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Samuel A Pullinger, Juha Oksa, Emma L Brocklehurst, Reece P Iveson, Antonia Newlove, Jatin G Burniston, Dominic A Doran, James M Waterhouse, Ben J Edwards
The present study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures (Trec ) to resting.evening levels, or decreasing evening Trec or muscle (Tm ) temperatures to morning values, would influence repeated sprint (RS) performance in a causal manner. Twelve trained males underwent five sessions [age (mean ± SD) 21.8 ± 2.6 yr, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] peak) 60.6 ± 4.6 mL kg min-1 , stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m and body mass 76.0 ± 6.3 kg]. These included a control morning (M, 07:30 h) and evening (E, 17:30 h) session (5-min warm-up), and three further sessions consisting of a warm-up morning trial (ME , on a motorised treadmill) until Trec reached evening levels; and two cool-down evening trials (in 16-17°C water) until Trec (EMrec ) or Tm (EMmuscle ) values reached morning temperatures, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Chronobiology International
S K Schmidt, E M S Gendron, K Vincent, A J Solon, P Sommers, Z R Schubert, L Vimercati, D L Porazinska, J L Darcy, P Sowell
Here we describe recent breakthroughs in our understanding of microbial life in dry volcanic tephra ("soil") that covers much of the surface area of the highest elevation volcanoes on Earth. Dry tephra above 6000 m.a.s.l. is perhaps the best Earth analog for the surface of Mars because these "soils" are acidic, extremely oligotrophic, exposed to a thin atmosphere, high UV fluxes, and extreme temperature fluctuations across the freezing point. The simple microbial communities found in these extreme sites have among the lowest alpha diversity of any known earthly ecosystem and contain bacteria and eukaryotes that are uniquely adapted to these extreme conditions...
March 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Amy L Robinson-Junker, Bruce F O'hara, Brianna N Gaskill
Sleep disruption in humans, caused by shift work, can be detrimental to physical and behavioral health. Nocturnal laboratory mice may experience a similar disruption caused by human daytime activities, but whether this disruption affects their welfare is unknown. We used 48 mice (CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c of both sexes) in a factorial design to test a sleep disruption treatment, in which mice were disturbed by providing routine husbandry at either 1000 or 2200 during a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, with lights on at 0700...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Christopher S Jones, Sea-Won Kim, Thomas F Wilton, Keith E Schilling, Caroline A Davis
Real-time, continuous, in situ water quality sensors were deployed on a fourth-order Iowa (U.S.) stream draining an agricultural watershed to evaluate key in-stream processes affecting concentrations of nitrate during a 24-day late summer (Aug-Sep) period. Overall, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) concentrations declined 0.11 mg L-1  km-1 , or about 1.9% km-1 and 35% in total across 18 km. We also calculated stream metabolic rates using in situ dissolved oxygen data and determined stream biotic N demand to be 108-117 mg m-2  day-1 ...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mateus Tonelli, Guilherme Gomes, Weliton D Silva, Nathália T C Magri, Durval M Vieira, Claudio L Aguiar, José Maurício S Bento
Insects have evolved multiple mechanisms to adapt to variations in environmental temperatures, including postural control of solar input, variations in diurnal activity, external morphological structures and selecting/generating microhabitats. Foam produced by Mahanarva fimbriolata nymphs (also known as root spittlebugs) was found to aid in creating a constant thermal microhabitat despite environmental temperature fluctuations. The temperature within the foam was found to be similar to that of soil during the day and remained constant despite fluctuating external temperatures...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Johan Jendle, Xin Fang, Yang Cao, Leif Bojö, Bo K Nilsson, Fredric Hedberg, Irene Santos-Pardo, Thomas Nyström
In this post hoc study, we aimed to investigate liraglutide treatment on repetitive 24-hour blood pressure (BP) in patients with type II diabetes. Sixty-two individuals with type II diabetes (45 males) were randomized to 1.8 mg liraglutide once daily or 4 mg glimepiride together with 1 g metformin twice daily. Ambulatory 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP/dBP) was repetitively measured at baseline, 2 weeks, and 18 weeks. Outcomes were evaluated as treatment change from baseline, 2 weeks, and 18 weeks...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Stephen J Vincent, David Alonso-Caneiro, Michael J Collins
PURPOSE: To examine the magnitude and time course of central epithelial, stromal and total corneal thickness changes during sealed miniscleral contact lens wear and the influence of initial central corneal clearance upon these thickness changes. METHODS: High-resolution OCT images were captured over an 8 h period of miniscleral contact lens wear (using a rotationally symmetric 16.5 mm diameter lens) in 15 young, healthy participants with normal corneae. Corneal thickness data were derived from OCT images using semi-automated image processing techniques over the central 4 mm...
March 13, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Carolyn M Bauer, Loreto A Correa, Luis A Ebensperger, L Michael Romero
The Common Degu (Octodon degus) is a small rodent endemic to central Chile. It has become an important model for comparative vertebrate endocrinology because of several uncommon life-history features - it is diurnal, shows a high degree of sociality, practices plural breeding with multiple females sharing natal burrows, practices communal parental care, and can easily be studied in the laboratory and the field. Many studies have exploited these features to make contributions to comparative endocrinology. This review summarizes contributions in four major areas...
