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Denise M Piscopo, Aldis P Weible, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Recent reports have begun to elucidate mechanisms by which learning and experience produce white matter changes in the brain. We previously reported changes in white matter surrounding the anterior cingulate cortex in humans after 2-4 weeks of meditation training. We further found that low-frequency optogenetic stimulation of the anterior cingulate in mice increased time spent in the light in a light/dark box paradigm, suggesting decreased anxiety similar to what is observed following meditation training. Here, we investigated the impact of this stimulation at the cellular level...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qingguo Li, Yaqi Li, Jing Li, Yanlei Ma, Weixing Dai, Shaobo Mo, Ye Xu, Xinxiang Li, Sanjun Cai
F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7) functions as a major tumor suppressor by targeting oncoproteins for degradations. FBW7 has been reported to be one of the most frequently mutated genes in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its roles and possible mechanisms in the development of CRC are still unclear. In the present study, we adopted immunohistochemistry staining in tissue microarray (TMA), consisting of 276 samples from stage I-IV CRC patients, and analyzed the correlation between FBW7 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Jing Li, Chuxiong Zeng, Beishi Zheng, Chun Liu, Min Tang, Yan Jiang, Yizhong Chang, Weiping Song, Yingxin Wang, Changqing Yang
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intra-hepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented the direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
An Zeng, Hua Li, Longhua Guo, Xin Gao, Sean McKinney, Yongfu Wang, Zulin Yu, Jungeun Park, Craig Semerad, Eric Ross, Li-Chun Cheng, Erin Davies, Kai Lei, Wei Wang, Anoja Perera, Kate Hall, Allison Peak, Andrew Box, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Proliferating cells known as neoblasts include pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that sustain tissue homeostasis and regeneration of lost body parts in planarians. However, the lack of markers to prospectively identify and isolate these adult PSCs has significantly hampered their characterization. We used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and single-cell transplantation to address this long-standing issue. Large-scale scRNA-seq of sorted neoblasts unveiled a novel subtype of neoblast (Nb2) characterized by high levels of PIWI-1 mRNA and protein and marked by a conserved cell-surface protein-coding gene, tetraspanin 1 (tspan-1)...
June 14, 2018: Cell
Serap Gedikli, Gökhan Güngör, Yağmur Toptaş, Dilber Ece Sezgin, Murat Demirbilek, Nuray Yazıhan, Pınar Aytar Çelik, Emir Baki Denkbaş, Vural Bütün, Ahmet Çabuk
In the present study, culture conditions of Streptococcus equi was optimized through Box-Behnken experimental design for hyaluronic acid production. About 0.87 gL-1 of hyaluronic acid was produced under the determined conditions and optimal conditions were found as 38.42 °C, 24 hr and 250 rpm. The validity and practicability of this statistical optimization strategy were confirmed relation between predicted and experimental values. The hyaluronic acid obtained under optimal conditions was characterized...
June 14, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Nathaniel A Harris, Robert M Rapoport, Mario Zuccarello, John E Maggio
The formation of the bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes), BOX A ([4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide]) and BOX B (3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide), as well as MVM (4-methyl-3-vinylmaleimide) were synthesized by oxidation of bilirubin with H2 O2 without and with FeCl3 , respectively. Compound identity was confirmed with NMR and mass spectrometry (MS; less than 1 ppm, tandem MS up to MS4 ). UV absorption profiles, including λmax , and extinction coefficient (ε; estimated using NMR) for BOX A, BOX B, and MVM in H2 O, 15% CH3 CN plus 10 mM CF3 CO2 H, CH3 CN, CHCl3 , CH2 Cl2 , and 0...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Millicent Opoku, Corrado Minetti, Worlasi D Kartey-Attipoe, Sampson Otoo, Joseph Otchere, Bruno Gomes, Dziedzom K de Souza, Lisa J Reimer
Monitoring vectors is relevant to ascertain transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF). This may require the best sampling method that can capture high numbers of specific species to give indication of transmission. Gravid anophelines are good indicators for assessing transmission due to close contact with humans through blood meals. This study compared the efficiency of an Anopheles gravid trap (AGT) with other mosquito collection methods including the box and the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention gravid, light, exit and BioGent-sentinel traps, indoor resting collection (IRC) and pyrethrum spray catches across two endemic regions of Ghana...
