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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644772/risk-stratification-for-second-primary-lung-cancer
#2
Summer S Han, Gabriel A Rivera, Martin C Tammemägi, Sylvia K Plevritis, Scarlett L Gomez, Iona Cheng, Heather A Wakelee
Purpose This study estimated the 10-year risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) among survivors of initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) and evaluated the clinical utility of the risk prediction model for selecting eligibility criteria for screening. Methods SEER data were used to identify a population-based cohort of 20,032 participants diagnosed with IPLC between 1988 and 2003 and who survived ≥ 5 years after the initial diagnosis. We used a proportional subdistribution hazards model to estimate the 10-year risk of developing SPLC among survivors of lung cancer LC in the presence of competing risks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644335/practice-bulletin-number-179-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#3
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644328/practice-bulletin-no-179-summary-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#4
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644154/acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-concomitant-presentation-of-two-molecularly-distinct-entities
#5
Jingdong Su, Diana Veillon, Rodney Shackelford, James Cotelingam, Hazem El-Osta, Glenn Mills, Reinhold Munker, Srinivas Devarakonda
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developing in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very uncommon and usually associated with prior treatment. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) accounts for a very small proportion of treatment-associated AML. So far, there has been only one reported case of APL occurring post radiation for prostate cancer in a patient with CLL. We report herein the first case of APL and CLL presenting concomitantly in an untreated patient. Evaluation of peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate with immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and FISH to confirm two morphologically, molecularly and genetically distinct leukemic populations characteristic of APL and CLL is required...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644148/5-azacytidine-promotes-invadopodia-formation-and-tumor-metastasis-through-the-upregulation-of-pi3k-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#6
Dan Cao, Dan Li, Yong Huang, Yu Ma, Binglan Zhang, Chengjian Zhao, Senyi Deng, Min Luo, Tao Yin, Yu-Quan Wei, Wei Wang
The high incidence of metastasis accounts for most of the lethality of ovarian cancer. Invadopodia are small, specialized types of machinery that degrade the extracellular matrix and are thus involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by both genetic and epigenetic factors. However, the ways by which methylation/demethylation regulates the dynamics of invadopodia in ovarian cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the inhibition of methylation by 5-AZ (5-Azacytidine) increased the formation of invadopodia and enhanced degradation of the extracellular matrix in ovarian cancer cells...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644142/acyp2-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-liver-cancer-in-a-han-chinese-population
#7
Zhong Chen, Yu Sun, Zhenxiong Xu, Junnv Xu, Jingjie Li, Mengdan Yan, Jing Li, Tianbo Jin, Haifeng Lin
We explored the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACYP2 and liver cancer risk. Thirteen SNPs were genotyped in 473 cases and 564 controls. Genetic model, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses were performed to evaluate the association between ACPY2 SNPs and liver cancer risk. We found that rs6713088 (G allele: odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.52, P = 0.007; GG vs. CC: OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.1, P = 0.038), rs843711 (T allele: OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644137/analyses-of-germline-variants-associated-with-ovarian-cancer-survival-identify-functional-candidates-at-the-1q22-and-19p12-outcome-loci
#8
Dylan M Glubb, Sharon E Johnatty, Michael C J Quinn, Tracy A O'Mara, Jonathan P Tyrer, Bo Gao, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Diether Lambrechts, Ignace Vergote, Digna R Velez Edwards, Alicia Beeghly-Fadiel, Javier Benitez, Maria J Garcia, Marc T Goodman, Pamela J Thompson, Thilo Dörk, Matthias Dürst, Francesmary Modungo, Kirsten Moysich, Florian Heitz, Andreas du Bois, Jacobus Pfisterer, Peter Hillemanns, Beth Y Karlan, Jenny Lester, Ellen L Goode, Julie M Cunningham, Stacey J Winham, Melissa C Larson, Bryan M McCauley, Susanne Krüger Kjær, Allan Jensen, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Kathryn L Terry, Helga B Salvesen, Line Bjorge, Penny M Webb, Peter Grant, Tanja Pejovic, Melissa Moffitt, Claus K Hogdall, Estrid Hogdall, James Paul, Rosalind Glasspool, Marcus Bernardini, Alicia Tone, David Huntsman, Michelle Woo, Aocs Group, Anna deFazio, Catherine J Kennedy, Paul D P Pharoah, Stuart MacGregor, Georgia Chenevix-Trench
