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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526121/rates-of-nitrogen-uptake-by-cyanobacterially-dominated-assemblages-in-lake-taihu-china-during-late-summer
#1
Jingjing Yang, Han Gao, Patricia M Glibert, Yu Wang, Mengmeng Tong
Lake Taihu has suffered an increasing number of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) over the past three decades, bringing about formidable ecological and economical losses. Efforts to control phosphate (P) and/or nitrogen (N) have been applied to mitigate these blooms, but there has been much less attention paid to N and its different forms on the ecology of the blooms. Therefore, kinetic and nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted to assess N uptake rates under differing conditions, and to examine effects of changes in N forms (NH4(+), NO3(-) and urea) and P availability on phytoplankton community physiology...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525248/-magnetic-fields-and-health-from-epidemiology-to-cryptochrome-chemistry
#2
REVIEW
J Vanderstraeten
Biological effects of static magnetic fields (MF) and time-varying MF of electricity (50/60 Hz) appear possible from intensities in the low illitesla range. However, prolonged exposure to 50/60 Hz MF is associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia at less than one microtesla of time-averaged intensity. And such kind of association is suggested in adults for some blood cancers and senile dementia. The cryptochrome hypothesis has been proposed to explain the association established with childhood leukemia...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524871/in-situ-light-responses-of-the-proteorhodopsin-bearing-antarctic-sea-ice-bacterium-psychroflexus-torques
#3
David J Burr, Andrew Martin, Elizabeth W Maas, Ken G Ryan
Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a wide-spread protein found in many marine prokaryotes. PR allows for the potential conversion of solar energy to ATP, possibly assisting in cellular growth and survival during periods of high environmental stress. PR utilises either blue or green light through a single amino acid substitution. We incubated the PR-bearing bacterium Psychroflexus torquis 50 cm deep within Antarctic sea ice for 13 days, exposing cultures to diurnal fluctuations in light and temperature. Enhanced growth occurred most prominently in cultures incubated under irradiance levels of ∼50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), suggesting PR provides a strong selective advantage...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522814/daily-corticosterone-rhythm-modulates-pineal-function-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-gene-transcriptional-program
#4
Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Eduardo K Tamura, Claudia E Carvalho-Sousa, Vanderlei Amadeu Rocha, Luciana Pinato, Pedro A C Fernandes, Regina P Markus
Melatonin and glucocorticoids are key hormones in determining daily rhythmicity and modulating defense responses. In nocturnal animals, corticosterone peaks at light/dark transition,while melatonin peaks at the middle of the night in both nocturnal and diurnal animals. The crosstalk between adrenal and pineal glands under inflammatory conditions indicates that corticosterone potentiates nocturnal melatonin synthesis by reducing the activity of NFκB. This transcription factor, which modulates the expression of a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis, is sharply reduced at the entrance of darkness in the rat pineal gland...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522675/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-24-hour-ambulatory-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
William L Baker, Leo F Buckley, Michael S Kelly, John D Bucheit, Eric D Parod, Roy Brown, Salvatore Carbone, Antonio Abbate, Dave L Dixon
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of antihyperglycemic agents that improve glycemic control by increasing glycosuria. Additional benefits beyond glucose lowering include significant improvements in seated clinic blood pressure (BP), partly attributed to their diuretic-like actions. Less known are the effects of this class on 24-hour ambulatory BP, which is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than seated clinic BP. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to investigate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on 24-hour ambulatory BP...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522076/sleep-wake-stability-in-narcolepsy-patients-with-normal-low-and-unmeasurable-hypocretin-levels
#6
Mathias Hvidtfelt Hansen, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
OBJECTIVE: To compare diurnal and nocturnal electrophysiological data from narcolepsy patients with undetectable (<20 pg/mL), low (20-110 pg/mL) and normal (>110 pg/mL) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 109 narcolepsy patients and 37 controls were studied; all had available CSF hypocretin-1 measurements. The sleep laboratory studies were conducted between 2008 and 2014. The study retrospectively examined measurements of sleep stage transitions in diurnal and nocturnal continuous polysomnography...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520796/a-hierarchical-model-for-estimating-the-spatial-distribution-and-abundance-of-animals-detected-by-continuous-time-recorders
