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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922830/connectivity-neurofeedback-training-can-differentially-change-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-performance
#1
Ayumu Yamashita, Shunsuke Hayasaka, Mitsuo Kawato, Hiroshi Imamizu
Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#2
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922415/rewiring-monocyte-glucose-metabolism-via-c-type-lectin-signaling-protects-against-disseminated-candidiasis
#3
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Rob J W Arts, Rob Ter Horst, Mark S Gresnigt, Sanne P Smeekens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Leo A B Joosten, Richard A Notebaart, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea
Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922348/stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine-for-neonatal-lung-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Martin Kang, Bernard Thébaud
Lung diseases remain one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Cell therapy and regenerative medicine have the potential to revolutionize the management of life-threatening and debilitating lung diseases that currently lack effective treatments. Over the past decade, the repair capabilities of stem/progenitor cells has been harnessed to prevent/rescue lung damage in experimental neonatal lung diseases. Mesenchymal stromal cells and amnion epithelial cells exert pleiotropic effects and represent ideal therapeutic cells for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a multifactorial disease...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921867/polymer-cancerostatics-targeted-with-an-antibody-fragment-bound-via-a-coiled-coil-motif-in-vivo-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-bcl1-leukemia
#5
Michal Pechar, Robert Pola, Olga Janoušková, Irena Sieglová, Vlastimil Král, Milan Fábry, Barbora Tomalová, Marek Kovář
A BCL1 leukemia-cell-targeted polymer-drug conjugate with a narrow molecular weight distribution consisting of an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer carrier and the anticancer drug pirarubicin is prepared by controlled radical copolymerization followed by metal-free click chemistry. A targeting recombinant single chain antibody fragment (scFv) derived from a B1 monoclonal antibody is attached noncovalently to the polymer carrier via a coiled coil interaction between two complementary peptides. Two pairs of coiled coil forming peptides (abbreviated KEK/EKE and KSK/ESE) are used as linkers between the polymer-pirarubicin conjugate and the targeting protein...
September 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921687/multimodal-treatment-of-a-dog-with-disseminated-cutaneous-viral-papillomatosis
#6
Britt J Levy, Susannah J Sample, Hang Yuan
BACKGROUND: Canine papillomaviruses (CPVs) are associated with varied cutaneous manifestations. Spontaneous resolution typically occurs within one to 12 months. This case report describes multimodal treatment of a dog with severe disseminated papillomatosis. CLINICAL SUMMARY: An eight-month-old, female spayed, mixed breed dog was presented with a two month history of rapidly progressing papillomatosis and lack of response to oral azithromycin therapy. The dog was severely pruritic and malodorous; the weight and growth of lesions had progressed to affect the dog's gait and vision, and led to decreased quality of life...
September 18, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#7
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920065/the-influence-of-sex-steroid-hormones-on-the-response-to-trauma-and-burn-injury
#8
REVIEW
K Al-Tarrah, N Moiemen, J M Lord
Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. Regardless of the type and severity of injury, gender dimorphism in outcomes following trauma have been reported, with females having lower mortality than males, suggesting that sex steroid hormones (SSH) play an important role in the response of body systems to trauma. In addition, several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the effects of SSH on the clinical course and outcomes following injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919798/comparative-effects-of-the-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-derivatives-resolvins-e1-and-d1-and-protectin-dx-in-models-of-inflammation-and-pain
#9
Flávia Cs Fonseca, Ricardo M Orlando, Regina Mm Turchetti-Maia, Janetti Nogueira de Francischi
PURPOSE: Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), also known as lipoxins, resolvins (Rvs), protectins and maresins, have been implicated in the resolution of the inflammatory process. However, a systematic comparison of their activity in the relief of inflammation and pain models is still lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of Rvs E1 and D1 and protectin DX (PDX) were assessed in rat paws inflamed by the standard proinflammatory stimulus carrageenan or by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P or prostaglandin E2...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919736/carbon-nanotubes-gathered-onto-silica-particles-lose-their-biomimetic-properties-with-the-cytoskeleton-becoming-biocompatible
#10
Elena González-Domínguez, Nerea Iturrioz-Rodríguez, Esperanza Padín-González, Juan Villegas, Lorena García-Hevia, Moisés Pérez-Lorenzo, Wolfgang J Parak, Miguel A Correa-Duarte, Mónica L Fanarraga
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are likely to transform the therapeutic and diagnostic fields in biomedicine during the coming years. However, the fragmented vision of their side effects and toxicity in humans has proscribed their use as nanomedicines. Most studies agree that biocompatibility depends on the state of aggregation/dispersion of CNTs under physiological conditions, but conclusions are confusing so far. This study designs an experimental setup to investigate the cytotoxic effect of individualized multiwalled CNTs compared to that of identical nanotubes assembled on submicrometric structures...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919632/cd36-in-chronic-kidney-disease-novel-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Xiaochun Yang, Daryl M Okamura, Xifeng Lu, Yaxi Chen, John Moorhead, Zac Varghese, Xiong Z Ruan
CD36 (also known as scavenger receptor B2) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the binding and cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids, oxidized lipids and phospholipids, advanced oxidation protein products, thrombospondin and advanced glycation end products, and has roles in lipid accumulation, inflammatory signalling, energy reprogramming, apoptosis and kidney fibrosis. Renal CD36 is mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells, and is markedly upregulated in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919392/oral-mucosal-irritation-study-in-hamster-to-evaluate-a-therapeutic-apparatus-using-hydrogen-peroxide-photolysis-for-periodontitis-treatment
#12
Yoshimi Niwano, Kazunori Konno, Takeshi Matayoshi, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Keiichi Sasaki
We conducted an oral mucosal irritation study in hamsters to evaluate a therapeutic apparatus using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis for periodontitis treatment (ISO 10993-Part 10, Annex B.3). The cheek pouches in 15 male hamsters were allocated to one of six groups. Group 1 received pure water treatment (control group). Group 2 received laser irradiation at 80 mW. Group 3 received 3% H2O2. Groups 4-6 received laser irradiation of 3% H2O2 at 80, 40, and 20 mW, respectively. The total treatment time was set at 7 min and treatment was repeated three times at approximately 1-h intervals...
