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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441790/eradicating-breast-cancer-longevity-impact-on-kuwaiti-women
#1
Muhammad Ali Al Ramadhan
Objective: To explore salient trends in incidence and mortality from breast cancer among Kuwaiti females and to quantify the number of years that could be saved if breast cancer deaths were eliminated. Methods: Appling life table technique, the paper constructs a bridged, multiple decrement and cancer-elimination life tables for Kuwaiti females. Data sources include Kuwait Cancer Control Center Registry along with vital statistics on mortality by age groups, nationality, and causes of death according to ICD-10 revision...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441745/breast-cancer-screening-programmes-across-the-who-european-region-differences-among-countries-based-on-national-income-level
#2
Emma Altobelli, Leonardo Rapacchietta, Paolo Matteo Angeletti, Luca Barbante, Filippo Valerio Profeta, Roberto Fagnano
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441504/paradoxical-long-timespan-opening-of-the-hole-in-self-supported-water-films-of-nanometrical-thickness
#3
Zahava Barkay, Edward Bormashenko
Opening of holes in self-supported thin (nano-scaled) water films has been in situ investigated with the environmental scanning electron microscope. Opening of a hole occurs within a two-stage process. At the first stage the rim surrounding a hole is formed, resembling the process which is observed under puncturing of soap bubbles. At the second stage the exponential growth of the hole is observed, with a characteristic time of a dozen of seconds. We explain the exponential kinetics of holes' growth by the balance between inertia (gravity) and viscous dissipation...
April 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441392/radiation-effects-on-the-mixed-convection-flow-induced-by-an-inclined-stretching-cylinder-with-non-uniform-heat-source-sink
#4
Tasawar Hayat, Sajid Qayyum, Ahmed Alsaedi, Saleem Asghar
This study investigates the mixed convection flow of Jeffrey liquid by an impermeable inclined stretching cylinder. Thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink are considered. The convective boundary conditions at surface are imposed. Nonlinear expressions of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into dimensionless systems. Convergent homotopic solutions of the governing systems are worked out by employing homotopic procedure. Impact of physical variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441387/governing-multisectoral-action-for-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
Kumanan Rasanathan, Sara Bennett, Vincent Atkins, Robert Beschel, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Jodi Charles, Rajib Dasgupta, Kirk Emerson, Douglas Glandon, Churnrurtai Kanchanachitra, Pete Kingsley, Don Matheson, Rees Murithi Mbabu, Charles Mwansambo, Michael Myers, Jeremias Paul, Thulisile Radebe, James Smith, Orielle Solar, Agnès Soucat, Aloysius Ssennyonjo, Matthias Wismar, Shehla Zaidi
Kumanan Rasanathan and colleagues argue that the potential of multisectoral collaboration for improving health remains untapped in many low- and middle-income countries.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441289/radiological-nuclear-human-monitoring-tabletop-exercise-recommendations-and-lessons-identified
#6
Vinita Chauhan, Devin Duncan, Ruth C Wilkins
Health Canada is the lead department for coordinating the federal response to a Canadian nuclear emergency event. The framework to manage a radiological consequence is outlined in the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP). In 2014, a full scale exercise (FSX) was held to test the capacity of the federal government to handle a nuclear facility emergency disaster in Canada. The FSX provided a means to demonstrate the integration of various departments and agencies in response to such an event, and although a number of task teams within FNEP were tested, the capacity to monitor humans for exposure post-event was not played out fully...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441160/evidence-based-practice-and-u-s-healthcare-outcomes-findings-from-a-national-survey-with-nursing-professional-development-practitioners
#7
Mary G Harper, Lynn Gallagher-Ford, Joan I Warren, Michelle Troseth, Loraine T Sinnott, Bindu Koshy Thomas
Nursing professional development (NPD) practitioners are integral to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP). Research was conducted to describe NPD practitioners' EBP beliefs and competencies, frequency of implementing EBP, and perceptions of organizational culture and readiness for EBP. Relationships among NPD practitioner characteristics and organization outcomes were explored. Findings indicate that NPD practitioners must develop personal competence in EBP, become engaged in shared governance, collaborate with others, and use quality metrics to demonstrate the effectiveness and value of NPD activities...
