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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651371/sleep-and-physiological-dysregulation-a-closer-look-at-sleep-intraindividual-variability
#1
Bei Bei, Teresa E Seeman, Judith E Carroll, Joshua F Wiley
Study Objectives: Variable daily sleep (i.e., higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined the associations between sleep timing, duration, and quality IIV and physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome, and allostatic load (AL) as a multi-system distal outcome. Methods: Participants are 436 adults (Mage±SD=54...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651090/spatio-temporal-variability-of-particulate-matter-in-the-key-part-of-gansu-province-western-china
#2
Qingyu Guan, Ao Cai, Feifei Wang, Liqin Yang, Chuanqi Xu, Zeyu Liu
To investigate the spatial and temporal behaviors of particulate matter in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan during 2014, the hourly concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) in this study. The analysis indicated that the mean annual PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations during 2014 were 115 ± 52 μg/m(3) (57 ± 28 μg/m(3)), 104 ± 75 μg/m(3) (38 ± 22 μg/m(3)) and 114 ± 72 μg/m(3) (32 ± 17 μg/m(3)) in Lanzhou, Jinchang and Jiayuguan, respectively, all of which exceeded the Chinese national ambient air quality II standards for PM...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650196/effects-of-circadian-cortisol-on-the-development-of-a-health-habit
#3
Marion Fournier, Fabienne d'Arripe-Longueville, Carole Rovere, Christopher S Easthope, Lars Schwabe, Jonathan El Methni, Rémi Radel
OBJECTIVE: Given the impact of individuals' habits on health, it is important to study how behaviors can become habitual. Cortisol has been well documented to have a role in habit formation. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of the circadian rhythm of cortisol on habit formation in a real-life setting. METHOD: Forty-eight students were followed for 90 days during which they attempted to adopt a health behavior (psoas iliac stretch). They were randomly assigned to perform the stretch either upon waking in the morning, when cortisol concentrations are high, or before evening bedtime, when cortisol levels approach the nadir...
June 26, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649633/latent-virus-reactivation-in-astronauts-on-the-international-space-station
#4
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649101/-aging-and-homeostasis-circadian-rhythms-and-aging
#5
Megumi Hatori
Daily rhythms of physiological and behavioral processes such as sleep and arousal are controlled by the circadian clock. The expression of the clock genes oscillate rhythmically in daily manner, and this clock oscillator resides in almost all of the cells in the body. The circadian clock entrains to diurnal environmental changes by using light and food intake as external time cues. Timing of feeding and fasting strongly affects daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes and key regulators of nutrient homeostasis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648499/light-dependent-regulation-of-sleep-and-wake-states-by-prokineticin-2-in-zebrafish
#6
Shijia Chen, Sabine Reichert, Chanpreet Singh, Grigorios Oikonomou, Jason Rihel, David A Prober
Light affects sleep and wake behaviors by providing an indirect cue that entrains circadian rhythms and also by inducing a direct and rapid regulation of behavior. While circadian entrainment by light is well characterized at the molecular level, mechanisms that underlie the direct effect of light on behavior are largely unknown. In zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, we found that both overexpression and mutation of the neuropeptide prokineticin 2 (Prok2) affect sleep and wake behaviors in a light-dependent but circadian-independent manner...
June 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647176/mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-efficiency-is-upregulated-during-fasting-in-two-major-oxidative-tissues-of-ducklings
#7
Pierre-Axel Monternier, Loïc Teulier, Jocelyne Drai, Aurore Bourguignon, Delphine Collin-Chavagnac, Frédéric Hervant, Jean-Louis Rouanet, Damien Roussel
Fasted endothermic vertebrates must develop physiological responses to maximize energy conservation and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 1-wk. fasting in 5-wk. old ducklings (Cairina moschata) from whole-body resting metabolic rate and body temperature to metabolic phenotype of tissues and mitochondrial coupling efficiency. At the level of whole organism, the mass-specific metabolic rate of ducklings was decreased by 40% after 1-wk. of fasting, which was associated with nocturnal Tb declines and shallow diurnal hypothermia during fasting...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646918/diurnal-cycling-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-is-associated-with-shifts-in-carbon-metabolism
#8
Christopher Staley, Abigail P Ferrieri, Malak M Tfaily, Yaya Cui, Rosalie K Chu, Ping Wang, Jared B Shaw, Charles K Ansong, Heather Brewer, Angela D Norbeck, Meng Markillie, Fernanda do Amaral, Thalita Tuleski, Tomás Pellizzaro, Beverly Agtuca, Richard Ferrieri, Susannah G Tringe, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Michael J Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock regulates plant metabolic functions and is an important component in plant health and productivity. Rhizosphere bacteria play critical roles in plant growth, health, and development and are shaped primarily by soil communities. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we characterized bacterial communities of wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis thaliana and an acyclic line (OX34) ectopically expressing the circadian clock-associated cca1 transcription factor, relative to a soil control, to determine how cycling dynamics affected the microbial community...
June 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646412/efficacy-of-additional-canagliflozin-administration-to-type-2-diabetes-patients-receiving-insulin-therapy-examination-of-diurnal-glycemic-patterns-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring-cgm
#9
Mihoko Matsumura, Yuki Nakatani, Seiichi Tanka, Chie Aoki, Masaaki Sagara, Kazunori Yanagi, Kunihiro Suzuki, Yoshimasa Aso
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of administering a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor during insulin therapy has not been established. In this study, we examined its effects based on diurnal glycemic patterns using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: The subjects were 15 patients who had received insulin therapy for 1 year or more. A CGM device was attached to all subjects for 1 week. The administration of canagliflozin at 100 mg was started 4 days after attachment...
