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•Natural resource harvest exploitation

Szabolcs Makai, László Tamás, Angéla Juhász
Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the x- and y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
R K Bhomia, R A MacKenzie, D Murdiyarso, S D Sasmito, J Purbopuspito
Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Teunis Jansen, Søren Post, Trond Kristiansen, Guðmundur J Óskarsson, Jesper Boje, Brian R MacKenzie, Mala Broberg, Helle Siegstad
Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely most heavily on fisheries to provide employment and food supply. Here we present a climate change-related biotic expansion of a rich natural resource with substantial economic consequences, namely the appearance of northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Greenlandic waters...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Gurutze Calvo-Ugarteburu, Serge Raemaekers, Christina Halling
Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits...
September 29, 2016: Ambio
Carol Warren
This paper concerns resource governance in a remote Balinese coastal community, which faces severe environmental challenges due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. It explores some of the issues raised in 'social capital' debates regarding leadership and public participation toward sustainable natural resource governance. Given the strength of Balinese customary law and the high degree of participation required in the ritual-social domain, Bali represents a model context for examining these issues...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Martyn G Murray
Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Antoni Quetglas, Lucía Rueda, Diego Alvarez-Berastegui, Beatriz Guijarro, Enric Massutí
According to their main life history traits, organisms can be arranged in a continuum from fast (species with small body size, short lifespan and high fecundity) to slow (species with opposite characteristics). Life history determines the responses of organisms to natural and anthropogenic factors, as slow species are expected to be more sensitive than fast species to perturbations. Owing to their contrasting traits, cephalopods and elasmobranchs are typical examples of fast and slow strategies, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Shu-hong Wang, Wen-ting Hong, Ji-xin Chen, Yun Chen, Yi-lei Wang, Zi-ping Zhang, Zhao-hong Weng, Yang-jie Xie
The natural coral reef resources degrade rapidly because of climate change, environmental pollution and exploitation of aquarium species. Artificial propagation is an effective way to facilitate the reduction of wild harvesting, reef restoration, preservation of biodiversity. This paper reviewed the technique and research progresses focused on coral artificial propagation. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction as well as in situ and ex situ propagation...
September 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Raman Jeet Singh, Roshan Lal Meena, N K Sharma, Suresh Kumar, Kuldeep Kumar, Dileep Kumar
Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
F A G Guilherme, E I Vasconcelos, C P Coelho, K Ressel, N T F Batista, L F Souza
Butia purpurascens is an endemic and threatened palm tree species that occurs in open areas of the Brazilian Cerrado, predominantly in southwestern Goiás. The leaves of this palm tree are harvested by local people to fabricate brooms. This study evaluated changes in vegetative and reproductive phenology in two different natural populations of this palm tree: one population with leaf harvesting and another non-harvested population. Twenty plants were monitored in each area for 23 months. The phenophases were related to the temperature and precipitation averages for a 30-year period...
January 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Derrick Tupper de Kerckhove, Charles Kenneth Minns, Cindy Chu
The current state of many freshwater fish stocks worldwide is largely unknown but suspected to be vulnerable to exploitation from recreational fisheries and habitat degradation. Both these factors, combined with complex ecological dynamics and the diffuse nature of inland fisheries could lead to an invisible collapse: the drastic decline in fish stocks without great public or management awareness. In this study we provide a method to address the pervasive knowledge gaps in regional rates of exploitation and habitat degradation, and demonstrate its use in one of North America's largest and most diffuse recreational freshwater fisheries (Ontario, Canada)...
2015: PloS One
Mazmira Mohamad, Rashid Ahmed, Amirudin Shaari, Souraya Goumri-Said
Escalating demand for sustainable energy resources, because of the rapid exhaustion of conventional energy resources as well as to maintain the environmental level of carbon dioxide (CO2) to avoid its adverse effect on the climate, has led to the exploitation of photovoltaic technology manifold more than ever. In this regard organic materials have attracted great attention on account of demonstrating their potential to harvest solar energy at an affordable rate for photovoltaic technology. 2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (vinazene) is considered as a suitable material over the fullerenes for photovoltaic applications because of its particular chemical and physical nature...
February 2015: Journal of Molecular Modeling
María T Pulido, Mayte Coronel-Ortega
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on the sustainable use of non-timber forest products in arid and semi-arid zones. The palm Brahea dulcis has been one of the most important resources in semi-arid Mesoamerica, since pre-Hispanic times. Currently, some populations grow within protected natural areas, representing both a challenge and an opportunity for local development. This ethnoecological study of B. dulcis in central Mexico aimed to evaluate their uses, harvesting context, and potential for exploitation, in order to give practical advice on their best use and management...
