keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cancer genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926867/genomic-instability-is-induced-by-persistent-proliferation-of-cells-undergoing-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Valentine Comaills, Lilian Kabeche, Robert Morris, Rémi Buisson, Min Yu, Marissa Wells Madden, Joseph A LiCausi, Myriam Boukhali, Ken Tajima, Shiwei Pan, Nicola Aceto, Srinjoy Sil, Yu Zheng, Tilak Sundaresan, Toshifumi Yae, Nicole Vincent Jordan, David T Miyamoto, David T Ting, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Wilhelm Haas, Lee Zou, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
TGF-β secreted by tumor stroma induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, a reversible phenotype linked to cancer progression and drug resistance. However, exposure to stromal signals may also lead to heritable changes in cancer cells, which are poorly understood. We show that epithelial cells failing to undergo proliferation arrest during TGF-β-induced EMT sustain mitotic abnormalities due to failed cytokinesis, resulting in aneuploidy. This genomic instability is associated with the suppression of multiple nuclear envelope proteins implicated in mitotic regulation and is phenocopied by modulating the expression of LaminB1...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926792/the-transcription-factor-pparalpha-is-overexpressed-and-is-associated-with-a-favourable-prognosis-in-idh-wildtype-primary-glioblastoma
#2
H R Haynes, P White, K M Hares, J Redondo, K C Kemp, W G B Singleton, C L Killick-Cole, J R Stevens, K Garadi, S Guglani, A Wilkins, K M Kurian
AIMS: PPARα agonists are in current clinical use as hypolipidaemic agents and show significant antineoplastic effects in human glioblastoma models. To date however, the expression of PPARα in large-scale glioblastoma data sets has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the expression of the transcription factor PPARα in primary glioblastoma, the relationship between PPARα expression and patients' clinicopathological features and other molecular markers associated with gliomagenesis...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926513/mael-is-essential-for-cancer-cell-survival-and-tumorigenesis-through-protection-of-genetic-integrity
#3
Su-Hyeon Kim, Eun-Ran Park, Eugene Cho, Won-Hee Jung, Ju-Yeon Jeon, Hyun-Yoo Joo, Kee-Ho Lee, Hyun-Jin Shin
Germ line-specific genes are activated in somatic cells during tumorigenesis, and are accordingly referred to as cancer germline genes. Such genes that act on piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) processing play an important role in the progression of cancer cells. Here, we show that the spermatogenic transposon silencer maelstrom (Mael), a piRNA-processing factor, is required for malignant transformation and survival of cancer cells. A specific Mael isoform was distinctively overexpressed in diverse human cancer cell lines and its depletion resulted in cancer-specific cell death, characterized by apoptosis and senescence, accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen-species and DNA damage...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926510/genetic-and-epigenetic-characterization-of-the-brca1-gene-in-brazilian-women-at-risk-for-hereditary-breast-cancer
#4
Paula Silva Felicio, Matias Eliseo Melendez, Lidia Maria Rebolho Batista Arantes, Ligia Maria Kerr, Dirce Maria Carraro, Rebeca Silveira Grasel, Natalia Campacci, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Gabriela Carvalho Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho, Edenir Inêz Palmero
This study aimed to characterize women at-risk for hereditary BC regarding their clinical and molecular characteristics (mutation and methylation in the BRCA1 gene) and correlate the gene expression levels with histopathological, clinical and family history information. BRCA1 real time qPCR was performed to evaluate methylation status and gene expression. The study included 88 women grouped according to the BRCA1 mutational status: 23 BRCA1 mutated, 22 with a Variant of Unknown Significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and 43 BRCA1 WT...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926496/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-pi3k-pathway-in-pediatric-brain-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Hazel A Rogers, Jasper Estranero, Keshni Gudka, Richard G Grundy
Central nervous system tumors are the most common cancer type in children and the leading cause of cancer related deaths. There is therefore a need to develop novel treatments. Large scale profiling studies have begun to identify alterations that could be targeted therapeutically, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which is one of the most commonly activated pathways in cancer with many inhibitors under clinical development. PI3K signaling has been shown to be aberrantly activated in many pediatric CNS neoplasms...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926368/genetic-syndromes-with-pancreatic-manifestations
#6
REVIEW
Meredith E Pittman, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Laura D Wood
Although the pancreas is affected by only a small fraction of known inherited disorders, several of these syndromes predispose patients to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a cancer that has a consistently dismal prognosis. Still other syndromes are associated with neuroendocrine tumors, benign cysts, or recurrent pancreatitis. Because of the variability of pancreatic manifestations and outcomes, it is important for clinicians to be familiar with several well-described genetic disorders to ensure that patients are followed appropriately...
