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Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Azger Dusthackeer, Paul Agastian
The prime focus of the present investigation was to optimize statistically the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The anti-tubercular activity of strain MANF2 was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phase assay. Among varied media examined, the isolate exhibited impressive anti-tubercular activity with paramount relative light unit reduction of >90% in de Man Rogose Sharpe (MRS) broth...
April 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Shirazi Muhammad Ayaz, Danish Khan, Min Young Kim
In this article, a multi-view registration approach for the 3D handheld profiling system based on the multiple shot structured light technique is proposed. The multi-view registration approach is categorized into coarse registration and point cloud refinement using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Coarse registration of multiple point clouds was performed using relative orientation and translation parameters estimated via homography-based visual navigation. The proposed system was evaluated using an artificial human skull and a paper box object...
April 9, 2018: Sensors
Anna Antsiferova, Marina Kopaeva, Pavel Kashkarov
Silver nanoparticles have been widely used in the lighting and food industries, in medicine, and in pharmaceutics as an antiseptic agent. Recent research demonstrates that, after prolonged oral administration, silver nanoparticles may cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain in rather high amounts. In ex vivo experiments, it has also been shown that silver nanoparticles demonstrate neurotoxicity. The objective of this work was to answer the questions whether silver nanoparticles change cognitive and behavioral functions of mammals after prolonged administration if silver nanoparticles have accumulated in the brain...
April 5, 2018: Materials
Zhaomeng Wu, Qingyi Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yingying Yin, Dan Kang, Runyi Cao, Qian Tian, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the synergistic effect of the combination of a single ingredient and a monomer, and systemic and local therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, through which TCM is able to enhance the curative effect and reduce the side effects. The present study analyzed the effect of TCM‑1 (an anti‑cancer TCM) on prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and studied in detail the mechanism of cell death induced by TCM‑1 in vitro and in vivo. From the present results, it was identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that TCM‑1 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase, decreased cell viability and increased nuclear rupture in a dose‑dependent manner; these effects finally resulted in apoptosis in PCa cells...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jeffrey P Jaramillo, M Elise Johanson, B Jenny Kiratli
OBJECTIVE: Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Zhenbo Huang, Carlie A Hoffman, Brandon M Chelette, Nicolas Thiebaud, Debra A Fadool
It has long been recognized that olfaction and emotion are linked. While chemosensory research using both human and rodent models have indicated a change in emotion can contribute to olfactory dysfunction, there are few studies addressing the contribution of olfaction to a modulation in emotion. In mice, olfactory deficits have been linked with heightened anxiety levels, suggesting that there could be an inverse relationship between olfaction and anxiety. Furthermore, increased anxiety is often co-morbid with psychiatric conditions such as attention disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Todd McLaughlin, Marek Falkowski, Jae Whan Park, Stephen Keegan, Michael Elliott, Joshua J Wang, Sarah X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aging is the strongest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and extended age results in neuronal degeneration and functional decline in the visual system. Among many contributing factors to age-related deterioration of neurons is an insufficient activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to cellular stress. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major component of the UPR and is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis and reducing cellular stresses...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Sinara Artico, Gustavo Mitsunori Aoyagi, Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa, Elisson Romanel, Marcio Alves-Ferreira
The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors that share a highly conserved domain known to bind to DNA. Members of this family control various processes of development in plants, from root formation to fruit ripening. In this work, a survey of diploid (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum) and tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) cotton genomes found a total of 147, 133 and 207 MADS-box genes, respectively, distributed in the MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ subclades. A comparative phylogenetic analysis among cotton species, Arabidopsis, poplar and grapevine MADS-box homologous genes allowed us to evaluate the evolution of each MADS-box lineage in cotton plants and identify sequences within well-established subfamilies...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Maximos Frountzas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Anastasia Prodromidou, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Despina N Perrea, Nikolaos Nikiteas
BACKGROUND: To date, the feasibility of pre-graduate training in 2D vision has not been studied thoroughly. The purpose of this pilot study is to present the preliminary results of a pre-graduate laparoscopic training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited pre-graduate medical students to participate in an experimental training program which strengthened their essential skills in 2D-vision. An easy-to-use, cost-effective, hand-made laparoscopic training box was constructed and used...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Aida María Díez, Ana Sofia Ribeiro, Maria Angeles Sanromán, Marta Pazos
Prednisolone is a widely prescribed synthetic glucocorticoid and stated to be toxic to a number of non-target aquatic organisms. Its extensive consumption generates environmental concern due to its detection in wastewater samples at concentrations ranged from ng/L to μg/L that requests the application of suitable degradation processes. Regarding the actual treatment options, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are presented as a viable alternative. In this work, the comparison in terms of pollutant removal and energetic efficiencies, between different AOPs such as Fenton (F), photo-Fenton (UV/F), photolysis (UV), and hydrogen peroxide/photolysis (UV/H2 O2 ), was carried out...
