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Ohad S Bentur, Galit Sarig, Benjamin Brenner, Giris Jacob
Stress, the nonspecific response to any demand for change, is an adaptive response of the human body to various stimulants. As such, stress-induced hypercoagulation may represent an adaptive response to bleeding. Numerous epidemiological studies have revealed that a correlation exists between stress and thrombotic risk and biochemically, links of the relationship between psychological stress and coagulation pathways have been made. The stress reaction is coupled with neurohormonal changes mediated mainly by the sympathetic neural system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Marc R Larochelle, Dana Bernson, Thomas Land, Thomas J Stopka, Na Wang, Ziming Xuan, Sarah M Bagley, Jane M Liebschutz, Alexander Y Walley
Background: Opioid overdose survivors have an increased risk for death. Whether use of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) after overdose is associated with mortality is not known. Objective: To identify MOUD use after opioid overdose and its association with all-cause and opioid-related mortality. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 7 individually linked data sets from Massachusetts government agencies...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Zhi-Feng Chen, Hong-Biao Wen, Xiaoxin Dai, Shi-Chao Yan, Hui Zhang, Yan-Yan Chen, Zhiyun Du, Guoguang Liu, Zongwei Cai
Triclosan and triclocarban are priority environmental contaminants of increasing concern to environmental health. After application, the chemicals enter the aquatic environment and easily distribute in bed sediment due to their hydrophobicity, and thus pose potential ecological risks. This study investigated the distribution and risks of triclosan and triclocarban in the sediment environment of a less urbanized region in South China. The sampling sites with high levels of triclosan and triclocarban were found to locate in the tributaries...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Matthew Knuiman, Leanne Lester, Georgina Trapp
The prevalence of warehouse-style liquor stores has prompted alarm from local communities and public health advocates. To increase local government control over liquor stores, one proposed planning response is to distinguish between 'small' (i.e., ≤ 300 m2 ) and 'large' (i.e., > 300 m2 ) liquor stores. We mapped the size and location of liquor stores in Perth, Western Australia, and tested associations between liquor store exposure and alcohol consumption (grams ethanol/day) in young adults (n = 990)...
June 15, 2018: Health & Place
Jan Boone
In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable without health insurance, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that next to cost effectiveness, prevalence is important if the government wants to maximize the welfare gain that it gets from its health budget. Conditions are derived under which basic insurance should cover treatments that are mainly used by high risk agents with low income...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Björn Jörges, Lena Slupinski, Joan López-Moliner
Evidence suggests that humans rely on an earth gravity prior for sensory-motor tasks like catching or reaching. Even under earth-discrepant conditions, this prior biases perception and action towards assuming a gravitational downwards acceleration of 9.81 m/s2 . This can be particularly detrimental in interactions with virtual environments employing earth-discrepant gravity conditions for their visual presentation. The present study thus investigates how well humans discriminate visually presented gravities and which cues they use to extract gravity from the visual scene...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
Wei Peng, Wei Deng, Jing Zhang, Gengwang Pei, Qiong Rong, Shuangxi Zhu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were proposed to be important regulators influencing various differentiation processes. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs governing osteogenic differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) remain unclear. Here, PDLSCs were isolated from normal periodontal ligament of human (PDL) whereas P-PDLSCs were isolated from periodontitis affected PDL. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the relative expression level of lncRNA-ANCR and of Osterix (OSX), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) as well as Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in PDLSCs...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Donglin Diao, Na Qiao, Xiao Wu, Jiyuan Li, Xinhui Lou
Nucleic acid-based aptamers are promising alternative to antibodies, however, their selection process (SELEX) is challenging. A number of simulations and few experiments have been reported offering insights into experimental factors (EFs) that govern the effectiveness of the selection process. Though useful, these previous studied were either lack of experimental confirmation, or considered limited EFs. A more efficient experimental method is highly desired. In this study, we developed a fast method that is capable to quantitatively probe the influence of multiple EFs...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Steven C Eastlack, Shengli Dong, Yin Y Mo, Suresh K Alahari
Malat1 is a long noncoding RNA with a wide array of functions, including roles in regulating cancer cell migration and metastasis. However, the nature of its involvement in control of these oncogenic processes is incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of Malat1 and the effects of Malat1 KO in a breast cancer cell model. Our selection of Malat1 as the subject of inquiry followed initial screening experiments seeking to identify lncRNAs which are altered in the presence or absence of Nischarin, a gene of interest previously discovered by our lab...
2018: PloS One
Samuel W Hainsworth, Paul M Dietze, David P Wilson, Brett Sutton, Margaret E Hellard, Nick Scott
BACKGROUND: Poor access to health services is a significant barrier to achieving the World Health Organization's hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets. We demonstrate how geospatial analysis can be performed with commonly available data to identify areas with the greatest unmet demand for HCV services. METHODS: We performed an Australia-wide cross-sectional analysis of 2015 HCV notification rates using local government areas (LGAs) as our unit of analysis...
