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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645191/how-effective-is-algorithm-guided-treatment-for-depressed-inpatients-results-from-the-randomized-controlled-multicenter-german-algorithm-project-3-trial
#1
Mazda Adli, Katja Wiethoff, Thomas C Baghai, Robert Fisher, Florian Seemüller, Gregor Laakmann, Peter Brieger, Joachim Cordes, Jaroslav Malevani, Gerd Laux, Iris Hauth, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Michael N Smolka, Peter Schlattmann, Maximilian Berger, Roland Ricken, Thomas J Stamm, Andreas Heinz, Michael Bauer
Background: Treatment algorithms are are considered as key to improve outcomes by enhancing the quality of care. This is the first randomized controlled study to evalutate the clinical effect of algorithm-guided treatment in inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Inpatients, aged 18-70 years with MDD from 10 German psychiatric departments were randomized to 5 different treatment arms (from 2000 to 2005), three of which were standardized stepwise drug treatment algorithms (ALGO)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645185/soil-prokaryotic-communities-in-chernobyl-waste-disposal-trench-t22-are-modulated-by-organic-matter-and-radionuclide-contamination
#2
Nicolas Theodorakopoulos, Laureline Février, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Richard Christen, Laurie Piette, Sviatoslav Levchuk, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Claire Sergeant, Catherine Berthomieu, Virginie Chapon
After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest, and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645182/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brainstem-arteriovenous-malformations-a-multicenter-study
#3
Or Cohen-Inbar, Robert M Starke, Cheng-Chia Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Paul Huang, Douglas Kondziolka, Inga S Grills, Danilo Silva, Mohmoud Abbassy, Symeon Missios, Gene H Barnett, L Dade Lunsford, Jason P Sheehan
BACKGROUND: The management of brainstem arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is a formidable challenge. bAVMs harbor higher morbidity and mortality compared to other locations. OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of bAVMs in a multicenter study. METHODS: Six medical centers contributed data from 205 patients through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Median age was 32 yr (6-81). Median nidus volume was 1...
June 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#4
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645092/examining-effectiveness-of-tailorable-computer-assisted-therapy-programmes-for-substance-misuse-programme-usage-and-clinical-outcomes-data-from-breaking-free-online
#5
Sarah Elison, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Ward, Glyn Davies, Stephanie Dugdale
RATIONALE: When evaluating complex, tailorable digital behavioural interventions, additional approaches may be required alongside established methodologies such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Research evaluating a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Online (BFO), is informed by Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance recommending examination of 'mechanisms of action' of individual intervention strategies, which is relevant when evaluating digital interventions with content that may evolve over time...
May 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645083/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-induce-dna-damage-and-activate-the-base-excision-repair-ber-signaling-pathway-both-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Chun-Jiao Lu, Xue-Feng Jiang, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Pan-Pan Jia, Hua-Bin Wang, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene oxide (GO) has widespread concerns in the fields of biological sciences and medical applications. Currently, studies have reported that excessive GO exposure can cause cellular DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, DNA damage mediated response of the base excision repair (BER) pathway due to GO exposure is not elucidated yet. Therefore, we exposed HEK293T cells and zebrafish embryos to different concentrations of GO for 24 h, and transcriptional profiles of BER pathway genes, DNA damage, and cell viability were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645043/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-behavior-of-dna-tetrahedrons-as-tumor-targeting-nanocarriers-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#7
Ji Hee Kang, Kyoung-Ran Kim, Hyukjin Lee, Dae-Ro Ahn, Young Tag Ko
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a versatile material with high applicability and inherent biocompatibility. L-DNA, the perfect mirror form of the naturally occurring D-DNA, has been used in DNA nanotechnology. It has thermodynamically identical properties to D-DNA, is capable of self-assembly and bio-orthogonal base-pairing, and is resistant to nuclease activity. We previously constructed an L-DNA tetrahedron (L-Td) and found that this nanostructure has remarkably higher capacity for cell penetration than its natural counterpart (D-Td)...