June 23, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645997/temperature-profiles-of-antibiotic-containing-elastomeric-infusion-devices-used-by-ambulatory-care-patients
#10
Toni Docherty, Michael Montalto, Joni Leslie, Katrina King, Suzanne Niblett, Tim Garrett
PURPOSE: The temperature profiles of antibiotic-containing elastomeric infusion devices used by ambulatory care patients under various environmental conditions were evaluated. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive survey of temperature exposure was conducted in 4 publically funded hospitals. Over a 12-month period, electronic temperature-recording devices were attached to the antibiotic infusion devices (infusers) of prospectively randomized hospital-in-the-home (HITH) participants...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644970/overexpression-of-populus%C3%A3-canescens-isoprene-synthase-gene-in-camelina-sativa-leads-to-alterations-in-its-growth-and-metabolism
#11
Lorenzo Rossi, Monica Borghi, Jinfen Yang, De-Yu Xie
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a hemiterpene molecule. It has been estimated that the plant kingdom emits 500-750 million tons of isoprene in the environment, half of which results from tropical broadleaf trees and the remainder from shrubs. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an emerging bioenergy plant for biodiesel. In this study, we characterized isoprene formation following a diurnal/nocturnal cycle in wild-type Camelina plants. To understand the potential effects of isoprene emission on this herbaceous plant, a gray poplar Populus×canescens isoprene synthase gene (PcISPS) was overexpressed in Camelina...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644562/efficacy-of-ipragliflozin-as-monotherapy-or-as-add-on-therapy-with-other-oral-antidiabetic-medications-in-treating-type-2-diabetes-in-japanese-patients-with-inadequate-glycemic-control-a-subgroup-analysis-based-on-patient-characteristics
#12
Takeshi Osonoi, Shinya Nakamoto, Miyoko Saito, Atsuko Tamasawa, Hidenori Ishida, Yusuke Osonoi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in treating Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycemic control by investigating diurnal variations of blood glucose and body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective study with a 6-month treatment period. The primary outcome investigated was change in hemoglobin A1c levels from baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, variations in 24-h glucose levels detected by continuous glucose monitoring, body weight, body composition, waist circumference, and serum lipids...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#13
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638438/real-time-monitoring-of-ptahmgb-activity-in-poplar-transactivation-assays
#14
José M Ramos-Sánchez, Paolo M Triozzi, Alicia Moreno-Cortés, Daniel Conde, Mariano Perales, Isabel Allona
BACKGROUND: Precise control of gene expression is essential to synchronize plant development with the environment. In perennial plants, transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood, mainly due to the long time required to perform functional studies. Transcriptional reporters based on luciferase have been useful to study circadian and diurnal regulation of gene expression, both by transcription factors and chromatin remodelers. The high mobility group proteins are considered transcriptional chaperones that also modify the chromatin architecture...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637860/higher-order-neural-processing-tunes-motion-neurons-to-visual-ecology-in-three-species-of-hawkmoths
#15
A L Stöckl, D O'Carroll, E J Warrant
To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta, and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637495/diurnal-variation-in-the-core-interthreshold-zone-and-its-relation-to-cutaneous-sensation-threshold-zone
#16
Naoshi Kakitsuba, Igor B Mekjavic
BACKGROUND: The core interthreshold zone (CIZ) is defined as the range between temperatures at the onset of shivering and sweating. Its circadian or diurnal variation has not been extensively studied. The present study examined whether the CIZ is subject to a diurnal rhythm. In addition, according to the previous finding that the CIZ was proportionally correlated with peripheral interthreshold zone (PIZ), it was also examined whether cutaneous sensation threshold zone (CSZ), a determinant of the PIZ, is correlated with the CIZ...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636789/out-of-the-dark-350-million-years-of-conservatism-and-evolution-in-diel-activity-patterns-in-vertebrates
#17
Samantha R Anderson, John J Wiens
Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e...
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636777/biological-effects-related-to-geomagnetic-activity-and-possible-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Viacheslav V Krylov, Margaret Larkin
This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of geomagnetic activity. Correlations between geomagnetic indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated geomagnetic storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which geomagnetic activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that geomagnetic activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal geomagnetic variation...
June 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634330/increase-in-predation-risk-and-trophic-level-induced-by-nocturnal-visits-of-piscivorous-fishes-in-a-temperate-seagrass-bed
#19
Jun Shoji, Hiromichi Mitamura, Kotaro Ichikawa, Hikari Kinoshita, Nobuaki Arai
The majority of surveys on food webs of aquatic ecosystems have been conducted during the day owning to difficulties in sampling animals at night. In this study, to examine diurnal changes in predator-prey interactions in a temperate seagrass Zostera marina bed, a quantitative day/night survey of fish, the dominant animal community, coupled with acoustic telemetry of their predators, was conducted. The number of species, abundance, and biomass of piscivorous predators and mean trophic level during the night were significantly higher than those in the day in all seasons...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633974/ribosomes-dance-to-a-daily-rhythm
#20
Aishwarya Iyer, Ingrid Grummt
Sinturel et al. demonstrate that feeding-fasting rhythms and light-dark cycles direct daily changes in liver mass and cell size. These feeding-fasting- and light-dark-driven diurnal fluctuations are controlled by an unconventional mechanism that affects ribosome assembly and protein levels during the active phase.
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
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