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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454262/the-influence-of-evaluation-recommendations-on-instrumental-and-conceptual-uses-a-preliminary-analysis
#1
Isabelle Bourgeois, Jane Whynot
Evaluation recommendations are sometimes included in evaluation reports to highlight specific actions to be taken to improve a program or to make other changes to its operational context. This preliminary study sought to examine evaluation recommendations drawn from 25 evaluation reports published by Canadian federal government departments and agencies, in order to examine the evaluation issues covered and the focus of the recommendations. Our results show that in keeping with policy requirements, the evaluation recommendations focused on program relevance, effectiveness and efficiency and economy...
February 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453906/positive-implications-from-socially-accountable-community-engaged-medical-education-across-two-philippines-regions
#2
Torres Woolley, Fortunato Cristobal, Jusie Siega-Sur, Simone Ross, Andre-Jacques Neusy, Servando Halili, Carole Reeve
INTRODUCTION: Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack access to quality health services, largely because of geographic and socioeconomic maldistribution of qualified practitioners. This study describes differences between the practice locations of Philippines medical graduates from two 'socially accountable, community-engaged' health professional education (SAHPE) schools and the practice locations of graduates from two 'conventionally trained' medical schools located in the same respective geographic regions...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#3
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453839/making-policies-about-emerging-technologies
#4
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies-decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the central element in wise decisions is the assessment of benefits and costs, understood as a process that consists, at least in part, in measuring, tallying, and comparing how different outcomes would affect the public interest. But how benefits and costs are best weighed when making decisions about whether to move forward with an emerging technology is not clear...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453838/from-cba-to-precautionary-appraisal-practical-responses-to-intractable-problems
#5
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453837/benefit-cost-analysis-and-emerging-technologies
#6
Brian Mannix
Emerging technologies are, by definition, full of surprises: developments that we cannot fully anticipate and that might have some bad outcomes as well as good ones. This presents a challenge for anyone trying to make forward-looking policy decisions, including those who apply benefit-cost analysis. BCA is now widely known and used, but it is also widely misunderstood-by many of its advocates as well as its detractors. In this essay, I will begin by examining some of the strengths and weaknesses of BCA as a normative science...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453391/diffusion-mechanism-in-the-sodium-ion-battery-material-sodium-cobaltate
#7
T J Willis, D G Porter, D J Voneshen, S Uthayakumar, F Demmel, M J Gutmann, M Roger, K Refson, J P Goff
High performance batteries based on the movement of Li ions in Li x CoO 2 have made possible a revolution in mobile electronic technology, from laptops to mobile phones. However, the scarcity of Li and the demand for energy storage for renewables has led to intense interest in Na-ion batteries, including structurally-related Na x CoO 2 . Here we have determined the diffusion mechanism for Na 0.8 CoO 2 using diffuse x-ray scattering, quasi-elastic neutron scattering and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and we find that the sodium ordering provides diffusion pathways and governs the diffusion rate...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453354/physical-basis-of-amyloid-fibril-polymorphism
#8
William Close, Matthias Neumann, Andreas Schmidt, Manuel Hora, Karthikeyan Annamalai, Matthias Schmidt, Bernd Reif, Volker Schmidt, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Marcus Fändrich
Polymorphism is a key feature of amyloid fibril structures but it remains challenging to explain these variations for a particular sample. Here, we report electron cryomicroscopy-based reconstructions from different fibril morphologies formed by a peptide fragment from an amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chain. The observed fibril morphologies vary in the number and cross-sectional arrangement of a structurally conserved building block. A comparison with the theoretically possible constellations reveals the experimentally observed spectrum of fibril morphologies to be governed by opposing sets of forces that primarily arise from the β-sheet twist, as well as peptide-peptide interactions within the fibril cross-section...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453323/rna-stabilization-factors-in-chloroplasts-of-vascular-plants
#9
REVIEW
Nikolay Manavski, Lisa-Marie Schmid, Jörg Meurer
In contrast to the cyanobacterial ancestor, chloroplast gene expression is predominantly governed on the post-transcriptional level such as modifications of the RNA sequence, decay rates, exo- and endonucleolytic processing as well as translational events. The concerted function of numerous chloroplast RNA-binding proteins plays a fundamental and often essential role in all these processes but our understanding of their impact in regulation of RNA degradation is only at the beginning. Moreover, metabolic processes and post-translational modifications are thought to affect the function of RNA protectors...