We previously identified associations with ovarian cancer outcome at five genetic loci. To identify putatively causal genetic variants and target genes, we prioritized two ovarian outcome loci (1q22 and 19p12) for further study. Bioinformatic and functional genetic analyses indicated that MEF2D and ZNF100 are targets of candidate outcome variants at 1q22 and 19p12, respectively. At 19p12, the chromatin interaction of a putative regulatory element with the ZNF100 promoter region correlated with candidate outcome variants...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644127/mpi-depletion-enhances-o-glcnacylation-of-p53-and-suppresses-the-warburg-effect
#9
Charles DeRossi, Nataly Shtraizent, Shikha Nayar, Ravi Sachidanandam, Liora S Katz, Adam Prince, Anna P Koh, Adam Vincek, Yoav Hadas, Yujin Hoshida, Donald K Scott, Efrat Eliyahu, Hudson H Freeze, Kirsten C Sadler, Jaime Chu
Rapid cellular proliferation in early development and cancer depends on glucose metabolism to fuel macromolecule biosynthesis. Metabolic enzymes are presumed regulators of this glycolysis-driven metabolic program, known as the Warburg effect, however few have been identified. We uncover a previously unappreciated role for Mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI) as a metabolic enzyme required to maintain Warburg metabolism in zebrafish embryos and in both primary and malignant mammalian cells. The functional consequences of MPI loss are striking: glycolysis is blocked and cells die...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643760/validation-of-microsatellite-instability-histology-scores-with-bethesda-guidelines-in-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer
#10
Mustafa Kaya, Fatih Basak, Abdullah Sisik, Mustafa Hasbahceci, Gurhan Bas, Orhan Alimoglu, Cumhur Selçuk Topal, Gozde Kir
AIMS: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a subgroup of colorectal cancer (CRC) which should be differentiated because of the high risk for additional cancers and risk evaluation for other family members, especially for CRC. It is not practical to perform genetic testing for all CRC patients; therefore, various prediction modalities, for example, Bethesda guideline (BG) were studied in the literature. We aimed to assess the association of microsatellite instability (MSI), histology scores, and BG for predicting HNPCC risk...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643332/integrative-eqtl-analysis-of-tumor-and-host-omics-data-in-individuals-with-bladder-cancer
#11
Silvia Pineda, Kristel Van Steen, Núria Malats
Integrative analyses of several omics data are emerging. The data are usually generated from the same source material (i.e., tumor sample) representing one level of regulation. However, integrating different regulatory levels (i.e., blood) with those from tumor may also reveal important knowledge about the human genetic architecture. To model this multilevel structure, an integrative-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis applying two-stage regression (2SR) was proposed. This approach first regressed tumor gene expression levels with tumor markers and the adjusted residuals from the previous model were then regressed with the germline genotypes measured in blood...
June 23, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643173/immunotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-there-is-hope
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan M Lehman, Mary E Gwin, Pierre P Massion
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. It accounts for ~15% of lung cancer mortality and has had no improvement in standard treatment options for nearly 30 years. However, there is now hope for change with new therapies and modalities of therapy. Immunotherapies and checkpoint inhibitors are entering clinical practice, selected targeted therapies show promise, and "smart bomb"-based drug/radioconjugates have led to good response in early clinical trials...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643015/the-role-of-screening-mri-in-the-era-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-moderate-risk-genetic-mutations
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Macklin, Jennifer Gass, Ghada Mitri, Paldeep S Atwal, Stephanie Hines
With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the ability to rapidly analyze numerous genes simultaneously has led to the creation of large cancer gene panels. Some of these genes, like BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been heavily researched and have well-established management guidelines. Other more newly established genes, like ATM, CHEK2, and PALB2, have previously had less robust research surrounding them which has limited the ability to create accurate risk estimates. With their inclusion on gene panels, there has been more pressure to produce management guidelines for patients discovered to carry pathogenic variants in these genes...