June 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645005/application-of-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-cells-to-evaluate-neurotoxic-chemotherapy
#8
Claudia Wing, Masaaki Komatsu, Shannon M Delaney, Matthew Krause, Heather E Wheeler, M Eileen Dolan
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation to cells composing major organs has opened up the possibility for a new model system to study adverse toxicities associated with chemotherapy. Therefore, we used human iPSC-derived neurons to study peripheral neuropathy, one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and cause for dose reduction. To determine the utility of these neurons in investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy, we measured morphological differences in neurite outgrowth, cell viability as determined by ATP levels and apoptosis through measures of caspase 3/7 activation following treatment with clinically relevant concentrations of platinating agents (cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin), taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel and nab-paclitaxel), a targeted proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib), an antiangiogenic compound (thalidomide), and 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic that does not cause neuropathy...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644913/supplement-2-for-the-2004-update-of-the-aapm-task-group-no-43-report-joint-recommendations-by-the-aapm-and-gec-estro
#9
Mark J Rivard, Facundo Ballester, Wayne M Butler, Larry A DeWerd, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Ali S Meigooni, Christopher S Melhus, Michael G Mitch, Ravinder Nath, Panagiotis Papagiannis
Since publication of the 2004 update to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43U1) and its 2007 supplement (TG-43U1S1), several new low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have become available. Many of these sources have satisfied the AAPM prerequisites for routine clinical purposes and are posted on the Brachytherapy Seed Registry managed jointly by the AAPM and the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston Quality Assurance Center (IROC Houston)...
June 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644897/trpa1-and-trpv1-contribute-to-propofol-mediated-antagonism-of-u46619-induced-constriction-in-murine-coronary-arteries
#10
Pritam Sinharoy, Ian N Bratz, Sayantani Sinha, Loral E Showalter, Spencer R Andrei, Derek S Damron
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have emerged as key components contributing to vasoreactivity. Propofol, an anesthetic is associated with adverse side effects including hypotension and acute pain upon infusion. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 ion channels are involved in mediating propofol-induced vasorelaxation of mouse coronary arterioles in vitro and elucidate the potential cellular signal transduction pathway by which this occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644892/r-modafinil-exerts-weak-effects-on-spatial-memory-acquisition-and-dentate-gyrus-synaptic-plasticity
#11
Bharanidharan Shanmugasundaram, Yogesh D Aher, Jana Aradska, Marija Ilic, Daniel Daba Feyissa, Predrag Kalaba, Nilima Y Aher, Vladimir Dragacevic, Babak Saber Marouf, Thierry Langer, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
Modafinil is a wake promoting drug approved for clinical use and also has cognitive enhancing properties. Its enantiomer R-Modafinil (R-MO) is not well studied in regard to cognitive enhancing properties. Hence we studied its effect in a spatial memory paradigm and its possible effects on dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (DG-LTP). Clinically relevant doses of R-MO, vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or saline were administered for three days during the hole-board test and in in vivo DG-LTP. Synaptic levels of dopamine receptors D1R, D2R, dopamine transporter (DAT), and its phosphorylated form (ph-DAT) in DG tissue 4 h after LTP induction were quantified by western blot analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644875/estimation-of-the-optimal-dosing-regimen-of-escitalopram-in-dogs-a-dose-occupancy-study-with-11c-dasb
#12
Olivia Taylor, Nick Van Laeken, Ingeborgh Polis, Robrecht Dockx, Lise Vlerick, Andre Dobbeleir, Ingeborg Goethals, Jimmy Saunders, Nele Sadones, Chris Baeken, Filip De Vos, Kathelijne Peremans
Although the favourable characteristics of escitalopram as being the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and having an increased therapeutic efficacy via binding on an additional allosteric binding site of the serotonin transporter, its dosing regimen has not yet been optimized for its use in dogs. This study aimed to estimate the optimal dosing frequency and the required dose for achieving 80% occupancy of the serotonin transporters in the basal ganglia. The dosing frequency was investigated by determining the elimination half-life after a four day oral pre-treatment period with 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644862/high-intensity-corneal-collagen-crosslinking-with-riboflavin-and-uva-in-rat-cornea
#13
Yirui Zhu, Peter S Reinach, Hanlei Zhu, Qiufan Tan, Qinxiang Zheng, Jia Qu, Wei Chen
Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) halts human corneal ectasias progression by increasing stromal mechanical stiffness. Although some reports describe that this procedure is effective in dealing with some infectious and immunologic corneal thinning diseases, there is a need for more animal models whose corneal thickness more closely resemble those occurring in these patients. To meet this need, we describe here high-intensity protocols that are safe and effective for obtaining CXL in rat corneas. Initially, a range of potentially effective UVA doses were evaluated based on their effectiveness in increasing tissue enzymatic resistance to dissolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644820/investigation-of-real-tissue-water-equivalent-path-lengths-using-an-efficient-dose-extinction-method
