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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110176/the-management-of-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-10-year-experience
#2
Sonia F Raffe, Charlotte Savage, Louisa A Perry, Amie Patel, Tricia Keith, Richard Howell, Robert Bradley, Rob Bomont, Katy Fidler, Yvonne Gilleece
OBJECTIVE: The package of care to reduce HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) has evolved significantly since trials of ante and intrapartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1994. In the UK MTCT rate has fallen from 25.6% in the 1990s to 0.46%. We review the management of HIV in pregnancy in Brighton in the context of evolving guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: HIV, obstetric and neonatal notes of all HIV positive women, pregnant between 2003 and 2014, were reviewed. RESULTS: 97 pregnancies in 75 women were identified, resulting in 79 live births...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109551/-economic-impact-of-optimising-antiretroviral-treatment-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-with-suppressed-viral-load-in-spain-by-implementing-the-grade-a-1-evidence-recommendations-of-the-2015-gesida-national-aids-plan
#3
Esteban Ribera, José Manuel Martínez-Sesmero, Javier Sánchez-Rubio, Rafael Rubio, Juan Pasquau, José Luis Poveda, Alejandro Pérez-Mitru, Celia Roldán, Beatriz Hernández-Novoa
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact associated with the optimisation of triple antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients with undetectable viral load according to the recommendations from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) Consensus and their applicability in the Spanish clinical practice. METHODS: A pharmacoeconomic model was developed based on data from a National Hospital Prescription Survey on ART (2014) and the A-I evidence recommendations for the optimisation of ART from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) consensus...
January 18, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109336/increasing-uptake-of-hiv-sexually-transmitted-infection-and-family-planning-services-and-reducing-hiv-related-risk-behaviors-among-youth-living-with-hiv-in-uganda
#4
Lung Vu, Brady Burnett-Zieman, Cecily Banura, Jerry Okal, Margret Elang, Rodgers Ampwera, Georgina Caswell, Diana Amanyire, Jacquelyne Alesi, Eileen Yam
PURPOSE: To address barriers to care for youth living with HIV (YLHIV), the Link Up project implemented a peer-led intervention model that provided a comprehensive package of HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights services through community-based peer support groups for YLHIV. Peer educators delivered targeted counseling and health education, and referred YLHIV to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and reproductive health services that were available at youth-oriented sexual and reproductive health and rights facilities...
February 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107222/romidepsin-induced-hiv-1-viremia-during-effective-art-contains-identical-viral-sequences-with-few-deleterious-mutations
#6
Anni Winckelmann, Kirston Barton, Bonnie Hiener, Timothy E Schlub, Wei Shao, Thomas A Rasmussen, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Sarah Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the origin of the HIV-1 viremia induced by the latency-reversing agent romidepsin. DESIGN: Six individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received romidepsin administered intravenously once weekly for three consecutive weeks. CD4+ T-cells were obtained at baseline, following the second and third romidepsin infusion, and 10 weeks after the final romidepsin treatment. METHODS: Single-genome sequencing of the env region was used to genetically characterize the virus from proviral DNA, the transcribed cell-associated RNA and the plasma RNA pool...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107221/cash-vs-food-assistance-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-tanzania-a-randomized-trial
#7
Sandra I McCoy, Prosper F Njau, Carolyn Fahey, Ntuli Kapologwe, Suneetha Kadiyala, Nicholas P Jewell, William H Dow, Nancy S Padian
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of short-term cash and food assistance to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in care among people living with HIV in Tanzania. METHODS: At three clinics, 805 participants were randomized to three groups in a 3 : 3 : 1 ratio, stratified by site : nutrition assessment and counseling (NAC) and cash transfers (∼$11/month, n = 347), NAC and food baskets (n = 345), and NAC-only (comparison group, n = 113, clinicaltrials...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107161/art-therapy-exhibitions-exploitation-or-advocacy
#8
Terri Davis
Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106615/metal-artifact-reduction-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-using-computer-aided-design-data-of-implants-as-prior-information
#9
Veikko Ruth, Daniel Kolditz, Christian Steiding, Willi A Kalender
OBJECTIVES: The performance of metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods in x-ray computed tomography (CT) suffers from incorrect identification of metallic implants in the artifact-affected volumetric images. The aim of this study was to investigate potential improvements of state-of-the-art MAR methods by using prior information on geometry and material of the implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of a novel prior knowledge-based segmentation (PS) compared with threshold-based segmentation (TS) on 2 MAR methods (linear interpolation [LI] and normalized-MAR [NORMAR]) was investigated...
January 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105610/antithyroid-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-state-of-the-art-on-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Nuno Vicente, Luís Cardoso, Luísa Barros, Francisco Carrilho
Agranulocytosis is a rare but serious complication of antithyroid drug therapy, and an up-to-date understanding of this topic is important. Both direct toxicity and immune-mediated responses have been described as possible mechanisms. Some major susceptibility loci have recently been identified, which may lead the diagnosis of agranulocytosis into a genomic era. Onset is acute and patients present with symptoms and signs of infection together with high fever. Clinical suspicion is pivotal and should prompt blood sampling...
