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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245044/changes-in-lower-extremity-strength-may-be-related-to-the-walking-speed-improvements-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-after-gait-training
#1
Rashelle M Hoffman, Bradley B Corr, Wayne A Stuberg, David J Arpin, Max J Kurz
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) has a high probability of resulting in lower extremity strength and walking deficits. Numerous studies have shown that gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of these children; however, the factors governing these improvements are unknown. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between change in lower extremity strength, walking speed and endurance of children with CP following gait training...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244992/oral-morphine-use-in-south-india-a-population-based-study
#2
M R Rajagopal, Safiya Karim, Christopher M Booth
Purpose Access to opioids for pain control is recognized as an urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report temporal and regional trends in morphine use in Kerala, India. Methods Oral morphine use data for the State of Kerala (2012 to 2015) was used to describe temporal trends, regional variation, and provider characteristics. Total morphine use was calculated for each district of Kerala to derive an annual per capita use rate (milligrams per capita). Each provider was classified as government, private, nongovernment organization (NGO), or NGO partnership...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244968/the-house-of-lords-debates-wound-care-strategy
#3
Paul Browning
On Tuesday 22 November, the House of Lords (London, UK) held a short debate 'Improving the standard of wound care in the NHS.' It consisted of nine questions from the floor and a response from Lord O'Shaughnessy, The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Health (Conservative). Here, Paul Browning, (Doctoral Research Student, University of Worcester, employed by 3M UK plc) summarises the key points from the evening and explains why it is so important we keep wound care on the Government's agenda.
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#4
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244788/dual-modulation-of-human-hepatic-zonation-via-canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-pathways
#5
Laura McEnerney, Kara Duncan, Bo-Ram Bang, Sandra Elmasry, Meng Li, Toshio Miki, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Yatrik M Shah, Takeshi Saito
The hepatic lobule is divided into three zones along the portal-central vein axis. Hepatocytes within each zone exhibit a distinctive gene expression profile that coordinates their metabolic compartmentalization. The zone-dependent heterogeneity of hepatocytes has been hypothesized to result from the differential degree of exposure to oxygen, nutrition and gut-derived toxins. In addition, the gradient of Wnt signaling that increases towards the central vein seen in rodent models is believed to play a critical role in shaping zonation...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244642/sex-sleep-deprivation-and-the-anxious-brain
#6
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Stephanie M Greer, Jared M Saletin, Allison G Harvey, Leanne M Williams, Matthew P Walker
Insufficient sleep is a known trigger of anxiety. However, not everyone experiences these effects to the same extent. One determining factor is sex, wherein women experience a greater anxiogenic impact in response to sleep loss than men. However, the underlying brain mechanism(s) governing this sleep-loss-induced anxiety increase, including the markedly different reaction in women and men, is unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that structural brain morphology in a discrete network of emotion-relevant regions represents one such explanatory factor...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244636/event-related-electroencephalographic-lateralizations-mark-individual-differences-in-spatial-and-nonspatial-visual-selection
#7
Iris Wiegand, Natan Napiorkowski, Thomas Töllner, Anders Petersen, Thomas Habekost, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Selective attention controls the distribution of our visual system's limited processing resources to stimuli in the visual field. Two independent parameters of visual selection can be quantified by modeling an individual's performance in a partial-report task based on the computational theory of visual attention (TVA): (i) top-down control α, the relative attentional weighting of relevant over irrelevant stimuli, and (ii) spatial bias wλ, the relative attentional weighting of stimuli in the left versus right hemifield...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244540/overcoming-impediments-to-otp-expansion-in-the-united-states-and-abroad
#8
Mark W Parrino
By all published accounts and federal government reports, the United States is experiencing a serious opioid use epidemic. Additional treatment resources are needed in order to provide access to evidence based medical care for untreated individuals with substance use disorders. The focus of this commentary is increasing access to more opioid treatment programs and overcoming the significant impediments, which block such efforts.
December 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244534/assessing-infant-carriage-systems-ground-reaction-force-implications-for-gait-of-the-caregiver
#9
Mathew B Brown, Caroline J Digby-Bowl, Samuel D Todd
Objective To assess the acute alterations of anterior infant carriage systems on the ground reaction force experienced during over-ground walking. Background Previous research has identified the alterations in posture and gait associated with an increased anterior load (external or internal); however, the forces applied to the system due to the altered posture during over-ground walking have not been established. Method Thirteen mixed gender participants completed 45 over-ground walking trials at a self-selected pace under three loaded conditions (unloaded, semi-structured carrier 9...
December 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244119/is-social-work-prepared-for-diversity-in-hospice-and-palliative-care
#10
Christine M Rine
The purpose of this article is to assess current and future trends in hospice and palliative care with the objective of informing culturally appropriate best practice for social work. Concern for the intersectionality of racial, ethnic, social, and other differences in end-of-life (EOL) care is imperative given the ever growing range of diversity characteristics among the increasing aging populations in the United States. A review of literature from the current decade that is pertinent to the profession contributes to the ability of social work to consider evidence and build agreement germane to EOL practice settings...