March 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Jihui Zhang, Siu Ping Lam, Shirley Xin Li, Yaping Liu, Joey Wing Yan Chan, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Chung Shun Ho, Albert Martin Li, Yun Kwok Wing
INTRODUCTION: There are contradictory findings regarding the associations of parental depression on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity of their offspring. We aimed to explore the associations of parental depression on the diurnal salivary cortisol profile in their child and adolescent offspring. METHODS: A total of 189 unaffected child and adolescent offspring as determined by structured clinical interview were divided into 3 groups according to their parental history of depression, namely current parental depression (CPD, n = 27), past parental depression (PPD, n = 57), and no parental depression (NPD, n = 105)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Tristan Martin, Antoine Gauthier, Zhang Ying, Nicolas Benguigui, Sebastien Moussay, Jan Bulla, Damien Davenne, Nicolas Bessot
The aim of the study was to test the effect of total sleep deprivation on performance and time-of-day pattern of Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) and postural control. Nineteen healthy young participants (4 females and 15 males 21.9 {plus minus} 1.2 years) were engaged in two counterbalanced experimental sessions with or without total sleep deprivation. Oral temperature, Karolinska sleepiness scale and visual analogic scale for fatigue, postural control and SVV were randomly measured every 4h, from 6:00 h to 22:00 h...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Larissa C Engert, Ulrike Weiler, Volker Stefanski, Sonja S Schmucker
This data article is related to the original research article "Diurnal rhythms in peripheral blood immune cell numbers of domestic pigs" of Engert et al. [1] and describes diurnal rhythms in the number of CD8α- and CD8α+ γδ T cells in peripheral blood of domestic pigs. Blood samples were taken from 18 animals over periods of up to 50 h and immune cell subtypes were determined by flow cytometry. Diurnal rhythmicity of cell numbers of γδ T cell subtypes was analyzed with cosinor analysis and different properties of rhythmicity (mesor, amplitude, and peak time) were calculated...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Maria Moiron, Kimberley J Mathot, Niels J Dingemanse
Adaptive theory predicts that the fundamental trade-off between starvation and predation risk shapes diurnal patterns in foraging activity and mass gain in wintering passerine birds. Foragers mitigating both types of risk should exhibit a bimodal distribution (increased foraging and mass gain early and late in the day), whereas both foraging and mass gains early (versus late) during the day are expected when the risk of starvation (versus predation) is greatest. Finally, relatively constant rates of foraging and mass gain should occur when the starvation-predation risk trade-off is independent of body mass...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Barbara Manachini, Giuseppe Bazan, Rosario Schicchi
The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed...
March 14, 2018: Insect Science
Tengfei Yu, Qi Feng, Jianhua Si, Patrick J Mitchell, Michael A Forster, Xiaoyou Zhang, Chunyan Zhao
During the night, plant water loss can occur either through the roots, as hydraulic redistribution (HR), or through the leaves via the stoma, as nocturnal transpiration ( E n ), which was methodologically difficult to separate from stem refilling ( R e ). While HR and E n have been reported across a range of species, ecosystem, and climate zone, there is little understanding on the interactions between E n and/or R e and HR. As water movement at night occurs via gradients of water potential, it is expected that during periods of high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), water loss via E n will override water loss via HR...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Alfonso Reimúndez, Carlos Fernández-Peña, Guillermo García, Rubén Fernández, Purificación Ordás, Rosalía Gallego, José L Pardo-Vazquez, Victor Arce, Félix Viana, Rosa Señarís
The coupling of energy homeostasis to thermoregulation is essential to maintain homeothermy in changing external environments. We studied the role of the cold thermoreceptor TRPM8 in this interplay in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that TRPM8 is required for a precise thermoregulation in response to cold, in fed and fasting. Trpm8-/- mice exhibited a fall of 0.7 °C in core body temperature (Tc) when housed at cold temperatures, and a deep hypothermia (below 30 °C) during food deprivation. In both situations TRPM8-deficiency induced an increase in tail heat loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Akiyoshi Shimura, Sakai Hideo, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Ryota Nomura, Yoko Komada, Takeshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: Sleep affects adolescents in various ways. However, the effects of multiple factors on sleep hygiene remain unclear. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of life habits on sleep in high-school students was conducted. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 344 high school students (age range 15-17; 171 boys, 173 girls) in Tokyo, Japan was conducted in 2015. Complete responses were provided by 294 students. Demographic variables, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), diurnal type scale, Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and life habits such as dinnertime, viewing electronic displays, caffeine intake, sunlight in the morning, and the brightness of the room in the night were asked...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Alex Knight, John G Ewen, Patricia Brekke, Anna W Santure
Coccidia are intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa that cause a range of pathologies collectively termed coccidiosis. Species of coccidia of commercial importance have been well studied, with the effect of other species on passerine birds receiving increasing attention. In this chapter, we review the literature on coccidia in passerines, with a particular focus on wild populations. The taxonomy and life cycle of passerine coccidia are covered, as is their impact on the health of passerines, their epidemiology and their role in parasite-mediated natural and sexual selection...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Qi Yao, Zijiang Yang, Hong Li, Michael D Buser, John D Wanjura, Peter M Downey, Chen Zhang, Collin Craige, Alba Torrents, Laura L McConnell, Gregory A Holt, Cathleen J Hapeman
Poultry-emitted air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and ammonia, have raised concerns due to potential negative effects on human health and the environment. However, developing and optimizing remediation technologies requires a better understanding of air pollutant concentrations, the emission plumes, and the relationships between the pollutants. Therefore, we conducted ten field experiments to characterize PM (total suspended particulate [TSP], particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM10 ], and particulate matter less than 2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wei-Feng Ye, Zhong-Yu Ma, Xiu-Zhen Ha
Air pollution has become a major concern in cities worldwide. The present study explores the spatial-temporal patterns of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5μm) and the variation in the attainment rate (the number of cities attaining the national PM2.5 standard each day) at different time-scales based on PM2.5 concentrations. One-year of monitoring was conducted in 338 cities at or above the prefectural level in China. Spatial hot spots of PM2.5 were analyzed using exploratory spatial data analysis...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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