#7
Robert M Dorazio, K Ullas Karanth
MOTIVATION: Several spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have been developed to estimate animal abundance by analyzing the detections of individuals in a spatial array of traps. Most of these models do not use the actual dates and times of detection, even though this information is readily available when using continuous-time recorders, such as microphones or motion-activated cameras. Instead most SCR models either partition the period of trap operation into a set of subjectively chosen discrete intervals and ignore multiple detections of the same individual within each interval, or they simply use the frequency of detections during the period of trap operation and ignore the observed times of detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520413/temporal-characteristics-of-brown-carbon-over-the-central-indo-gangetic-plain
#8
Rangu Venkata Satish, Puthukkadan Moosakutty Shamjad, Navaneeth M Thamban, Sachchida N Tripathi, Neeraj Rastogi
Recent global models estimate that light absorption by brown carbon (BrC) in several regions of the world is ~30-70% of that due to black carbon (BC). It is, therefore, important to understand its sources and characteristics on temporal and spatial scale. In this study, we conducted semi-continuous measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and BrC using particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with liquid waveguide capillary cell and total carbon analyzer (PILS-LWCC-TOC) over Kanpur (26.5°N, 80.3°E, 142 m amsl) during a winter season (December 2015 to February 2016)...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515793/does-the-diurnal-cycle-of-cortisol-explain-the-relationship-between-physical-performance-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#9
B Dijckmans, J Tortosa-Martínez, N Caus, G González-Caballero, B Martínez-Pelegrin, C Manchado-Lopez, J M Cortell-Tormo, I Chulvi-Medrano, A Clow
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is a promising strategy to treat and prevent cognitive decline. The mechanisms that mediate these benefits are not fully clear but physical activity is thought to attenuate the harmful effects of chronic psychological stress and hypercortisolism on cognition. However, the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is complex and it is not known which aspects are most closely associated with increased cognitive function and better physical performance...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515469/the-topobiology-of-chemical-elements-in-seabird-feathers
#10
Nicholas R Howell, Jennifer L Lavers, Sayaka Uematsu, David Paterson, Daryl L Howard, Kathryn Spiers, Martin D de Jonge, Tracey Hanley, Richard Garrett, Richard B Banati
The highly organized morphogenesis of bird feathers holds important phylo- and ontogenetic information on the evolution of birds, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, and the health status of individual animals. Altered topobiological patterns are regularly used as retrospective evidence for disturbed developmental trajectories due to the past exposure to environmental stressors. Using the most advanced high-resolution (5-70 µm) X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), we describe in the feathers from three species of Procellariiformes hitherto unknown, depositions of elements (Zn, Ca, Br, Cu, Fe) that are independent of pigmentation or any underlying variation in density or polymer structure...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514644/the-importance-of-hormonal-circadian-rhythms-in-daily-feeding-patterns-an-illustration-with-simulated-pigs
#11
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514631/the-hawk-eyed-songbird-retinal-morphology-eye-shape-and-visual-fields-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#12
Luke P Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Swallows are a unique group of songbirds because they are active-pursuit predators that execute all aspects of hunting prey in flight: search, detection, pursuit, and capture. We show that swallows have evolved a visual system that is unlike that of any other studied songbird. Swallows have a bifoveate retina that provides sharp lateral and frontal vision, an unusually long eye that enhances spatial resolution, a large posterior blind area, and a narrow binocular field. We also show that swallows and diurnal raptors (hawks and falcons) have converged on a similar visual configuration but that, interestingly, predatory songbirds that ambush prey (flycatchers) have not converged on the same suite of traits...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511045/stigma-and-diurnal-cortisol-among-transitioning-transgender-men
#13
L Zachary DuBois, Sally Powers, Bethany G Everett, Robert-Paul Juster
This study assessed diurnal cortisol functioning in relation to stigma-based transition-specific stressors experienced by transgender men during their transition from female to male. Sixty-five healthy transgender men undergoing testosterone therapy participated in in-person interviews through which transition-specific stressors were identified. Interviews were coded according to participant reported (1) Transitioning-identity stress; (2) Coming Out stress; (3) Gender-specific Public Bathroom stress; and (4) levels of general Perceived Stress...