June 14, 2018: Parasitology
Evanthia Perikleous, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Evangelia Nena, Maria Koffa, Emmanouil Paraskakis
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by phenotypic variations, which can be partly attributed to specific gene polymorphisms. Recent studies have focused on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in order to permit a more precise perception about clinical phenotyping and targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to synthesize the current state of knowledge on the relation between DNA methylation patterns and the development of pediatric OSA, in light of the apparent limited literature in the field...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Inseok Ko, Hyejung Chang
BACKGROUND: Interactive visualization is an important approach to help to understand and to explain large amounts of data, particularly in light of decision support. Although data visualization have been introduced in healthcare and clinical fields, analytics has often been performed by data experts, focused on specific subjects, or insufficient statistical evidence. Therefore, this study suggests the procedures of effective and efficient visualization of big data for general healthcare researchers...
August 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Marcus Thomas, Russell Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The ability of collections of molecules to spontaneously assemble into large functional complexes is central to all cellular processes. Using the viral capsid as a model system for complicated macro-molecular assembly, we develop methods for probing fine details of the process by learning kinetic rate parameters consistent with experimental measures of assembly. We have previously shown that local rule based stochastic simulation methods in conjunction with bulk indirect experimental data can meaningfully constrain the space of possible assembly trajectories and allow inference of experimentally unobservable features of the real system...
June 8, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Yong-Mei Wang, Xue-Tao Tian, Hui Zhang, Zhong-Rui Yang, Xue-Bo Yin
Counterfeiting is a global epidemic that is compelling the development of new anti-counterfeiting strategy. Herein, we report a novel multiple anti-counterfeiting encoding strategy of invisible fluorescent quick response (QR) codes with emission color as information storage unit. The strategy requires red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting materials for different emission colors as encrypting information, single excitation for all of the emission for practicability, and ultraviolet (UV) excitation for invisibility under slight...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Keasling Adam, Zjawiony Jordan K, Costa Elson Alves, Adeleke Adesiyan Aderoju
The search for psychoactive plants possessing therapeutic potential in the treatment of anxiety and depression has attracted growing interest. One such plant, Nymphaea lotus (commonly known as water lily), is used in traditional medicine for analgesic and sedative effects. The present study sought to assess the anti-anxiety and antidepressant activities of crude leaf extract of N. lotus and determine possible mechanisms of action. Barbiturate sleep induction, rota-rod, light/dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT) were conducted...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Yanzhe Wang, Lei Li, Shumin Deng, Fang Liu, Zhiyi He
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury by inducing the production of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). According to recent studies, ursolic acid (UA) regulates TLR signaling and exhibits notable anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which UA regulates inflammation in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) model. The MCAO/R model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (MCAO for 2 h, followed by reperfusion for 48 h)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xingyue Yu, Deirdre Cabooter, Raf Dewil
This study aims at investigating the efficiency and kinetics of 2,4-DCP degradation via advanced reduction processes (ARP). Using UV light as activation method, the highest degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP was obtained when using sulphite as a reducing agent. The highest degradation efficiency was observed under alkaline conditions (pH = 10.0), for high sulphite dosage and UV intensity, and low 2,4-DCP concentration. For all process conditions, first-order reaction rate kinetics were applicable. A quadratic polynomial equation fitted by a Box-Behnken Design was used as a statistical model and proved to be precise and reliable in describing the significance of the different process variables...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Benoît Derrien, Marion Clavel, Nicolas Baumberger, Taichiro Iki, Alexis Sarazin, Thibaut Hacquard, Maria Rosa Ponce, Veronique Ziegler-Graff, Hervé Vaucheret, Jose Luis Micol, Olivier Voinnet, Pascal Genschik
In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) plays a central role in microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing and is a key component in antiviral responses. The polerovirus F-box P0 protein triggers AGO1 degradation as a viral counter-defence. Here, we identified a motif in AGO1 that is required for its interaction with the S phase kinase-associated protein1 (SKP1)-cullin 1 (CUL1)-F-box protein (SCF) P0 (SCFP0) complex and subsequent degradation. The AGO1 P0-degron is conserved and confers P0-mediated degradation to other AGO proteins...