December 13, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244107/the-importance-of-gender-analysis-in-research-for-health-systems-strengthening
#11
Sally Theobald, Rosemary Morgan, Kate Hawkins, Sarah Ssali, Asha George, Sassy Molyneux
This editorial discusses a collection of papers examining gender across a range of health policy and systems contexts, from access to services, governance, health financing, and human resources for health. The papers interrogate differing health issues and core health systems functions using a gender lens. Together they produce new knowledge on the multiple impacts of gender on health experiences and demonstrate the importance of gender analyses and gender sensitive interventions for promoting well-being and health systems strengthening...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243873/a-comprehensive-review-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-regulate-bdnf-expression-and-function-with-relevance-to-major-depressive-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Benjamin Hing, Leela Sathyaputri, James B Potash
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243866/the-dual-role-of-mamb-in-magnetosome-membrane-assembly-and-magnetite-biomineralization
#13
René Uebe, Noa Keren-Khadmy, Natalie Zeytuni, Emanuel Katzmann, Yotam Navon, Geula Davidov, Ronit Bitton, Jürgen M Plitzko, Dirk Schüler, Raz Zarivach
Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 synthesizes membrane-enclosed magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) nanoparticles, magnetosomes, for magnetotaxis. Formation of these organelles involves a complex process comprising key steps which are governed by specific magnetosome-associated proteins. MamB, a cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family member has been implicated in magnetosome-directed iron transport. However, deletion mutagenesis studies revealed that MamB is essential for the formation of magnetosome membrane vesicles, but its precise role remains elusive...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243555/philanthropy-and-the-nation-state-in-global-health-the-gates-foundation-in-india
#14
Manjari Mahajan
In recent years, philanthropic actors such as the Gates Foundation have been understood as commanding sweeping influence in global health. They have been associated with the outsourcing of public health services, shifting of policy priorities, and the eventual sidelining of national governments. This article makes a different argument about the impact of global philanthropic actors. It focuses on the work of the Gates Foundation in India over the last decade and a half, tracing how the foundation initially circumvented the national government but then moved on to a discourse of partnership...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243385/assessing-the-impact-of-early-learning-programs-in-africa
#15
REVIEW
Amber Gove, Tracy Brunette, Jennae Bulat, Bidemi Carrol, Catherine Henny, Wykia Macon, Evangeline Nderu, Yasmin Sitabkhan
We present results from early learning programs in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. In partnership with ministries of education, RTI International has worked within government systems to support the design and deployment of locally contextualized materials, training, and assessment tools, with the goal of improving outcomes for early learners in primary schools, and in Kenya and Tanzania preprimary as well. Here we report on the experience and evidence of impact from specific programs in each country, including summary assessment results when available...
December 2017: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243295/extended-phase-graph-formalism-for-systems-with-magnetization-transfer-and-exchange
#16
Shaihan J Malik, Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: An extended phase graph framework (EPG-X) for modeling systems with exchange or magnetization transfer (MT) is proposed. THEORY: EPG-X models coupled two-compartment systems by describing each compartment with separate phase graphs that exchange during evolution periods. There are two variants: EPG-X(BM) for systems governed by the Bloch-McConnell equations, and EPG-X(MT) for the pulsed MT formalism. For the MT case, the "bound" protons have no transverse components, so their phase graph consists of only longitudinal states...
December 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243147/seasonal-variations-in-size-distribution-water-soluble-ions-and-carbon-content-of-size-segregated-aerosols-over-new-delhi
#17
Pawan Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Sudesh Yadav
Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM10, PM0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM3-7.2 (20%), PM7.2-10 (15%), PM0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM2.5. Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and Cl- followed bimodal distribution while SO42- and NH4+ ions showed one mode in PM0...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242866/the-curved-kinetic-boundary-layer-of-active-matter
#18
Wen Yan, John F Brady
A body submerged in active matter feels the swim pressure through a kinetic accumulation boundary layer on its surface. The boundary layer results from a balance between translational diffusion and advective swimming and occurs on the microscopic length scale . Here , DT is the Brownian translational diffusivity, τR is the reorientation time and l = U0τR is the swimmer's run length, with U0 the swim speed [Yan and Brady, J. Fluid. Mech., 2015, 785, R1]. In this work we analyze the swim pressure on arbitrary shaped bodies by including the effect of local shape curvature in the kinetic boundary layer...
December 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242862/stochastic-pumping-of-non-equilibrium-steady-states-how-molecules-adapt-to-a-fluctuating-environment
#19
R D Astumian
In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies...
December 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242828/machine-learning-unifies-the-modeling-of-materials-and-molecules
#20
Albert P Bartók, Sandip De, Carl Poelking, Noam Bernstein, James R Kermode, Gábor Csányi, Michele Ceriotti
Determining the stability of molecules and condensed phases is the cornerstone of atomistic modeling, underpinning our understanding of chemical and materials properties and transformations. We show that a machine-learning model, based on a local description of chemical environments and Bayesian statistical learning, provides a unified framework to predict atomic-scale properties. It captures the quantum mechanical effects governing the complex surface reconstructions of silicon, predicts the stability of different classes of molecules with chemical accuracy, and distinguishes active and inactive protein ligands with more than 99% reliability...
December 2017: Science Advances
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