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T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
Yi-Ching Chen, Chia-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel aqueous solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AS-DLLME) method was combined with narrow-bore liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of hydrophilic compounds. A remover (non-polar solvent) and extractant (aqueous solution) were introduced into the derivatization system (acetonitrile) to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion state that increased the mass transfer of analytes. As a proof of concept, three quaternary ammonium substances, including butyrobetaine, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine, were also used as analytes and determined in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food and human plasma...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Matthew J Snyder, Lawrence M Gibbs, Tammy J Lindsay
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
August 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Bruno L Pessoa, Marco Orsini, Pedro Ribeiro, Eduardo Davidovich, Camila Pupe, Pedro Moreira Filho, Ricardo Menezes Dornas, Lucas Masiero, Juliana Bittencourt, Victor Hugo Bastos
Neuropathic pain (NP) is the result of a series of conditions caused by diseases or lesions to the somatosensory system. Due to the better understanding of NP pathophysiology previously unexplored therapies have been used with encouraging results. In this group, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic-acid, cannabinoids, clonidine, EMA401, botulinum toxin type A and new voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, can be included. Besides, changing paradigms may occur with the advent of optogenetics and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation...
June 15, 2016: Neurology International
Rajiv Sainath, Andrea Ketschek, Leah Grandi, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. We report that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching...
July 18, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Geraldine Goodison, Kathie Overeem, Veronica de Monte, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVE: Complementary medicines are readily available and becoming increasingly popular. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is widely recognised as a safe dietary supplement to aid weight loss. We present the case of a patient who had a relapse of mania in the context of ALC use for weight loss over a two week period, on the background of bipolar I disorder previously in remission. The patient's symptoms resolved a few days after ALC was ceased. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rates of obesity among people with mental illness, it is possible ALC may be utilised in the hope of aiding weight loss...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Simona Lorusso, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: This was the first 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled trial aimed at exploring the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) add-on pharmacotherapy on clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning in 15 schizophrenia patients with suboptimal clinical response despite receiving clozapine (CLZ) monotherapy at the highest tolerated dosage. METHODS: After clinical (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale [PANSS]) and neuropsychological (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Verbal Fluency Test) assessments, patients received 1 g/d of ALC for 12 weeks...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Kitti Kocsis, Rita Frank, József Szabó, Levente Knapp, Zsolt Kis, Tamás Farkas, László Vécsei, József Toldi
Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Benedetta Bigio, Aleksander A Mathé, Vasco C Sousa, Danielle Zelli, Per Svenningsson, Bruce S McEwen, Carla Nasca
Although regulation of energy metabolism has been linked with multiple disorders, its role in depression and responsiveness to antidepressants is less known. We found that an epigenetic and energetic agent, acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC, oral administration), rapidly rescued the depressive- and central and systemic metabolic-like phenotype of LAC-deficient Flinders Sensitive Line rats (FSL). After acute stress during LAC treatment, a subset of FSL continued to respond to LAC (rFSL), whereas the other subset did not (nrFSL)...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T Lau, B Bigio, D Zelli, B S McEwen, C Nasca
The adult brain is capable of adapting to internal and external stressors by undergoing structural plasticity, and failure to be resilient and preserve normal structure and function is likely to contribute to depression and anxiety disorders. Although the hippocampus has provided the gateway for understanding stress effects on the brain, less is known about the amygdala, a key brain area involved in the neural circuitry of fear and anxiety. Here, in mice more vulnerable to stressors, we demonstrate structural plasticity within the medial and basolateral regions of the amygdala in response to prolonged 21-day chronic restraint stress (CRS)...
May 31, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Tyler G Demarest, Rosemary A Schuh, Jaylyn Waddell, Mary C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Adriana Cristofano, Nadia Sapere, Giancarlo La Marca, Antonella Angiolillo, Michela Vitale, Graziamaria Corbi, Giovanni Scapagnini, Mariano Intrieri, Claudio Russo, Gaetano Corso, Alfonso Di Costanzo
This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoqing Guo, Melanie Dumas, Bonnie L Robinson, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Verapamil is a Ca(2) (+) channel blocker and is highly prescribed as an anti-anginal, antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drug. Ketamine, an antagonist of the Ca(2) (+) -permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, is a pediatric anesthetic. Previously we have shown that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) reverses ketamine-induced attenuation of heart rate and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Here, we used 48 h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos that were exposed to relevant drugs for 2 or 4 h...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Ramona Meister, Alessa von Wolff, Hannes Mohr, Martin Härter, Yvonne Nestoriuc, Lars Hölzel, Levente Kriston
We aimed to compare the safety of antidepressants for the treatment of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) with each other and with placebo. We conducted a systematic electronic search and included randomized controlled trials that investigated antidepressants for the treatment of PDD in adults. Outcomes were the incidence of experiencing any adverse event, specific adverse events and related treatment discontinuations. We analyzed the data using traditional and network meta-analyses. Thirty-four studies that comprised 4,769 patients and examined 20 individual agents in nine substance classes were included...
2016: PloS One
Xuan Zhang, Shuliang Liu, Glenn D Newport, Merle G Paule, Ralph Callicott, James Thompson, Fang Liu, Tucker A Patterson, Marc S Berridge, Scott M Apana, Christina C Brown, Mackean P Maisha, Joseph P Hanig, William Slikker, Cheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Animals exposed to sevoflurane during development sustain neuronal cell death in their developing brains. In vivo micro-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging has been utilized as a minimally invasive method to detect anesthetic-induced neuronal adverse effects in animal studies. METHODS: Neonatal rhesus monkeys (postnatal day 5 or 6, 3 to 6 per group) were exposed for 8 h to 2.5% sevoflurane with or without acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC)...
July 2016: Anesthesiology
Sheyu Li, Xiang Chen, Qianrui Li, Juan Du, Zhimin Liu, Yongde Peng, Mian Xu, Qifu Li, Minxiang Lei, Changjiang Wang, Shaoxiong Zheng, Xiaojuan Zhang, Hongling Yu, Jinyu Shi, Shibing Tao, Ping Feng, Haoming Tian
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To assess the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with methylcobalamin (MC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, non-inferior phase II clinical trial. Diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction test results were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral ALC 500 mg t.i.d. or MC 0.5 mg t.i.d. for 24 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Tae Yong Park, Hyeong Guk Jeong, Jong Jin Park, Ji Yun Chae, Jong Wook Kim, Mi Mi Oh, Hong Seok Park, Je Jong Kim, Du Geon Moon
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment of Peyronie's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 patients with Peyronie's disease who had been treated from January 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Forty-four patients (Group 1) were treated with 12 mg of potassium para-aminobenzoate daily. Sixty-five patients (Group 2) were treated with combination therapy: tamoxifen (20 mg) and acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg) twice daily in addition to a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor...
April 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
Thi T Truong, Yu May Soh, David K Gardner
STUDY QUESTION: What is the effect of three antioxidants (acetyl-L-carnitine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and α-lipoic acid), when used individually and in combination, on mouse embryo development in culture, and subsequent fetal development post-transfer? SUMMARY ANSWER: A combination of antioxidants resulted in significant increases in blastocyst cell number, maintained intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, supported earlier cleavage times from 5-cell stage to expanded blastocyst, and improved fetal developmental irrespective of incubator oxygen concentration...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
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