December 2016: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926360/pathology-of-pancreatic-cancer-precursor-lesions
#7
REVIEW
Michaël Noë, Lodewijk A A Brosens
To better understand pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and improve its prognosis, it is essential to understand its origins. This article describes the pathology of the 3 well-established pancreatic cancer precursor lesions: pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm. Each of these precursor lesions has unique clinical findings, gross and microscopic features, and molecular aberrations. This article focuses on histopathologic diagnostic criteria and reporting guidelines...
December 2016: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925256/pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-a-focus-on-cytochrome-p450-transporters-and-acid-suppression-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Gay, Delphine Toulet, Pascal Le Corre
The extensive use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's) in hematology and oncology has shown that these drugs have a significant potential for drug-drug interactions. Since these drugs have a rather low therapeutic window, some drug interactions are of particular clinical relevance either on drug toxicity or on patient's response. Significant interactions occur with concomitant use of acid-suppressive therapy leading to a decreased oral bioavailability. However, such interactions are drug dependent according to their solubility pattern and to the duration of action of acid-suppressive therapy, which is coprescribed...
December 7, 2016: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925213/the-p53-inhibitor-mdm4-cooperates-with-multiple-genetic-lesions-in-tumorigenesis
#9
Shunbin Xiong, Vinod Pant, Yun Zhang, Neeraj K Aryal, M James You, Donna Kusewitt, Guillermina Lozano
The p53 inhibitor Mdm4 is present at high levels in multiple human cancers. Overexpression of Mdm4 in mice drives spontaneous development of mostly lymphomas and sarcomas. In this study, we explored the ability of Mdm4 to cooperate with other lesions in tumour development. The Mdm4 transgene contributed to mammary tumour development in a BALB/cJ background. High levels of Mdm4 enhanced tumour development in a mutant p53R172H heterozygous background and reduced the need to lose the wild type p53 allele as compared to the mice heterozygous only for the p53R172H mutation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925203/the-genetic-landscape-of-breast-carcinomas-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation
#10
Caterina Marchiò, Felipe C Geyer, Charlotte Ky Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Maria R De Filippo, Marco Cupo, Anne M Schultheis, Raymond S Lim, Kathleen A Burke, Elena Guerini-Rocco, Mauro Papotti, Larry Norton, Anna Sapino, Britta Weigelt, Jorge S Reis-Filho
Neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NBCs) account for 2-5% of all invasive breast cancers and are histologically similar to neuroendocrine tumours from other sites. They typically express oestrogen receptor (ER), are HER2-negative and of luminal subtype. Here we sought to define the mutational profile of NBCs, and to investigate whether NBCs and common forms of luminal (ER+/HER2-) breast cancer display distinct repertoires of somatic mutations. Eighteen ER+/HER2- NBCs, defined as harbouring >50% of tumour cells expressing chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin, and matched normal tissue were microdissected and subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 254 genes most frequently mutated in breast cancer and/or related to DNA repair...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925170/associations-of-microrna-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-disease-risk-and-pathophysiology
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoxiao Liu, Zhijun Han, Chengjian Yang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genetic variations that contribute to human phenotypes associated with various diseases. SNPs are involved in the regulation of a broad range of physiological and pathological processes, such as cellular senescence, apoptosis, inflammation, and immune response, by up-regulating the expression of classical inflammation markers. Recent studies have suggested that SNPs located in gene-encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) affect various aspects of diseases by regulating the expression or activity of miRNAs...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924948/foxa1-gata3-and-ppar%C3%A9-cooperate-to-drive-luminal-subtype-in-bladder-cancer-a-molecular-analysis-of-established-human-cell-lines
#12
Joshua I Warrick, Vonn Walter, Hironobu Yamashita, Eunah Chung, Lauren Shuman, Vasty Osei Amponsa, Zongyu Zheng, Wilson Chan, Tiffany L Whitcomb, Feng Yue, Tejaswi Iyyanki, Yuka I Kawasawa, Matthew Kaag, Wansong Guo, Jay D Raman, Joo-Seop Park, David J DeGraff
