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•Natural resource harvest exploitation

Miloš Đokić, Han Sen Soo
Our society's current energy demands are largely met by the exploitation of fossil fuels, which are unsustainable and environmentally harmful resources. However, Nature has provided us with a clean and virtually limitless alternative in the form of solar energy. This abundant resource is utilized constantly by photosynthetic organisms, which has in turn motivated decades of research in our quest to create artificial counterparts of comparable scales. In this feature article, we will highlight some of the recent novel approaches in the field of artificial photosynthesis (AP), which we define by a more general term as a process that stores energy overall by generating fuels and chemicals using light...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Diego Gijón-Díaz, Héctor Reyes-Bonilla, Triana P Guerrero-Izquierdo, Francisco J Fernández-Rivera Melo
Ornamental fisheries are economically viable activities in developing countries due to the fact that aquaria have become a worldwide hobby. In Mexico, the fishery has been conducted since the 1980s, especially in the Baja California Peninsula, but nevertheless, there are no adequate records of commercial production, or about the economic gain due to the exploitation of the resource. The objective of this paper was to calculate the maximum allowable catch for the five ornamental fishes included in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT (protected by federal mandate), and the net monetary gain that the resource might generate...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Timothy E Essington, James N Sanchirico, Marissa L Baskett
Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lewis A K Barnett, Trevor A Branch, R Anthony Ranasinghe, Timothy E Essington
Researchers have long recognized the importance of ecological differences at the species level in structuring natural communities yet until recently have often overlooked the influence of intraspecific trait variation, which can profoundly alter community dynamics [1]. Human extraction of living resources can reduce intraspecific trait variation by, for example, causing truncation of age and size structure of populations, where numbers of older individuals decline far more with exploitation than younger individuals...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Simon Albert, Charlotte Kvennefors, Krista Jacob, Joshua Kera, Alistair Grinham
Solomon Islands is rapidly developing its natural resource exploitation sector, but data needed to assess consequent environmental impacts are scarce. We assessed catchments surrounding the Gold Ridge gold mine (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) and found that extensive changes in river course, and water and sediment quality have occurred downstream of the gold mine since its development. Sediment run-off from exposed areas associated with the mine pit has increased, elevating turbidity (up to 2450 NTU) and metal and arsenic levels, with levels of the latter being up to 0...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marco Ortiz, Richard Levins
Several administrative polices have been implemented in order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing on natural ecosystems. Four eco-social models with different levels of complexity were constructed, which represent the seaweed harvest in central-northern Chile under two different regimes, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MAEBRs) and Open Access Areas (OAAs). The dynamics of both regimes were analyzed using the following theoretical frameworks: (1) Loop Analysis, which allows the local stability or sustainability of the models and scenarios to be assessed; and (2) Hessian´s optimization procedure of a global fishery function (GFF) that represents each dynamics of each harvest...
2017: PloS One
Leonardo Sulas, Giacomo L Petretto, Giorgio Pintore, Giovanna Piluzza
Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland) is an herbaceous plant rich in bioactive compounds. The chemical composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of a Mediterranean garland population were investigated in different organs at two phenological stages. Antioxidant capacity varied from 7.9 (vegetative) to 14.4 (flowering) mmol Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity 100 g-1 dry weight (DW). A significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and total flavonoids was found at flowering stage...
December 2017: Natural Product Research
Lene Lange
Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
David A Carozza, Daniele Bianchi, Eric D Galbraith
Human exploitation of marine resources is profoundly altering marine ecosystems, while climate change is expected to further impact commercially-harvested fish and other species. Although the global fishery is a highly complex system with many unpredictable aspects, the bioenergetic limits on fish production and the response of fishing effort to profit are both relatively tractable, and are sure to play important roles. Here we describe a generalized, coupled biological-economic model of the global marine fishery that represents both of these aspects in a unified framework, the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model...
2017: PloS One
Walter R Tschinkel, Christina L Kwapich
The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff...
2016: PloS One
Szabolcs Makai, László Tamás, Angéla Juhász
Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the x- and y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
R K Bhomia, R A MacKenzie, D Murdiyarso, S D Sasmito, J Purbopuspito
Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Teunis Jansen, Søren Post, Trond Kristiansen, Guðmundur J Óskarsson, Jesper Boje, Brian R MacKenzie, Mala Broberg, Helle Siegstad
Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely most heavily on fisheries to provide employment and food supply. Here we present a climate change-related biotic expansion of a rich natural resource with substantial economic consequences, namely the appearance of northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Greenlandic waters...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Gurutze Calvo-Ugarteburu, Serge Raemaekers, Christina Halling
Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several over-exploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to >80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits...
March 2017: Ambio
Carol Warren
This paper concerns resource governance in a remote Balinese coastal community, which faces severe environmental challenges due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. It explores some of the issues raised in 'social capital' debates regarding leadership and public participation toward sustainable natural resource governance. Given the strength of Balinese customary law and the high degree of participation required in the ritual-social domain, Bali represents a model context for examining these issues...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Martyn G Murray
Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use...
March 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Antoni Quetglas, Lucía Rueda, Diego Alvarez-Berastegui, Beatriz Guijarro, Enric Massutí
According to their main life history traits, organisms can be arranged in a continuum from fast (species with small body size, short lifespan and high fecundity) to slow (species with opposite characteristics). Life history determines the responses of organisms to natural and anthropogenic factors, as slow species are expected to be more sensitive than fast species to perturbations. Owing to their contrasting traits, cephalopods and elasmobranchs are typical examples of fast and slow strategies, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Shu-hong Wang, Wen-ting Hong, Ji-xin Chen, Yun Chen, Yi-lei Wang, Zi-ping Zhang, Zhao-hong Weng, Yang-jie Xie
The natural coral reef resources degrade rapidly because of climate change, environmental pollution and exploitation of aquarium species. Artificial propagation is an effective way to facilitate the reduction of wild harvesting, reef restoration, preservation of biodiversity. This paper reviewed the technique and research progresses focused on coral artificial propagation. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction as well as in situ and ex situ propagation...
September 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Raman Jeet Singh, Roshan Lal Meena, N K Sharma, Suresh Kumar, Kuldeep Kumar, Dileep Kumar
Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
F A G Guilherme, E I Vasconcelos, C P Coelho, K Ressel, N T F Batista, L F Souza
Butia purpurascens is an endemic and threatened palm tree species that occurs in open areas of the Brazilian Cerrado, predominantly in southwestern Goiás. The leaves of this palm tree are harvested by local people to fabricate brooms. This study evaluated changes in vegetative and reproductive phenology in two different natural populations of this palm tree: one population with leaf harvesting and another non-harvested population. Twenty plants were monitored in each area for 23 months. The phenophases were related to the temperature and precipitation averages for a 30-year period...
January 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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