January 19, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103895/feasibility-of-antiretroviral-treatment-monitoring-in-the-era-of-decentralized-hiv-care-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Minh D Pham, Lorena Romero, Bruce Parnell, David A Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of HIV patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to ensure patient benefits and the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of ART programs. Prompted by WHO recommendations for expansion and decentralization of HIV treatment and care in low and middle income countries, we conducted a systematic review to assess the feasibility of treatment monitoring in these settings. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was developed using a combination of MeSH and free text terms relevant to HIV treatment and care, health service delivery, health service accessibility, decentralization and other relevant terms...
January 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programs
#13
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programs. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other studies and program characteristics, and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programs...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101954/task-sharing-with-nurses-to-enhance-access-to-hiv-treatment-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#14
Margaret L McNairy, Jules B Bashi, Hannah Chung, Louise Wemin, Marie-Nicole Akpro Lorng, Hermann Brou, Cyprien Nioble, A Lokossué, Kouame Abo, Delphine Achi, Kiyali Ouattara, Daniel Sess, Pongathie Adama Sanogo, Alexandre Ekra, Virginie Ettiegne-Traore, Conombo J Diabate, Elaine J Abrams, Wafaa M El-Sadr
OBJECTIVE: We report the first national program in Côte d'Ivoire to evaluate the feasibility of nurse-led HIV care as a model of task-sharing with nurses to increase coverage and decentralization of HIV services. METHODS: Twenty-six public HIV facilities implemented either a nurse-with-onsite-physician or a nurse-with-visiting-physician model of HIV task-sharing. Routinely collected patient data were reviewed to analyze patient characteristics of those enrolling in care and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
January 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101146/bone-health-in-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-or-c-infections
#15
REVIEW
Emmanuel Biver, Alexandra Calmy, René Rizzoli
Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100241/personalized-life-expectancy-and-treatment-benefit-index-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Yanni Xiao, Xiaodan Sun, Sanyi Tang, Yicang Zhou, Zhihang Peng, Jianhong Wu, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) within host includes typical stages and the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is shown to be effective in slowing down this progression. There are great challenges in describing the entire HIV disease progression and evaluating comprehensive effects of ART on life expectancy for HIV infected individuals on ART. METHODS: We develop a novel summative treatment benefit index (TBI), based on an HIV viral dynamics model and linking the infection and viral production rates to the Weibull function...
January 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100136/barriers-to-access-and-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-hanoi-vietnam-from-hiv-testing-to-treatment
#17
Hao T M Bui, Giang M Le, Anh Q Mai, Iryna Zablotska-Manos, Lisa Maher
Little is known about the experiences of Vietnamese men who have sex with men in accessing HIV testing and treatment. We aimed to explore barriers to access and uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Hanoi. During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with 35 participants recruited using snowball sampling based on previous research and social networks. Key individual impediments to ART uptake included inadequate preparation for a positive diagnosis and the dual stigmatisation of homosexuality and HIV and its consequences, leading to fear of disclosure of HIV status...
January 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100068/prevalence-patterns-and-correlates-of-hiv-disclosure-among-tb-hiv-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-lesotho
#18
Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Suzue Saito, Koen Frederix, Blanche Pitt, Bridget Llang Maama, Andrea A Howard
Disclosure of HIV-positive status has important implications for patient outcomes and preventing HIV transmission, but has been understudied in TB-HIV patients. We assessed disclosure patterns and correlates of non-disclosure among adult TB-HIV patients initiating ART enrolled in the START Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial conducted in Lesotho, which evaluated a combination intervention package (CIP) versus standard of care. Interviewer-administered questionnaire data were analyzed to describe patterns of disclosure...
January 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099515/polymorphisms-and-mutational-covariation-associated-with-death-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-aids-patients-receiving-long-term-art-in-china
#19
Pengtao Liu, Yi Feng, Jianjun Wu, Suian Tian, Bin Su, Zhe Wang, Lingjie Liao, Hui Xing, Yinghui You, Yiming Shao, Yuhua Ruan
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance is associated with faster clinical progression of AIDS. However, the effect of significant polymorphisms and mutational covariation on mortality among HIV/AIDS patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), have rarely been studied. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study from December 2003 to December 2014, we present a new computational modelling approach based on bioinformatics-based models and several statistical methods to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of polymorphisms and mutations on death in HIV/AIDS patients receiving long-term ART in China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099434/mlst-based-population-genetic-analysis-in-a-global-context-reveals-clonality-amongst-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-vni-isolates-from-hiv-patients-in-southeastern-brazil
#20
Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Andrade-Silva, Fernanda M Fonseca, Thatiana B Ferreira, Delio J Mora, Juliana Andrade-Silva, Aziza Khan, Aiken Dao, Eduardo C Reis, Margarete T G Almeida, Andre Maltos, Virmondes R Junior, Luciana Trilles, Volker Rickerts, Ariya Chindamporn, Jane E Sykes, Massimo Cogliati, Kirsten Nielsen, Teun Boekhout, Matthew Fisher, June Kwon-Chung, David M Engelthaler, Marcia Lazéra, Wieland Meyer, Mario L Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with HIV. In Brazil, despite the free availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the public health system, the mortality rate due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is still high. To obtain a more detailed picture of the population genetic structure of this species in southeast Brazil, we studied 108 clinical isolates from 101 patients and 35 environmental isolates. Among the patients, 59% had a fatal outcome mainly in HIV-positive male patients...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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