February 16, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453302/characteristics-and-publication-fate-of-unregistered-and-retrospectively-registered-clinical-trials-submitted-to-the-bmj-over-4-years
#10
Elizabeth Loder, Stephen Loder, Sophie Cook
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the characteristics and publication fate of improperly registered clinical trials submitted to a medical journal ( The BMJ ) over a 4-year period to identify common types of registration issues and their relation to publication outcomes. DESIGN: Research articles submitted to The BMJ and identified as unregistered or retrospectively registered by editors were included if they reported outcomes of a clinical trial. Relevant data regarding the trials were then extracted from each paper...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453294/public-preferences-for-interventions-to-prevent-emerging-infectious-disease-threats-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#11
Alex R Cook, Xiahong Zhao, Mark I C Chen, Eric A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: When faced with an emergent epidemic with high mortality and morbidity potential, policy makers must decide what public health interventions to deploy at different stages of the outbreak. However, almost nothing is known about how the public view these interventions or how they trade off risks (of disease) with inconvenience (of interventions). In this paper, we aim to understand public perceptions on pandemic interventions, as well as to identify if there are any distinct respondent preference classes...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453273/evolution-of-a-holistic-systems-approach-to-planning-and-managing-road-safety-the-victorian-case-study-1970-2015
#12
Carlyn Muir, Ian R Johnston, Eric Howard
BACKGROUND: The Victorian Safe System approach to road safety slowly evolved from a combination of the Swedish Vision Zero philosophy and the Sustainable Safety model developed by the Dutch. The Safe System approach reframes the way in which road safety is viewed and managed. METHODS: This paper presents a case study of the institutional change required to underpin the transformation to a holistic approach to planning and managing road safety in Victoria, Australia...
February 16, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453271/government-will-cap-legal-costs-of-clinical-negligence-claims
#13
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453188/web-based-alcohol-smoking-and-substance-involvement-screening-test-results-for-the-general-spanish-population-cross-sectional-study
#14
Juan A Lopez-Rodriguez, Gabriel Rubio Valladolid
BACKGROUND: Information technology in health sciences could be a screening tool of great potential and has been shown to be effective in identifying single-drug users at risk. Although there are many published tests for single-drug screening, there is a gap for concomitant drug use screening in general population. The ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) website was launched on February 2015 in Madrid, Spain, as a tool to identify those at risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of a tool and to analyze profiles of drug users, their consumption patterns, and associated factors...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453032/impact-of-metformin-on-gastric-adenocarcinoma-survival-a-belgian-population-based-study
#15
Olivia Lacroix, Alexandra Couttenier, Evelien Vaes, Chris R Cardwell, Harlinde De Schutter, Annie Robert
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown anticancer activities of metformin in gastric cancer and a recent epidemiological study showed a decrease in recurrence and mortality of gastric cancer in metformin users. This study aimed to assess the impact of metformin on gastric cancer survival in diabetic patients at a Belgian population level. METHODS: We conducted an observational, population-based study by linking data of the Belgian Cancer Registry with medical claims data coming from the health insurance companies for patients diagnosed with stage I to III gastric adenocarcinoma between 2006 and 2012...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453009/advances-in-concrete-materials-for-sewer-systems-affected-by-microbial-induced-concrete-corrosion-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Cyrill Grengg, Florian Mittermayr, Neven Ukrainczyk, Günther Koraimann, Sabine Kienesberger, Martin Dietzel
Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms of subsurface infrastructure worldwide, raising the demand for sustainable construction materials in corrosive environments. This review aims to summarize the key research progress acquired during the last decade regarding the understanding of MICC reaction mechanisms and the development of durable materials from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special focus was laid on aspects governing concrete - micoorganisms interaction since being the central process steering biogenic acid corrosion...
February 6, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452974/-running-two-rooms-does-not-compromise-outcomes-or-patient-safety-in-joint-arthroplasty
#17
William G Hamilton, Henry Ho, Nancy L Parks, Alexander V Strait, Robert H Hopper, James F McDonald, Nitin Goyal, Kevin B Fricka, C Anderson Engh
BACKGROUND: Scrutiny from the federal government and the media regarding the safety of 1 surgeon doing cases in 2 operating rooms (ORs) on the same day, prompted us to examine our own institutional data. Over the past 11 years, surgeons at our facility have operated consecutively in 1 OR on a given day or used 2 alternating ORs. This study compares these cases with a focus on revisions and complications in both groups. METHODS: Six surgeons performed a total of 16,916 primary hip and knee arthroplasties from 2006-2016...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452900/prevalence-and-correlates-of-hypertension-outcome-of-a-free-medical-screening-in-oke-ogun-area-of-oyo-state-nigeria-west-africa
#18
REVIEW
Rasaki O Shittu, Louis O Odeigah, Kasali O Fakorede, Biliaminu A Sikiru, Abdullateef G Sule, Yusuf Musah, Folorunsho M Adeyemi
Literature abounds on prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria and urban areas of Oyo state but none in Oke-Ogun geopolitical zone, which constitutes 10 local governments of the 33 in Oyo state, despite the fact that they have high genetic and environmental predisposition to developing high blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated risk factors among indigenes of Oke-ogun, Oyo state. A total of 10,000 respondents were recruited using proportionate sampling techniques...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#19
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452548/oncology-clinical-pathways-a-form-of-governance
#20
Peter Paul Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
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