May 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510489/urban-heat-island-uhi-influence-on-secondary-pollutant-formation-at-a-tropical-humid-environment
#14
Gsnvksn Swamy, S M Shiva Nagendra, Uwe Shlink
The combined action of urbanization (change in land use) and increase in vehicular emissions intensify the urban heat island (UHI) effect in many cities in the developed countries. The urban warming (UHI) enhances heat stress related diseases and ozone (O3) levels due to a photochemical reaction. Even though UHI intensity depends on wind speed, wind direction and solar flux, the thermodynamic properties of surface materials can accelerate the temperature profiles at the local scale. This mechanism modifies the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and mixing height in urban regions...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504274/link-between-light-triggered-mg-banding-and-chamber-formation-in-the-planktic-foraminifera-neogloboquadrina-dutertrei
#15
Jennifer S Fehrenbacher, Ann D Russell, Catherine V Davis, Alexander C Gagnon, Howard J Spero, John B Cliff, Zihua Zhu, Pamela Martin
The relationship between seawater temperature and the average Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera is well established, providing an essential tool for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. However, many species display alternating high and low Mg-bands within their shell walls that cannot be explained by temperature alone. Recent experiments demonstrate that intrashell Mg variability in Orbulina universa, which forms a spherical terminal shell, is paced by the diurnal light/dark cycle. Whether Mg-heterogeneity is also diurnally paced in species with more complex shell morphologies is unknown...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499968/normal-behavioral-responses-to-light-and-darkness-and-the-pupillary-light-reflex-are-dependent-upon-the-olivary-pretectal-nucleus-in-the-diurnal-nile-grass-rat
#16
Andrew J Gall, Ohanes S Khacherian, Brandi Ledbetter, Sean P Deats, Megan Luck, Laura Smale, Lily Yan, Antonio A Nunez
The olivary pretectal nucleus (OPT) is a midbrain structure that receives reciprocal bilateral retinal projections, is involved in the pupillary light reflex, and connects reciprocally with the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), a retinorecipient brain region that mediates behavioral responses to light pulses (i.e., masking) in diurnal Nile grass rats. Here, we lesioned the OPT and evaluated behavioral responses in grass rats to various lighting conditions, as well as their anxiety-like responses to light exposure...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499007/shifts-in-microbial-trophic-strategy-explain-different-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-flux-under-constant-and-diurnally-varying-temperature-regimes
#17
Zhen Bai, Hongtu Xie, Jenny Kao-Kniffin, Baodong Chen, Pengshuai Shao, Chao Liang
Understanding soil CO2 flux temperature sensitivity (Q10) is critical for predicting ecosystem-level responses to climate change. Yet, the effects of warming on microbial CO2 respiration still remain poorly understood under current Earth system models, partly as a result of thermal acclimation of organic matter decomposition. We conducted a 117-day incubation experiment under constant and diurnally-varying temperature treatments based on four forest soils varying in vegetation stand and soil horizon. Our results showed that Q10 was greater under varying than constant temperature regimes...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498716/chronotype-distribution-in-professional-rugby-players-evidence-for-the-environment-hypothesis
#18
Lovemore Kunorozva, Dale E Rae, Laura C Roden
Individual sport athletes have been shown to comprise unusually high proportions of morning-types (MTs) coupled with a higher prevalence of the morningness-associated PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele, PER3(5). The degree to which type of sport selected is influenced by either chronotype or genotype, or the extent to which sporting environment contributes to chronotype is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess chronotype and PER3 VNTR polymorphism frequencies in team sport players and non-athletic controls...
May 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497178/optimization-of-production-of-c-phycocyanin-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances-by-arthrospira-sp
#19
Monchai Dejsungkranont, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
The key factors influencing the production of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by photoautotrophic culture of Arthrospira sp. were optimized using Taguchi method. Six factors were varied at either three or two levels as follows: light intensity at three levels; three initial culture pHs; two species of Arthrospira; three concentrations of Zarrouk's medium; three rates of aeration of the culture with air mixed with 2% v/v carbon dioxide; and two incubation temperatures. All cultures ran for 14 days...
May 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493285/hidden-floral-adaptation-to-nocturnal-moths-in-an-apparently-bee-pollinated-flower-adenophora-triphylla-var-japonica-campanulaceae
#20
Daichi Funamoto, Kazuharu Ohashi
• The discrepancy between observed flower visitors and those predicted based on floral phenotype has often cast doubt on the pollination syndrome concept. Here we show that this paradox may be alleviated by gaining a better knowledge of the contributions of different flower visitors to pollination and the effects of floral traits that cannot be readily perceived by humans in Adenophora triphylla var. japonica. The blue, bell-shaped and pendent flowers of A. triphylla appear to fit a bee pollination syndrome...
May 10, 2017: Plant Biology
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