2018: PloS One
Wayne Paes, Adam Dowle, Jamie Coldwell, Andrew Leech, Tim Ganderton, Andrzej Brzozowski
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen, and the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. We have recently shown that immunization with the highly conserved antigenic passenger domain of recombinant Ct polymorphic membrane protein D (rPmpD) is protective in the mouse model of Ct genital tract infection, and previously, that ocular anti-rPmpD antibodies are elicited following vaccination. However, the mechanisms governing the assembly and structure-function relationship of PmpD are unknown...
2018: PloS One
Grant E Donnelly, Laura Y Zatz, Dan Svirsky, Leslie K John
Governments have proposed text warning labels to decrease consumption of sugary drinks-a contributor to chronic diseases such as diabetes. However, they may be less effective than more evocative, graphic warning labels. We field-tested the effectiveness of graphic warning labels (vs. text warning labels, calorie labels, and no labels), provided insight into psychological mechanisms driving effectiveness, and assessed consumer sentiment. Study 1 indicated that graphic warning labels reduced the share of sugary drinks purchased in a cafeteria from 21...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Stephen Birch, Myeong Soo Lee, Terje Alraek, Tae-Hun Kim
INTRODUCTION: As positive evidence emerges for the use of an intervention to treat a health problem, the intervention gradually becomes incorporated into treatment guidelines (TGs) or clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are related to that health problem. To assess whether this general hypothesis can apply to acupuncture, 96 health problems were identified for which positive conclusions in systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture have been made and then searched for TGs or CPGs that have recommended the use of acupuncture...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Eric M Bottos, David W Kennedy, Elvira B Romero, Sarah J Fansler, Joseph M Brown, Lisa M Bramer, Rosalie K Chu, Malak M Tfaily, Janet K Jansson, James C Stegen
Understanding drivers of permafrost microbial community composition is critical for understanding permafrost microbiology and predicting ecosystem responses to thaw. We hypothesize that permafrost communities are shaped by physical constraints imposed by prolonged freezing, and exhibit spatial distributions that reflect dispersal limitation and selective pressures associated these physical constraints. To test this, we characterized patterns of environmental variation and microbial community composition in permafrost across an Alaskan boreal forest landscape...
June 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Andrew S Riching, Yuanbiao Zhao, Yingqiong Cao, Pilar Londono, Hongyan Xu, Kunhua Song
Trans-differentiation of one somatic cell type into another has enormous potential to model and treat human diseases. Previous studies have shown that mouse embryonic, dermal, and cardiac fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into functional induced-cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) through overexpression of cardiogenic transcription factors including GATA4, Hand2, Mef2c, and Tbx5 both in vitro and in vivo. However, these previous studies have shown relatively low efficiency. In order to restore heart function following injury, mechanisms governing cardiac reprogramming must be elucidated to increase efficiency and maturation of iCMs...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elisa Bevilacqua, Serena Resta, Andrew Carlin, Xin Kang, Teresa Cos Sanchez, Jérôme de Marchin, Jacques C Jani
Roche's Ariosa HarmonyTM Prenatal Test, a noninvasive cfDNA (cell-free DNA) method for major trisomies has been available since January-2013 at the authors unit and tests were sent to California. From July-2017 onwards, prenatal cfDNA has been reimbursed in Belgium for all pregnancies, however since then samples are sent to a local technology transfer center. Little data are available on patient's profile and choices towards cfDNA and on the performance of local technology transfer centers. Areas covered: The profiles and choices of women regarding this test were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Semra Tibebu, Vicky C Chang, Charles-Antoine Drouin, Wendy Thompson, Minh T Do
We explored social media as a potential data source for acquiring realtime information on opioid use and perceptions in Canada. Twitter messages were collected through a social media analytics platform between June 15, 2017, and July 13, 2017, and analyzed to identify recurring topics mentioned in the messages. Messages concerning the medical use of opioids as well as commentary on the Canadian government's current response efforts to the opioid crisis were common. The findings of this study may help to inform public health practice and community stakeholders in their efforts to address the opioid crisis...
June 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Songul Bozat-Emre, Shelley G Marshall, Colin Zhong, Joss Reimer
The Government of Manitoba launched the provincial Take-Home Naloxone Program in January 2017. By the end of September 2017, there were over 60 sites operating in Manitoba. These sites distributed 765 kits to people at risk of opioid overdose, and 93 of these kits were replacement kits used in overdose events. Most of these events occurred among males (60.2%) and in a private residence (72.0%). Fentanyl and carfentanil were the most common substances reported during overdose events. Take-Home Naloxone Program data provide important information about the unique context of the opioid crisis in Manitoba...
June 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Chao Jiang, Yongfeng Zhang, Yipeng Gao, Jian Gan
Systematic ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to gain fundamental understanding of the interactions between noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and bcc transition metals in groups 5B (V, Nb and Ta), 6B (Cr, Mo and W) and 8B (Fe). Our charge density analysis indicates that the strong polarization of nearest-neighbor metal atoms by noble gas interstitials is the electronic origin of their high formation energies. Such polarization becomes more significant with an increasing gas atom size and interstitial charge density in the host bcc metal, which explains the similar trend followed by the unrelaxed formation energies of noble gas interstitials...
June 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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