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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094804/six-years-in-the-life-of-a-mother-bear-the-longest-continuous-heart-rate-recordings-from-a-free-ranging-mammal
#2
Timothy G Laske, Paul A Iaizzo, David L Garshelis
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090714/transplantation-of-cd51-stem-leydig-cells-a-new-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-testosterone-deficiency
#3
Zhi Jun Zang, Jiancheng Wang, Zhihong Chen, Yan Zhang, Yong Gao, Zhijian Su, Ying Tuo, Yan Liao, Min Zhang, Qunfang Yuan, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Andy Peng Xiang
Stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation could provide a new strategy for treating the testosterone deficiency. Our previous study demonstrated that CD51 (also called integrin αv) might be a putative cell surface marker for SLCs, but the physiological function and efficacy of CD51(+) SLCs treatment remain unclear. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic benefits of CD51(+) SLCs transplantation and whether these transplanted cells can be regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. CD51(+) cells were isolated from the testes of 12-weeks-old C57BL/6 mice, and we showed that such cells expressed SLC markers and that they were capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and differentiation into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages and LCs in vitro...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090257/epicardial-fat-thickness-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-are-increased-in-non-dipper-hypertensive-patients
#4
Bong Joon Kim, Kyoung Im Cho, Ji Hun Choi, Dong Hyun Park, Ga In Yu, Sung Il Im, Hyun Su Kim, Jeong Ho Heo, Tae-Joon Cha
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR; an important inflammatory marker), and diurnal blood pressure (BP) changes in patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. METHODS: A total of 647 patients underwent echocardiography and 24 hours of ambulatory BP monitoring. EFT was measured by echocardiography, while NLR was measured by dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087896/eag-channels-expressed-in-microvillar-photoreceptors-are-unsuited-to-diurnal-vision
#5
Esa-Ville Immonen, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Mikko Vähäsöyrinki, Roman V Frolov
The principles underlying evolutionary selection of ion channels for expression in sensory neurons are unclear. Among species possessing microvillar photoreceptors the major ionic conductances have only been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila depolarization is provided by light-activated TRP channels with a minor contribution from TRPL channels, while repolarization is mediated by sustained voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels of the Shab family. Bright light stimulates Shab channels, further restricting depolarization and improving membrane bandwidth...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087763/circadian-kinetics-of-cell-cycle-progression-in-adult-neurogenic-niches-of-a-diurnal-vertebrate
#6
Veronica Akle, Alexander J Stankiewicz, Vasili Kharchenko, Lili Yu, Peter V Kharchenko, Irina V Zhdanova
: The circadian system may regulate adult neurogenesis via intracellular molecular clock mechanisms or by modifying the environment of neurogenic niches, with daily variation in growth factors or nutrients depending on the animal's diurnal or nocturnal life-style. In a diurnal vertebrate, zebrafish, we studied circadian distribution of immunohistochemical markers of the cell division cycle (CDC) in five of the sixteen neurogenic niches of adult brain, the dorsal telencephalon, habenula, preoptic area, hypothalamus and cerebellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087438/dopa-responsive-dystonia-in-chinese-patients-including-a-novel-heterozygous-mutation-in-the-gch1-gene-with-an-intermediate-phenotype-and-one-case-of-prenatal-diagnosis
#7
Wen Zhang, Zhizi Zhou, Xiuzhen Li, Yonglan Huang, Taolin Li, Yunting Lin, Yongxian Shao, Hao Hu, Hongsheng Liu, Li Liu
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by childhood-onset dystonia with diurnal fluctuation and dramatic response to levodopa. DRD is caused by the mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the dopamine and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis, including the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. In order to improve the diagnosis and expand the knowledge of the disease, we collected and analyzed relevant data of clinical diagnosis and molecular mutational analysis in five Chinese patients with DRD...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087365/parasite-induced-increases-in-the-energy-costs-of-movement-of-host-freshwater-fish
#8
Ondřej Slavík, Pavel Horký, Karel Douda, Josef Velíšek, Jitka Kolářová, Pavel Lepič
Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption...
January 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087238/lymphocyte-circadian-clocks-control-lymph-node-trafficking-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#9
David Druzd, Olga Matveeva, Louise Ince, Ute Harrison, Wenyan He, Christoph Schmal, Hanspeter Herzel, Anthony H Tsang, Naoto Kawakami, Alexei Leliavski, Olaf Uhl, Ling Yao, Leif Erik Sander, Chien-Sin Chen, Kerstin Kraus, Alba de Juan, Sophia Martina Hergenhan, Marc Ehlers, Berthold Koletzko, Rainer Haas, Werner Solbach, Henrik Oster, Christoph Scheiermann
Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes...
