanol influence on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of EVG in HIV infected monocytic (U1) cells. U1 cells were treated with 5 μM EVG, 2 μM Cobicistat (COBI), a booster drug, and 20 mM ethanol for up to 24 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230005/current-mechanism-of-acquired-resistance-to-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-updated-therapy-strategies-in-human-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Kaixian Zhang, Qianqian Yuan
Lung cancer continues to be a major health problem and the most common cancer-related mortality worldwide with about 80%-85% patients suffering from nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). More than 80% of NSCLC cases are often diagnosed as advanced stage and harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation. Although great success in initial response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are found in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, acquired resistance usually occurs on the continuous treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230003/risk-stratification-for-disease-progression-in-pt3-prostate-cancer-after-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#3
Jeong Hee Hong, Young Suk Kwon, Isaac Yi Kim
The aim of this study is to identify optimal patients for adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) in pT3 prostate cancer. The role of ART for patients with adverse pathologic features after radical prostatectomy (RP) has been demonstrated, but over- or under-treatment remains a significant concern. Two-hundred and five patients with pT3N0M0 who underwent robot-assisted RP without ART were analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional regression analyses were used to identify predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and clinical progression (CP)...
February 21, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228134/the-impact-of-community-health-worker-led-home-delivery-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-virological-suppression-a-non-inferiority-cluster-randomized-health-systems-trial-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#4
Pascal Geldsetzer, Joel M Francis, Nzovu Ulenga, David Sando, Irene A Lema, Eric Mboggo, Maria Vaikath, Happiness Koda, Sharon Lwezaula, Janice Hu, Ramadhani A Noor, Ibironke Olofin, Elysia Larson, Wafaie Fawzi, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Home delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by community health workers (CHWs) may improve ART retention by reducing the time burden and out-of-pocket expenditures to regularly attend an ART clinic. In addition, ART home delivery may shorten waiting times and improve quality of care for those in facility-based care by decongesting ART clinics. This trial aims to determine whether ART home delivery for patients who are clinically stable on ART combined with facility-based care for those who are not stable on ART is non-inferior to the standard of care (facility-based care for all ART patients) in achieving and maintaining virological suppression...
February 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227379/parallel-generation-of-digitally-reconstructed-radiographs-on-heterogeneous-multi-gpu-workstations
#5
Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, E M B S Eslam Ali, Sherief Abdelaziz, Abdelrahman Sayed, Mohamed I Owis, Ayman Eldeib, Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, E M B S Eslam Ali, Sherief Abdelaziz, Abdelrahman Sayed, Mohamed I Owis, Ayman Eldeib, Sherief Abdelaziz, Mohamed I Owis, Abdelrahman Sayed, Marwan Abdellah, Asem Abdelaziz, Eslam Ali, Ayman Eldeib
The growing importance of three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment has been associated with the active presence of advanced computational workflows that can simulate conventional x-ray films from computed tomography (CT) volumetric data to create digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). These simulated x-ray images are used to continuously verify the patient alignment in image-guided therapies with 2D-3D image registration. The present DRR rendering pipelines are quite limited to handle huge imaging stacks generated by recent state-of-the-art CT imaging modalities...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#6
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225707/nonadherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-zambia-is-concentrated-among-a-minority-of-patients-and-is-highly-variable-across-clinics
#7
Nancy L Czaicki, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Carolyn Bolton, Theodora Savory, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Crispin Moyo, Nancy S Padian, Elvin H Geng
OBJECTIVES: The distribution of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can indicates whether barriers are concentrated or more distributed. We quantified the medication possession ratio (MPR) and characterized the distribution of medication nonpossession in a network of clinics in Zambia to identify 'hotspots' and predictors of poorer adherence. METHODS: We analyzed a population of adults on ART for more than 3 months who made at least one clinic visit between 1 January 2013 and 28 February 2015...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225642/interventional-management-of-venous-thromboembolism-state-of-the-art
#8
Harish Jarrett, Riyaz Bashir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the indications for and approach to catheter-based treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). CONCLUSION: Catheter-based treatment of VTE is a viable adjunct to anticoagulant therapy and is being rapidly adopted around the United States. Early data suggest that these therapies reduce postthrombotic sequelae and improve quality of life, but bleeding events are still frequent, particularly at low-volume centers...
February 22, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224322/acceptability-of-early-antiretroviral-therapy-among-south-african-women
#9
Nigel Garrett, Emily Norman, Kerry Leask, Nivashnee Naicker, Villeshni Asari, Nelisile Majola, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
WHO guidelines recommend immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all individuals at HIV diagnosis regardless of CD4 count, but concerns remain about potential low uptake or poor adherence among healthy patients with high CD4 counts, especially in resource-limited settings. This study assessed the acceptability of earlier treatment among HIV-positive South African women, median age at enrollment 25 (IQR 22-30), in a 10 year prospective cohort study by (i) describing temporal CD4 count trends at initiation in relation to WHO guidance, (ii) virological suppression rates post-ART initiation at different CD4 count thresholds, and (iii) administration of a standardized questionnaire...
February 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223129/regenerative-medicine-in-huntington-s-disease-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-preclinical-studies
#10
REVIEW
A M Tartaglione, P Popoli, G Calamandrei
TARTAGLIONE, A.M., P. Popoli and G. Calamandrei. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: strengths and weaknesses of pre-clinical studies. NEUROSCIENCE BIOBEHAV REV (2016). Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223022/early-identification-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-incomplete-random-forest-robust-support-vector-machine-and-fdg-pet-imaging
#11
Shen Lu, Yong Xia, Weidong Cai, Michael Fulham, David Dagan Feng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and will be an increasing health problem in society as the population ages. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be a prodromal stage of AD. The ability to identify subjects with MCI will be increasingly important as disease modifying therapies for AD are developed. We propose a semi-supervised learning method based on robust optimization for the identification of MCI from [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose PET scans. We extracted three groups of spatial features from the cortical and subcortical regions of each FDG-PET image volume...