Discrete bladder cancer molecular subtypes exhibit differential clinical aggressiveness and therapeutic response, which may have significant implications for identifying novel treatments for this common malignancy. However, research is hindered by the lack of suitable models to study each subtype. To address this limitation, we classified bladder cancer cell lines into molecular subtypes using publically available data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), guided by genomic characterization of bladder cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#13
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924582/modeling-rasopathies-with-genetically-modified-mouse-models
#14
Isabel Hernández-Porras, Carmen Guerra
The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924555/how-genetics-has-helped-piece-together-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#15
Dariel Ashton-Beaucage, Marc Therrien
Cells respond to changes in their environment, to developmental cues, and to pathogen aggression through the action of a complex network of proteins. These networks can be decomposed into a multitude of signaling pathways that relay signals from the microenvironment to the cellular components involved in eliciting a specific response. Perturbations in these signaling processes are at the root of multiple pathologies, the most notable of these being cancer. The study of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling led to the first description of a mechanism whereby an extracellular signal is transmitted to the nucleus to induce a transcriptional response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924160/multivalent-targeting-based-delivery-of-therapeutic-peptide-using-ap1-elp-carrier-for-effective-cancer-therapy
#16
Vijaya Sarangthem, Yunjae Kim, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Bo-Yeon Seo, Sun-Ha Cheon, Young-Jin Lee, Byung-Heon Lee, Rang-Woon Park
Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-based drug delivery has been utilized for various applications including cancer therapies for many years. Genetic incorporation of internalization ligands and cell-targeting peptides along with ELP polymer enhanced tumor accumulation and retention time as well as stability and activities of the drug conjugates. Herein, we described a unique delivery system comprised of genetically engineered ELP incorporated with multiple copies of IL-4 receptor targeting peptide (AP1) periodically and proapoptotic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 referred to as AP1-ELP-KLAK...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924064/toward-the-use-of-precision-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Wang Gong, Yandi Xiao, Zihao Wei, Yao Yuan, Min Qiu, Chongkui Sun, Xin Zeng, Xinhua Liang, Mingye Feng, Qianming Chen
Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of "big data", such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine...
December 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923913/a-tgf%C3%AE-mir-182-brca1-axis-controls-the-mammary-differentiation-hierarchy
#18
Haydeliz Martinez-Ruiz, Irineu Illa-Bochaca, Coral Omene, Douglas Hanniford, Qi Liu, Eva Hernando, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
Maintenance of mammary functional capacity during cycles of proliferation and regression depends on appropriate cell fate decisions of mammary progenitor cells to populate an epithelium consisting of secretory luminal cells and contractile myoepithelial cells. It is well established that transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) restricts mammary epithelial cell proliferation and that sensitivity to TGFβ is decreased in breast cancer. We show that TGFβ also exerts control of mammary progenitor self-renewal and lineage commitment decisions by stringent regulation of breast cancer associated 1 (BRCA1), which controls stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment...
December 6, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923835/rb-loss-promotes-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#19
Chellappagounder Thangavel, Ettickan Boopathi, Yi Liu, Alex Haber, Adam Ertel, Anshul Bhardwaj, Sankar Addya, Noelle Williams, Steve Ciment, Paolo Cotzia, Jeffry L Dean, Adam E Snook, Chris McNair, Matthew A Price, James R Hernandez, Shuang G Zhao, Ruth Birbe, James B McCarthy, Eva A Turely, Kenneth J Pienta, Felix Y Feng, Adam P Dicker, Karen E Knudsen, Robert B Den
RB loss occurs commonly in neoplasia but its contributions to advanced cancer have not been assessed directly. Here we show that RB loss in multiple murine models of cancer produces a pro-metastatic phenotype. Gene expression analyses showed that regulation of the cell motility receptor RHAMM by the RB/E2F pathway was critical for epithelia-mesenchyme translation, motility and invasion by cancer cells. Genetic modulation or pharmacological inhibition of RHAMM activity was sufficient and necessary for metastatic phenotypes induced by RB loss in prostate cancer...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
keyword
keyword
25108
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"