April 24, 2017: Journal for Nurses in Professional Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441088/video-enabled-cue-exposure-based-intervention-improves-postdischarge-drinking-outcomes-among-alcohol-dependent-men-a-prospective-study-at-a-government-addiction-treatment-setting-in-india
#8
Prasanthi Nattala, Pratima Murthy, Kit Sang Leung, Sreevani Rentala, Jayashree Ramakrishna
Returning to alcohol use following inpatient treatment occurs due to various real life cues/triggers. It is a challenge to demonstrate to patients how to deal with these triggers during inpatient treatment. Aims of the current study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention (VE-CEI) in influencing treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence, (b) to identify postdischarge predictors of intervention failure (returning to ≥50% of baseline alcohol consumption quantity/day)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441057/oxidative-stress
#9
Helmut Sies, Carsten Berndt, Dean P Jones
Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties. Redox balance is maintained by prevention, interception, and repair, and concomitantly the regulatory potential of molecular thiol-driven master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB is used for system-wide oxidative stress response...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440962/designed-heme-cage-%C3%AE-sheet-miniproteins
#10
Areetha D'Souza, Xiangyang Wu, Edwin Kok Lee Yeow, Surajit Bhattacharjya
The structure and function of naturally occurring proteins are governed by a large number of amino acids (≥100). The design of miniature proteins with desired structures and functions not only substantiates our knowledge about proteins but can also contribute to the development of novel applications. Excellent progress has been made towards the design of helical proteins with diverse functions. However, the development of functional β-sheet proteins remains challenging. Herein, we describe the construction and characterization of four-stranded β-sheet miniproteins made up of about 19 amino acids that bind heme inside a hydrophobic binding pocket or "heme cage" by bis-histidine coordination in an aqueous environment...
April 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440949/regulations-and-policies-regarding-e-cigarettes
#11
REVIEW
Leila F Barraza, Kim E Weidenaar, Livia T Cook, Andrea R Logue, Michael T Halpern
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a growing public health concern because of a dramatic increase in use by adolescents and the uncertainty of potential health impacts. These health concerns and lack of an established federal regulatory scheme have led many local and state governments to address the regulatory void for e-cigarettes by incorporating them into the statutory definition of tobacco or by passing laws specific to the use of e-cigarettes. In August 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule deeming e-cigarettes within their authority; providing uniform requirements like premarket approval applications, Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents reporting, and warning labels; and establishing 18 years as a minimum age of purchase...
April 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440940/from-the-sea-to-the-laboratory-characterization-of-microplastic-as-prerequisite-for-the-assessment-of-ecotoxicological-impact
#12
Annegret Potthoff, Kathrin Oelschlägel, Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen, Christoph Daniel Rummel, Dana Kühnel
The presence of microplastic (MP) in the aquatic environment is recognized as a global-scale pollution issue. Secondary MP particles result from an ongoing fragmentation process governed by various biotic and abiotic factors. For a reliable risk assessment of these MP particles, knowledge about interactions with biota is needed. However, extensive testing with standard organisms under reproducible laboratory conditions with well-characterized MP suspensions is not available yet. As MP in the environment represents a mixture of particles differing in properties (e...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440931/microplastics-as-vectors-for-environmental-contaminants-exploring-sorption-desorption-and-transfer-to-biota
#13
Nanna B Hartmann, Sinja Rist, Julia Bodin, Louise Hs Jensen, Stine N Schmidt, Philipp Mayer, Anders Meibom, Anders Baun
The occurrence and effects of microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment are receiving increasing attention. In addition to their possible direct adverse effects on biota, the potential role of MPs as vectors for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), compared to natural pathways, is a topic of much debate. It is evident, however, that temporal and spatial variations of MP occurrence do (and will) occur. To further improve the estimations of the role of MPs as vectors for HOC transfer into biota under varying MP concentrations and environmental conditions, it is important to identify and understand the governing processes...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440557/implementation-of-probabilistic-algorithms-by-multi-chromophoric-molecular-networks-with-application-to-multiple-travelling-pathways
#14
Barbara Fresch, Francoise Remacle, Raphael D Levine
The implementation of probabilistic algorithms by deterministic hardware is demanding and requires hundreds of instructions to generate pseudo-random sequence of numbers. On the contrary, the dynamics at the molecular scale is physically governed by probabilistic laws because of the stochastic nature of thermally activated and quantum processes. By simulating the exciton transfer dynamics in a multi chromophoric system we demonstrate the implementation of a random walk that samples the possible pathways of a traveler through a network and can be probed by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy...