February 7, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222702/the-virological-durability-of-first-line-art-among-hiv-positive-adult-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-without-virological-monitoring-a-retrospective-analysis-of-dart-trial-data
#12
David I Dolling, Ruth L Goodall, Michael Chirara, James Hakim, Peter Nkurunziza, Paula Munderi, David Eram, Dinah Tumukunde, Moira J Spyer, Charles F Gilks, Pontiano Kaleebu, David T Dunn, Deenan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Few low-income countries have virological monitoring widely available. We estimated the virological durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) after five years of follow-up among adult Ugandan and Zimbabwean patients in the DART study, in which virological assays were conducted retrospectively. METHODS: DART compared clinically driven monitoring with/without routine CD4 measurement. Annual plasma viral load was measured on 1,762 patients. Analytical weights were calculated based on the inverse probability of sampling...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#13
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219372/impact-of-a-clinical-program-using-weekly-short-message-service-sms-on-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-support-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Nathan Georgette, Mark J Siedner, Carter R Petty, Brian C Zanoni, Stephen Carpenter, Jessica E Haberer
BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, short message service (SMS) programs have improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). In response, the World Health Organization recommended use of SMS programs to support ART. However, there is limited data on real-world implementations of SMS programs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of an SMS program to improve ART adherence in a government-run HIV clinic in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from all adult patients who 1) enrolled at the clinic before the observation period (July 2013 through June 2014), 2) had ≥1 ART prescriptions in the observation period, and 3) had data on phone number availability (N = 2255)...
February 20, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219333/uk-national-clinical-audit-management-of-pregnancies-in-women-with-hiv
#15
S Raffe, H Curtis, P Tookey, H Peters, A Freedman, Y Gilleece
BACKGROUND: The potential for HIV transmission between a pregnant woman and her unborn child was first recognized in 1982. Since then a complex package of measures to reduce risk has been developed. This project aims to review UK management of HIV in pregnancy as part of the British HIV Association (BHIVA) audit programme. METHODS: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a population-based surveillance study, provided data for pregnancies with an expected delivery date from 1/1/13 - 30/6/14...
February 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219156/-factors-influencing-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-hiv-infected-people-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-ili-kazakh-autonomous-prefecture
#16
W Wang, W Liu, T Chen, N P Liu, Y J Zheng, S D Ye, Y Zhang, X M Wang, G Z Wang, H B Zhang
Objective: To analyze factors influencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients receiving ART at the town level in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture (Ili) in May 2015 and to document enhanced ART for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using one-on-one interviews and data collection from the system of AIDS follow-up management in three ART services centers at the town level of Ili. The subjects were HIV-infected individuals, aged 18 years or older, who were receiving ART during the survey...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217753/lymphadenectomy-state-of-the-art
#17
REVIEW
Daniele Marrelli, Lorenzo De Franco, Livio Iudici, Karol Polom, Franco Roviello
The extent of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer (GC) surgery has been for long time a matter of debate. Randomized trials performed in the West reported worse results of D2 dissection, in terms of postoperative complications and long-term survival benefit, than Eastern series and observational studies from specialized Western centers. However, long-term re-evaluation of such trials and in depth-analysis of other experiences demonstrated the potential benefit of D2 in reducing the probability of cancer-related death and the safety of this procedure when avoiding unnecessary spleno-pancreatectomy and in centers with ad adequate surgical volume...
2017: Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217621/refractory-anemia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-expect-the-unexpected
#18
Sumeet Prakash Mirgh, Vikas A Mishra, Virti D Shah, Jehangir Soli Sorabjee
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon hematological disorder affecting selectively the erythroid cell lines. PRCA is defined as anemia with normal leukocyte and platelet counts, a corrected reticulocyte count <1%, <5% erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and an absence of hemolysis. We describe a case of Zidovudine (AZT) induced PRCA causing severe anemia in a patient taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) after 4 months of starting therapy and in whom all other causes were excluded. The hematological abnormalities resolved after AZT was replaced with tenofovir and the patient remained transfusion independent thereafter...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217434/gold-nanoparticle-based-platforms-for-circulating-cancer-marker-detection
#19
Xiaohua Huang, Ryan O'Connor, Elyahb Allie Kwizera
Detection of cancer-related circulating biomarkers in body fluids has become a cutting-edge technology that has the potential to noninvasively screen cancer, diagnose cancer at early stage, monitor tumor progression, and evaluate therapy responses. Traditional molecular and cellular detection methods are either insensitive for early cancer intervention or technically costly and complicated making them impractical for typical clinical settings. Due to their exceptional structural and functional properties that are not available from bulk materials or discrete molecules, nanotechnology is opening new horizons for low cost, rapid, highly sensitive, and highly specific detection of circulating cancer markers...
2017: Nanotheranostics (Syd)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215175/cd4-t-cell-count-may-not-be-a-useful-strategy-to-monitor-antiretroviral-therapy-response-in-htlv-1-hiv-co-infected-patients
#20
Alain Vandormael, Filipe Rego, Siva Danaviah, Luiz Alcantara, David Boulware, Tulio de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: HTLV-1/HIV co-infection is known to elevate the CD4+ T-cell counts of treatment-naïve persons. We investigated whether HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients continued to have elevated CD4+ T-cell counts after developing virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: The data comes from a drug resistance study located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. All participants (N=383) presented for repeated CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load level testing between January 2006 and March 2014...
February 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
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