May 30, 2018: Plant Cell
Ossama K Abou Hassan, Wiam Haidar, Georges Nemer, Hadi Skouri, Fadi Haddad, Imad BouAkl
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with an incidence rate of 2-6 cases per million per year. Our knowledge of the disease in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is limited by the small number of clinical studies and the complete absence of genetic studies. METHODS: Our aim was to shed light on the clinical and genetic characteristics of PAH in Lebanon and the region by using exome sequencing on PAH patients referred to the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC)...
May 30, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Aytekin Ünlü, Soner Yılmaz, Özlem Yalçın, Metin Uyanık, Patrizio Petrone, Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, İbrahim Eker, Murat Urkan, Taner Özgürtaş, İsmail Yaşar Avcı, Nazif Zeybek
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of injury related pre-hospital mortality. We investigated worst case scenarios and possible requirements of Turkish Military. As we plan to use blood resources during casualty transport, the impact of transport related mechanical stress on PRBC (packed red blood cell) were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The in vitro experiment was performed in the environmental test laboratories of ASELSAN®. Operational vibrations of potential casualty transport mediums such as Sikorsky Helicopters, Kirpi® Armoured Vehicle and NATO vibration standardsoftware MIL-STD-810G were recorded...
May 28, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Hyun Sook Hwang, Min Ha Choi, Hyun Ah Kim
Fibronectin fragments found in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) induce the catabolic responses in cartilage. Nuclear high-mobility group protein Box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern, is responsible for the regulation of signaling pathways related to cell death and survival in response to various stimuli. In this study, we investigated whether changes induced by 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment (29-kDa FN-f) in HMGB1 expression influences the pathogenesis of OA via an HMGB1-modulated autophagy signaling pathway...
May 28, 2018: BMB Reports
Stífani Machado Araujo, Marcia Rósula Poetini, Vandreza Cardoso Bortolotto, Shanda de Freitas Couto, Franciane Cabral Pinheiro, Luana Barreto Meichtry, Francielli Polet de Almeida, Elize Aparecida Santos Musachio, Mariane Trindade de Paula, Marina Prigol
The etiopathogenesis of depression may involve repeated exposure to several unpredictable stressors. This study was conducted to investigate changes induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to assess behavioral and neurochemical changes that predict depressive-like behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Male Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to CUMS with several stressors (cold, heat, starvation, and sleep deprivation) in an unpredictable and chronic manner for ten days. At the end of treatment, in vivo behavioral tests (open field, aggression, forced swimming, mating, light/dark box, male fertility evaluation, sucrose preference, weight evaluation) and ex vivo analyses (dopamine and serotonin levels) were performed...
May 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Federica Ianni, Antonella Lisanti, Maura Marinozzi, Emidio Camaioni, Lucia Pucciarini, Andrea Massoli, Roccaldo Sardella, Luciano Concezzi, Benedetto Natalini
In this study, we were interested in comparing the amino acid profile in a specific variety of onion, Rossa da inverno sel. Rojo Duro , produced in two different Italian sites: the Cannara (Umbria region) and Imola (Emilia Romagna region) sites. Onions were cultivated in a comparable manner, mostly in terms of the mineral fertilization, seeding, and harvesting stages, as well as good weed control. Furthermore, in both regions, the plants were irrigated by the water sprinkler method and subjected to similar temperature and weather conditions...
May 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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