2015: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Jessica N Andriamparany, Katja Brinkmann, Vololoniaina Jeannoda, Andreas Buerkert
BACKGROUND: Rural households in the Mahafaly region of semi-arid SW-Madagascar strongly depend on the exploitation of natural resources for their basic needs and income regeneration. An overuse of such resources threatens the natural environment and people's livelihood. Our study focuses on the diversity and use of wild yams and medicinal plants. METHODS: We hypothesized that knowledge on the use of these resources highly depends on farmers' socio-economic household characteristics...
2014: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Fanie Pelletier, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Jon T Jorgenson, Chiarastella Feder, Anne Hubbs
Human harvests can unwittingly drive evolution on morphology and life history, and these selective effects may be detrimental to the management of natural resources. Although theory suggests that harvest refuges, as sources of unselected animals, could buffer the effects of human exploitation on wild populations, few studies have assessed their efficiency. We analyzed records from >7000 trophy bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) harvested in Alberta, Canada, between 1974 and 2011 to investigate if the movement of rams from refuges toward harvested areas reduced the effects of selective harvesting on horn size through phenotypic rescue...
September 2014: Ecology and Evolution
Céline Rebours, Eliane Marinho-Soriano, José A Zertuche-González, Leila Hayashi, Julio A Vásquez, Paul Kradolfer, Gonzalo Soriano, Raul Ugarte, Maria Helena Abreu, Ingrid Bay-Larsen, Grete Hovelsrud, Rolf Rødven, Daniel Robledo
The European, Canadian, and Latin American seaweed industries rely on the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. As several countries wish to increase their activity, the harvest should be managed according to integrated and participatory governance regimes to ensure production within a long-term perspective. Development of regulations and directives enabling the sustainable exploitation of natural resources must therefore be brought to the national and international political agenda in order to ensure environmental, social, and economic values in the coastal areas around the world...
2014: Journal of Applied Phycology
Piero Bruschi, Matteo Mancini, Elisabetta Mattioli, Michela Morganti, Maria Adele Signorini
BACKGROUND: Miombo woodlands play an important role in the livelihood of people living in sub-equatorial African countries, contributing to satisfy basic human needs such as food, medicine, fuelwood and building materials. However, over-exploitation of plant resources and unsustainable harvest practices can potentially degrade forests. The aim of this study was to document the use of Miombo plant products, other than medicinal plants, in local communities, within a wider framework in which we discussed possible links between traditional uses and conservation status of the used species and of the whole Miombo environment...
2014: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
S M Driever, T Lawson, P J Andralojc, C A Raines, M A J Parry
Increasing photosynthesis in wheat has been identified as an approach to enhance crop yield, with manipulation of key genes involved in electron transport and the Calvin cycle as one avenue currently being explored. However, natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a currently unexploited genetic resource for potential crop improvement. Using gas-exchange analysis and protein analysis, the existing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity in a diverse panel of 64 elite wheat cultivars grown in the field was examined relative to growth traits, including biomass and harvest index...
September 2014: Journal of Experimental Botany
Matthew R Baker, Daniel E Schindler, Timothy E Essington, Ray Hilborn
Few studies have considered the management implications of mortality to target fish stocks caused by non-retention in commercial harvest gear (escape mortality). We demonstrate the magnitude of this previously unquantified source of mortality and its implications for the population dynamics of exploited stocks, biological metrics, stock productivity, and optimal management. Non-retention in commercial gillnet fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is common and often leads to delayed mortality in spawning populations...
January 2014: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Neala W Kendall, Ulf Dieckmann, Mikko Heino, André E Punt, Thomas P Quinn
Spatial and temporal trends and variation in life-history traits, including age and length at maturation, can be influenced by environmental and anthropogenic processes, including size-selective exploitation. Spawning adults in many wild Alaskan sockeye salmon populations have become shorter at a given age over the past half-century, but their age composition has not changed. These fish have been exploited by a gillnet fishery since the late 1800s that has tended to remove the larger fish. Using a rare, long-term dataset, we estimated probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs) for males and females in nine populations in two basins and correlated these changes with fishery size selection and intensity to determine whether such selection contributed to microevolutionary changes in maturation length...
February 2014: Evolutionary Applications
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