September 14, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919108/the-renin-angiotensin-system-regulates-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-optic-neuritis
#13
Xiaoli Guo, Kazuhiko Namekata, Atsuko Kimura, Chikako Harada, Takayuki Harada
The major role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including that of angiotensin II (Ang II), the principal effector molecule, in the cardiovascular system is well known. Increasing evidence suggests that the RAS also plays a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Optic neuritis (ie, inflammation of the optic nerve, with retinal ganglion cell [RGC] loss) is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Herein, we investigated the effects of candesartan, an Ang II receptor antagonist, on optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917501/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-i-clinical-and-network-analysis-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Felix Rosenow, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Sebastian Bauer
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917498/personalized-translational-epilepsy-research-novel-approaches-and-future-perspectives-part-ii-experimental-and-translational-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Sebastian Bauer, Natascha van Alphen, Albert Becker, Andreas Chiocchetti, Ralf Deichmann, Thomas Deller, Thomas Freiman, Christine M Freitag, Johannes Gehrig, Anke M Hermsen, Peter Jedlicka, Christian Kell, Karl Martin Klein, Susanne Knake, Dimitri M Kullmann, Stefan Liebner, Braxton A Norwood, Diana Omigie, Karlheinz Plate, Andreas Reif, Philipp S Reif, Yvonne Reiss, Jochen Roeper, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Stephanie Schorge, Gerhard Schratt, Stephan W Schwarzacher, Joachim P Steinbach, Adam Strzelczyk, Jochen Triesch, Marlies Wagner, Matthew C Walker, Frederic von Wegner, Felix Rosenow
Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy...
September 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917119/a-mechanistic-model-for-drug-release-from-plga-based-drug-eluting-stent-a-computational-study
#16
Jahed Naghipoor, Timon Rabczuk
Atherosclerosis in the coronary artery is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The stenting as a minimally invasive technique was considered as an effective tool to reduce the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis. In-stent restenosis is the main drawback of the stenting in the coronary artery. Understanding the mechanism of drug release from drug-eluting stents and drug uptake in the arterial wall and obtaining more information about their functionality using mathematical modeling and numerical simulation, could be considered as a predictive tool to investigate in-stent restenosis growth which is experimentally expensive to study...
September 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916617/nivolumab-exposure-response-analyses-of-efficacy-and-safety-in-previously-treated-squamous-or-nonsquamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Yan Feng, Xiaoning Wang, Gaurav Bajaj, Shruti Agrawal, Akintunde Bello, Brian Lestini, Friedrich Graf Finckenstein, Jong-Soon Park, Amit Roy
Purpose: Nivolumab is a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antiprogrammed death-1 antibody with demonstrated efficacy, including durable responses and prolonged survival, in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Exposure-response (E-R) analyses for efficacy and safety were conducted to inform the benefit-risk assessment of nivolumab in this patient population.Experimental Design: The analyses used clinical trial data from patients with squamous (n = 293) or nonsquamous (n = 354) NSCLC from four clinical trials who received nivolumab doses of 1 to 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915963/hepcidin-and-metallothioneins-as-molecular-base-for-sex-dependent-differences-in-clinical-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-chronic-iron-overload
#18
Božena Ćurko-Cofek, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Vesna Barac-Latas
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915563/niaoduqing-granules-relieve-chronic-kidney-disease-symptoms-by-decreasing-renal-fibrosis-and-anemia
#19
Xu Wang, Suyun Yu, Qi Jia, Lichuan Chen, Jinqiu Zhong, Yanhong Pan, Peiliang Shen, Yin Shen, Siliang Wang, Zhonghong Wei, Yuzhu Cao, Yin Lu
NiaoDuQing (NDQ) granules, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used in China for over fourteen years to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of NDQ, we designed an approach incorporating chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, network biology methods, and cellular and molecular biology experiments. A total of 182 active compounds were identified in NDQ granules, and 397 putative targets associated with different diseases were derived through ADME modelling and target prediction tools...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915439/alpha-mangostin-suppresses-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-chondrocytes-by-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-delays-the-progression-of-osteoarthritis-in-a-rat-model
#20
Tianlong Pan, Rong Chen, Dengying Wu, Ningyu Cai, Xuchao Shi, Bin Li, Jun Pan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that is characterized by progressive joint dysfunction and pain. Apoptosis and catabolism in chondrocytes play critical roles in the development of OA. Alpha-Mangostin (α-MG), one of the main components of the mangosteen, has been reported to have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We investigated the therapeutic effects of α-MG on OA through experiments on rat chondrocytes in vitro and in a rat model of OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
September 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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