#14
Rongxiao Zhang, Esther Baer, Kyung-Wook Jee, Gregory C Sharp, Jay Flanz, Hsiao-Ming Lu
For proton therapy, an accurate conversion of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) is essential. Validation of the conversion based on real tissue samples is more direct than the current practice solely based on tissue substitutes and can potentially address variations over the population. Based on a novel dose extinction method, we measured water equivalent path lengths (WEPL) on animal tissue samples to evaluate the accuracy of CT HU to RSP conversion and potential variations over a population. A broad proton beam delivered a spread out Bragg peak to the samples sandwiched between a water tank and a 2D ion-chamber detector...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644819/quantifying-the-accuracy-and-precision-of-a-novel-real-time-6-degree-of-freedom-kilovoltage-intrafraction-monitoring-kim-target-tracking-system
#15
J-H Kim, D T Nguyen, C-Y Huang, T Fuangrod, V Caillet, R O'Brien, P Poulsen, J Booth, P Keall
Target rotation can considerably impact the delivered radiotherapy dose depending on the tumour shape. More accurate tumour pose during radiotherapy treatment can be acquired through tracking in 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) rather than in translation only. A novel real-time 6 DoF kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) target tracking system has recently been developed. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the accuracy and precision of the 6 DoF KIM implementation. Real-time 6 DoF KIM motion measurements were compared against the ground truth motion retrospectively derived from kV/MV triangulation for a range of lung and prostate tumour motion trajectories as well as for various static poses using a phantom...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644800/online-combination-of-epid-cherenkov-imaging-for-3d-dosimetry-in-a-liquid-phantom
#16
Petr Bruza, Jacqueline M Andreozzi, David J Gladstone, Lesley A Jarvis, Joerg Rottmann, Brian W Pogue
Online acquisition of Cherenkov and portal imaging data was combined with a reconstruction scheme called EC3D, providing a full 3D dosimetry of megavoltage X-ray beams in a water tank. The methodology was demonstrated and quantified in a single static beam. Furthermore, the dynamics and visualization of the 3D dose reconstruction were demonstrated with a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan for TG-119 C-Shape geometry. The developed algorithm combines depth dose information, provided by Cherenkov images, with the lateral dose distribution, provided by the electronic portal imaging device (EPID)...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644774/cd33-splicing-polymorphism-determines-gemtuzumab-ozogamicin-response-in-de-novo-acute-myeloid-leukemia-report-from-randomized-phase-iii-children-s-oncology-group-trial-aaml0531
#17
Jatinder K Lamba, Lata Chauhan, Miyoung Shin, Michael R Loken, Jessica A Pollard, Yi-Cheng Wang, Rhonda E Ries, Richard Aplenc, Betsy A Hirsch, Susana C Raimondi, Roland B Walter, Irwin D Bernstein, Alan S Gamis, Todd A Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi
Purpose Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a CD33-targeted immunoconjugate, is a re-emerging therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 single nucleotide polymorphism rs12459419 C>T in the splice enhancer region regulates the expression of an alternatively spliced CD33 isoform lacking exon2 (D2-CD33), thus eliminating the CD33 IgV domain, which is the antibody-binding site for GO, as well as diagnostic immunophenotypic panels. We aimed to determine the impact of the genotype of this splicing polymorphism in patients with AML treated with GO-containing chemotherapy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644765/radioactivity-measurements-and-dosimetric-evaluation-in-meat-of-wild-birds
#18
Carla Roselli, Donatella Desideri, Chiara Cantaluppi, Federica Ceccotto, Laura Feduzi, Maria Assunta Meli
The aim of this study was to determine the background activity concentration of natural radionuclides and (137)Cesium (Cs) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe. This meat is largely consumed by the Italian population. (40)K, (210)Pb, and (137)Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry and (210)Po by alpha spectrometry. The mean (40)K activity concentration detected was 490 ± 117 Bq/kgdw. In all the samples, (210)Pb was below the limit of detection (LOD), and therefore it was not possible to calculate the ratio (210)Po/(210)Pb...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#19
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644735/fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-evidence-based-antenatal-and-postnatal-management-strategies
#20
Dian Winkelhorst, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a relatively rare but potentially lethal disease, leading to severe bleeding complications in 1 in 11.000 newborns. It is the leading cause of thrombocytopenia in healthy term-born neonates. Areas covered: This review summarizes the antenatal as well as postnatal treatment, thus creating a complete overview of all possible management strategies for FNAIT. Expert commentary: The optimal antenatal therapy in order to prevent bleeding complications in pregnancies complicated by FNAIT is non-invasive treatment with weekly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
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