April 25, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440550/political-drivers-of-epidemic-response-foreign-healthcare-workers-and-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#15
Daniel Nohrstedt, Erik Baekkeskov
This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies...
April 25, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440278/an-insider-s-perspective-bacteroides-as-a-window-into-the-microbiome
#16
REVIEW
Aaron G Wexler, Andrew L Goodman
Over the last decade, our appreciation for the contribution of resident gut microorganisms-the gut microbiota-to human health has surged. However, progress is limited by the sheer diversity and complexity of these microbial communities. Compounding the challenge, the majority of our commensal microorganisms are not close relatives of Escherichia coli or other model organisms and have eluded culturing and manipulation in the laboratory. In this Review, we discuss how over a century of study of the readily cultured, genetically tractable human gut Bacteroides has revealed important insights into the biochemistry, genomics and ecology that make a gut bacterium a gut bacterium...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439694/modifications-to-a-3d-printed-temporal-bone-model-for-augmented-stapes-fixation-surgery-teaching
#17
Yann Nguyen, Elisabeth Mamelle, Daniele De Seta, Olivier Sterkers, Daniele Bernardeschi, Renato Torres
Functional outcomes and complications in otosclerosis surgery are governed by the surgeon's experience. Thus, teaching the procedure to residents to guide them through the learning process as quickly as possible is challenging. Artificial 3D-printed temporal bones are replacing cadaver specimens in many institutions to learn mastoidectomy, but these are not suitable for middle ear surgery training. The goal of this work was to adapt such an artificial temporal bone to aid the teaching of otosclerosis surgery and to evaluate this tool...
April 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439473/the-behavioral-response-of-prey-fish-to-predators-the-role-of-predator-size
#18
Zhong-Hua Tang, Qing Huang, Hui Wu, Lu Kuang, Shi-Jian Fu
Predation is one of the key factors governing patterns in natural systems, and adjustments of prey behaviors in response to a predator stimulus can have important ecological implications for wild fish. To investigate the effects of predators on the behavior of prey fish and to test whether the possible effects varied with predator size, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and snakehead (Channa argus) (a size-matched predator treatment with a similar body size to prey fish and a larger predator treatment with approximately 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439418/prevention-practices-influencing-frequency-of-occurrence-of-vaso-occlusive-crisis-among-sickle-cell-patients-in-abeokuta-south-local-government-area-of-ogun-state-nigeria
#19
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Ahmed Babatunde Jimoh, Omotola Ojo, Temitope Kuponiyi
BACKGROUND: Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. METHODS: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439033/genome-wide-identification-of-resd-nsrr-and-fur-binding-in-bacillus-subtilis-during-anaerobic-fermentative-growth-by-in-vivo-footprinting
#20
Onuma Chumsakul, Divya P Anantsri, Tai Quirke, Taku Oshima, Kensuke Nakamura, Shu Ishikawa, Michiko M Nakano
Upon oxygen limitation, the Bacillus subtilis ResE sensor kinase and its cognate ResD response regulator play primary roles in transcriptional activation of genes functioning in anaerobic respiration. The nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive NsrR repressor controls transcription to support nitrate respiration. In addition, the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can modulate transcription under anaerobic conditions. However, whether these controls are direct or indirect has been investigated only in a gene-specific manner...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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