March 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
J Andrew Livingston, Wei-Lien Wang, Jen-Wei Tsai, Alexander J Lazar, Cheuk Hong Leung, Heather Lin, Shailesh Advani, Najat Daw, Janice Santiago-O'Farrill, Mario Hollomon, Nancy B Gordon, Eugenie S Kleinerman
Chemotherapy-induced autophagy is a proposed mechanism of chemoresistance and potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma. We evaluated heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and autophagy-related proteins as predictors of pathologic treatment response and prognostic markers among osteosarcoma patients who received standard chemotherapy. We analyzed 394 tumor specimens (pre-treatment, post-treatment, and metastases) from 260 osteosarcoma patients by immunohistochemistry for cytoplasmic light chain 3B (LC3B)-positive puncta, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and HSP27 expression...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Sarah Smith-Moore, Stuart J D Neil, Cornel Fraefel, R Michael Linden, Mathieu Bollen, Helen M Rowe, Els Henckaerts
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small human Dependovirus whose low immunogenicity and capacity for long-term persistence have led to its widespread use as vector for gene therapy. Despite great recent successes in AAV-based gene therapy, further improvements in vector technology may be hindered by an inadequate understanding of various aspects of basic AAV biology. AAV is unique in that its replication is largely dependent on a helper virus and cellular factors. In the absence of helper virus coinfection, wild-type AAV establishes latency through mechanisms that are not yet fully understood...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
He Sun, Yilin Xiao, Yongjun Gao, Guijie Zhang, John F Casey, Yanan Shen
Lithium (Li) isotope analyses of sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China reveal extremely light seawater Li isotopic signatures at the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB), which coincide with the most severe mass extinction in the history of animal life. Using a dynamic seawater lithium box model, we show that the light seawater Li isotopic signatures can be best explained by a significant influx of riverine [Li] with light δ7 Li to the ocean realm. The seawater Li isotope excursion started ≥300 Ky before and persisted up to the main extinction event, which is consistent with the eruption time of the Siberian Traps...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Byoung-Doo Lee, Joon-Yung Cha, Mi Ri Kim, Nam-Chon Paek, Woe-Yeon Kim
CONSTANS (CO) induces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in the photoperiodic pathway, and thereby regulates the seasonal timing of flowering. CO expression is induced and CO protein is stabilized by FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX PROTEIN 1 (FKF1) in the late afternoon, while CO is degraded by CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) during the night. These regulatory cascades were thought to act independently. In our study, we investigated the relationship between FKF1 and COP1 in the regulation of CO stability in response to ambient light conditions...
March 27, 2018: BMB Reports
S Morley-Fletcher, A R Zuena, J Mairesse, E Gatta, G Van Camp, H Bouwalerh, B Riozzi, G Battaglia, A Pittaluga, G Olivero, E Mocaer, S Bretin, F Nicoletti, S Maccari
S 47445 is a positive modulator of glutamate AMPA-type receptors, possessing neurotrophic and enhancing synaptic plasticity effects as well as pro-cognitive and anti-stress properties. Here, the drug was assessed in the perinatal stress (PRS) rat model, known to have a high predictive validity with monoaminergic antidepressants. The effects of a chronic treatment (i.p.) with S 47445 were investigated on risk-taking, motivational and cognitive behavior. S 47445 (1 and 10 mg/kg) increased the exploration of the elevated-plus maze and light/dark box as well as the time spent grooming in the splash test, and improved social memory in PRS rats...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jimena García-Rodríguez, Cheryl Lewis Ames, José Eduardo A R Marian, Antonio Carlos Marques
Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are gonochoristic cnidarians with distinct reproductive strategies. This comparative histological study examines the gonad organization of Alatina alata and Copula sivickisi, two box jellyfish species that exhibit different modes of internal fertilization. A. alata reproduces via spermcasting aggregations while C. sivickisi reproduces via copulation; in both cases, internal fertilization occurs in the gastrovascular cavity. Herein, we provide the first histological description of subgastric sacs-structures unique to C...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Taciani de Almeida Magalhães, Diego Correia, Luana Martins de Carvalho, Samara Damasceno, Ana Lúcia Brunialti Godard
Introduction: Maternal separation is an early life stress event associated with behavioral alterations and ethanol consumption. We aimed to expand the current understanding on the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of postnatal stress on ethanol consumption. Methods: In the first experiment (T1), some of the pups were separated from their mothers for 6 hr daily (Maternal Separation group - MS), whereas the other pups remained in the cage with their respective mothers (Control group - C)...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
Chao-Chao Liu, Cheng Chi, Li-Juan Jin, Jianhua Zhu, Jing-Quan Yu, Yan-Hong Zhou
The production of anthocyanin is regulated by light and corresponding photoreceptors. In this study, we found that exposure to blue light and overexpression of CRY1a are associated with increased accumulation of anthocyanin in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). These responses are the result of changes in mRNA and the protein levels of SlHY5, a transcription factor. In vitro and in vivo experiments using EMSA and ChIP-qPCR assays revealed that SlHY5 could directly recognize and bind to the G-box and ACE motifs in the promoters of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, such as CHS1, CHS2 and DFR...
March 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Shengtao Jin, Yanan Zhao, Yinghong Jiang, Yanyu Wang, Changjiang Li, Deli Zhang, Bo Lian, Zhongde Du, Hongwei Sun, Lin Sun
Maternal separation (MS) plays a central role in developing physiology and psychology during the individual ontogeny process. MS is used to research the neurobiological mechanisms of mental disorders and early life stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS and early handling (EH) on locomotor activity in an open-field test, a light-dark box test and an elevated plus-maze test of adolescent rats. The results showed that MS reduced locomotor activities in the open-field test, and increased anxiety-like behaviours in the light-dark box test and the elevated plus-maze test in adolescent rats...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Włodzimierz Więckiewicz, Marcin Kasiak, Natalia Grychowska, Joanna Smardz, Mariusz Pryliński
BACKGROUND: The reduction of dental and alveolar undercuts on plaster models is an important issue in the process of planning partial and complete prostheses. In recent years, new materials such as methacrylate resins that can be used to reduce undercuts have emerged. Their great advantage is high temperature insensitivity and relatively high ease of use. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the factors that affect the shear bond strength, and which material can be better used at the laboratory stage of preparing the plaster model to facilitate the denture bearing area and reduce the traumatizing impact of the prosthesis...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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