January 6, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079162/glucose-tolerance-in-mice-exposed-to-light-dark-stimulus-patterns-mirroring-dayshift-and-rotating-shift-schedules
#10
Mariana G Figueiro, Leora Radetsky, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
Glucose tolerance was measured in (nocturnal) mice exposed to light-dark stimulus patterns simulating those that (diurnal) humans would experience while working dayshift (DSS) and 2 rotating night shift patterns (1 rotating night shift per week [RSS1] and 3 rotating night shifts per week [RSS3]). Oral glucose tolerance tests were administered at the same time and light phase during the third week of each experimental session. In contrast to the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions, glucose levels reduced more quickly for the DSS condition...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078345/comparison-between-the-optical-properties-of-aerosols-in-the-fine-and-coarse-fractions-over-valladolid-spain
#11
S Mogo, J F López, V E Cachorro, A de Frutos, R Zocca, A Barroso, D Mateos, E Conceição
Continuous measurements of the optical properties of aerosol particles have been made at Valladolid, Spain, covering the period from June 2011 to July 2012. The measurements were made at two size cuts: sub-10 μm and sub-1 μm (PM10 and PM1). The data measured were the scattering and backscattering coefficients, σs and σbs, obtained from an integrating nephelometer, and the absorption coefficient, σa, obtained from a particle soot absorption photometer. Spectrally resolved data were obtained from both instruments at 3 wavelengths (blue/green/red) at low relative humidity (RH < 40%)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077681/tune-into-the-rhythm-of-your-bugs
#12
Purna Kashyap
Diurnal changes in gut microbiota localization and function alter host physiology through circadian epigenetic and transcriptional changes.
January 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076377/comparative-analysis-of-vertebrate-diurnal-circadian-transcriptomes
#13
Greg Boyle, Kerstin Richter, Henry D Priest, David Traver, Todd C Mockler, Jeffrey T Chang, Steve A Kay, Ghislain Breton
From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076306/parallel-diurnal-fluctuation-of-testosterone-androstenedione-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-17ohprogesterone-as-assessed-in-serum-and-saliva-validation-of-a-novel-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-salivary-steroid-profiling
#14
Marco Mezzullo, Alessia Fazzini, Alessandra Gambineri, Guido Di Dalmazi, Roberta Mazza, Carla Pelusi, Valentina Vicennati, Renato Pasquali, Uberto Pagotto, Flaminia Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Salivary androgen testing represents a valuable source of biological information. However, the proper measurement of such low levels is challenging for direct immunoassays, lacking adequate accuracy. In the last few years, many conflicting findings reporting low correlation with the serum counterparts have hampered the clinical application of salivary androgen testing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) makes it possible to overcome previous analytical limits, providing new insights in endocrinology practice...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074466/anatomical-organization-of-the-brain-of-a-diurnal-and-a-nocturnal-dung-beetle
#15
Esa-Ville Immonen, Marie Dacke, Stanley Heinze, Basil El Jundi
To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074036/redox-crisis-underlies-conditional-light-dark-lethality-in-cyanobacterial-mutants-that-lack-the-circadian-regulator-rpaa
#16
Spencer Diamond, Benjamin E Rubin, Ryan K Shultzaberger, You Chen, Chase D Barber, Susan S Golden
Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073999/everyday-support-to-aging-parents-links-to-middle-aged-children-s-diurnal-cortisol-and-daily-mood
#17
Lauren R Bangerter, Yin Liu, Kyungmin Kim, Steven H Zarit, Kira S Birditt, Karen L Fingerman
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Middle-aged adults are often called upon to support aging parents. However, providing support to an aging parent with health problems and disability may be a stressful experience. This study asked whether giving everyday support to parents in the context of health problems and disability has implications for middle-aged children's diurnal cortisol and daily mood. DESIGN AND METHODS: During four consecutive days, 148 middle-aged adults (mean age = 55) reported the support they gave to their parents and provided saliva 4 times a day (wake, 30 min post-wake, lunchtime, and bedtime)...
January 9, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073438/individual-based-modelling-of-the-development-and-transport-of-a-karenia-mikimotoi-bloom-on-the-north-west-european-continental-shelf
#18
P A Gillibrand, B Siemering, P I Miller, K Davidson
In 2006, a large and prolonged bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi occurred in Scottish coastal waters, causing extensive mortalities of benthic organisms including annelids and molluscs and some species of fish (Davidson et al., 2009). A coupled hydrodynamic-algal transport model was developed to track the progression of the bloom around the Scottish coast during June-September 2006 and hence investigate the processes controlling the bloom dynamics. Within this individual-based model, cells were capable of growth, mortality and phototaxis and were transported by physical processes of advection and turbulent diffusion, using current velocities extracted from operational simulations of the MRCS ocean circulation model of the North-west European continental shelf...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073437/a-high-resolution-hydrodynamic-model-system-suitable-for-novel-harmful-algal-bloom-modelling-in-areas-of-complex-coastline-and-topography
#19
Dmitry Aleynik, Andrew C Dale, Marie Porter, Keith Davidson
Fjordic coastlines provide sheltered locations for finfish and shellfish aquaculture, and are often subject to harmful algal blooms (HABs) some of which develop offshore and are then advected to impact nearshore aquaculture. Numerical models are a potentially important tool for providing early warning of such HAB events. However, the complex topography of fjordic shelf regions is a significant challenge to modelling. This is frequently compounded by complex bathymetry and local weather patterns. Existing structured grid models do not provide the resolution needed to represent these coastlines in their wider shelf context...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067276/flip-flop-of-day-night-and-summer-winter-surface-urban-heat-island-intensity-in-india
#20
Hiteshri Shastri, Beas Barik, Subimal Ghosh, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte
The difference in land surface temperature (LST) between an urban region and its nearby non-urban region, known as surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), is usually positive as reported in earlier studies. India has experienced unprecedented urbanization over recent decades with an urban population of 380 million. Here, we present the first study of the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of SUHII in India. We found negative SUHII over a majority of urban areas during daytime in pre-monsoon summer (MAM), contrary to the expected impacts of urbanization...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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