June 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642997/pd-1-and-cancer-molecular-mechanisms-and-polymorphisms
#14
REVIEW
Arash Salmaninejad, Vahid Khoramshahi, Alireza Azani, Ehsan Soltaninejad, Saeed Aslani, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Masoud Zal, Abolfazl Nesaei, Sayed Mostafa Hosseini
The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is expressed by activated T cells that act as an immunoregulatory molecule, and are responsible for the negative regulation of T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. The PD-1 gene also encodes an inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T cell functions during immune responses/tolerance. Beyond potent inhibitory effects on T cells, PD-1 also has a role in regulating B cell and monocyte responses. An overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system avoidance in different cancers...
June 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#15
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642839/the-mitochondrial-complex-i-ty-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Félix A Urra, Felipe Muñoz, Alenka Lovy, César Cárdenas
Recent evidence highlights that the cancer cell energy requirements vary greatly from normal cells and that cancer cells exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and contributes about 40% of the proton motive force required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. In addition, Complex I plays an essential role in biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation, resistance to cell death, and metastasis of cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642837/environmental-influences-in-the-etiology-of-colorectal-cancer-the-premise-of-metabolomics
#17
Nicholas J W Rattray, Georgia Charkoftaki, Zahra Rattray, James E Hansen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Caroline H Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we discuss how environmental exposures predominate the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). With CRC being a personalized disease influenced by genes and environment, our goal was to explore the role metabolomics can play in identifying exposures, assessing the interplay between co-exposures, and the development of personalized therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 10 % of CRC cases can be explained by germ-line mutations, whereas the prevailing majority are caused by an initiating exposure event occurring decades prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642587/systematic-comparison-of-two-whole-genome-amplification-methods-for-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-using-frozen-and-ffpe-normal-and-cancer-tissues
#18
Pedro Mendez, Li Tai Fang, David M Jablons, Il-Jin Kim
Sequencing key cancer-driver genes using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer tissues is becoming the standard for identifying the best treatment regimen. However, about 25% of all samples are rejected for genetic analyses for reasons that include too little tissue to extract enough high quality DNA. One way to overcome this is to do whole-genome amplification (WGA) in clinical samples, but only limited studies have tested different WGA methods in FFPE cancer specimens using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642250/widespread-genomic-testing-deemed-feasible
#19
(no author information available yet)
Although comprehensive genomic screening has not yet become routine when treating patients with cancer, widespread testing in those with advanced, refractory disease is feasible, according to the ongoing ProfiLER study. The study also found that patients who subsequently received a treatment matched to the genetic changes in their tumor lived longer than those who lacked a so-called actionable mutation.
June 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642172/egfr-t790m-ctdna-testing-platforms-and-their-role-as-companion-diagnostics-correlation-with-clinical-outcomes-to-egfr-tkis
#20
Zhiyong Liang, Ying Cheng, Yuan Chen, Yanping Hu, Wei-Ping Liu, You Lu, Jie Wang, Ye Wang, Gang Wu, Jian-Ming Ying, He-Long Zhang, Xu-Chao Zhang, Yi-Long Wu
Somatic mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is a promising target for personalised medicine. EGFR mutations have prognostic value. Initially patients respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors but finally they would develop resistance and about 50% of this resistance can be attributed to the emergence of EGFR resistant mutation, T790M. This necessitates the need for genetic testing for clinical management of patients...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
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