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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822213/liberia-national-disaster-preparedness-coordination-exercise-implementing-lessons-learned-from-the-west-african-disaster-preparedness-initiative
#1
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015. DESIGN: During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs)...
January 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822076/studies-of-the-benzopyran-class-of-selective-cox-2-inhibitors-using-3d-qsar-and-molecular-docking
#2
Dharmendra K Yadav, Saloni, Praveen Sharma, Sanjeev Misra, Harpreet Singh, Ricardo L Mancera, Kang Kim, Cheongyun Jang, Mi-Hyun Kim, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Eun Ha Choi, Surendra Kumar
The Gaussian-based 3D-QSAR studies for 58 selective COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) inhibitors belonging to benzopyran chemical class were performed. Partial least squares analysis produced statistically significant model with (R training(2)  = 0.866) and predictability (Q training(2)  = 0.66, Q test(2)  = 0.846). The 3D-QSAR model includes steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bond acceptor field indicators, whereas the potential field contributions indicate that the steric and hydrophobic features of the molecules play an important role in governing their biological activity...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822074/general-equations-for-optimal-selection-of-diagnostic-image-acquisition-parameters-in-clinical-x-ray-imaging
#3
Xiaoming Zheng
The purpose of this work was to examine the effects of relationship functions between diagnostic image quality and radiation dose on the governing equations for image acquisition parameter variations in X-ray imaging. Various equations were derived for the optimal selection of peak kilovoltage (kVp) and exposure parameter (milliAmpere second, mAs) in computed tomography (CT), computed radiography (CR), and direct digital radiography. Logistic, logarithmic, and linear functions were employed to establish the relationship between radiation dose and diagnostic image quality...
August 18, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822005/a-supply-model-for-nurse-workforce-projection-in-malaysia
#4
Zuraida Abal Abas, Mohamad Raziff Ramli, Mohamad Ishak Desa, Nordin Saleh, Ainul Nadziha Hanafiah, Nuraini Aziz, Zaheera Zainal Abidin, Abdul Samad Shibghatullah, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul Rahman, Haslinda Musa
The paper aims to provide an insight into the significance of having a simulation model to forecast the supply of registered nurses for health workforce planning policy using System Dynamics. A model is highly in demand to predict the workforce demand for nurses in the future, which it supports for complete development of a needs-based nurse workforce projection using Malaysia as a case study. The supply model consists of three sub-models to forecast the number of registered nurses for the next 15 years: training model, population model and Full Time Equivalent (FTE) model...
August 18, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821746/neural-circuitry-governing-anxious-individuals-mis-allocation-of-working-memory-to-threat
#5
Daniel M Stout, Alexander J Shackman, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Christine L Larson
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821679/upf1-governs-synaptic-plasticity-through-association-with-a-stau2-rna-granule
#6
Tyson E Graber, Erika Freemantle, Mina Anadolu, Sarah Hébert-Seropian, Robyn MacAdam, Unkyung Shin, Huy-Dung Hoang, Tommy Alain, Jean-Claude Lacaille, Wayne S Sossin
Neuronal mRNAs can be packaged in reversibly stalled polysome granules prior to their transport to distant synaptic locales. Stimulation of synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reactivates translation of these particular mRNAs to produce plasticity-related protein; a phenomenon exhibited during mGluR-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD). This form of plasticity is deregulated in Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic form of autism in humans, and understanding the stalling and reactivation mechanism could reveal new approaches to therapies...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821678/individual-movement-variability-magnitudes-are-explained-by-cortical-neural-variability
#7
Shlomi Haar, Opher Donchin, Ilan Dinstein
Humans exhibit considerable motor variability even across trivial reaching movements. This variability can be separated into specific kinematic components such as extent and direction, which are thought to be governed by distinct neural processes. Here, we report that individual subjects (males and females) exhibit different magnitudes of kinematic variability, which are consistent (within individual) across movements to different targets and regardless of which arm (right or left) was used to perform the movements...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821615/distinct-structural-mechanisms-determine-substrate-affinity-and-kinase-activity-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE
#8
Sangbae Lee, Titu Devamani, Hyun Deok Song, Manbir Sandhu, Adrien Larsen, Ruth Sommese, Abhinandan Jain, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan
Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) belongs to the family of AGC kinases that phosphorylate multiple peptide substrates. While the consensus sequence motif has been identified and used to explain substrate specificity for PKCα, it does not inform the structural basis of substrate binding and kinase activity for diverse substrates phosphorylated by this kinase. The transient, dynamic, and unstructured nature of this protein-protein interaction has limited structural mapping of kinase-substrate interfaces. Here, using multiscale MD simulation-based predictions and FRET sensor-based experiments, we investigated the conformational dynamics of the kinase-substrate interface...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821554/developing-standards-for-the-development-of-glaucoma-virtual-clinics-using-a-modified-delphi-approach
#9
Aachal Kotecha, Simon Longstaff, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, James F Kirwan, James Edwards Morgan, Anne Fiona Spencer, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: To obtain consensus opinion for the development of a standards framework for the development and implementation of virtual clinics for glaucoma monitoring in the UK using a modified Delphi methodology. METHODS: A modified Delphi technique was used that involved sampling members of the UK Glaucoma and Eire Society (UKEGS). The first round scored the strength of agreement to a series of standards statements using a 9-point Likert scale. The revised standards were subjected to a second round of scoring and free-text comment...
August 18, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821181/conservation-genetics-of-the-cheetah-lessons-learned-and-new-opportunities
#10
Stephen J O'Brien, Warren E Johnson, Carlos A Driscoll, Pavel Dobrynin, Laurie Marker
The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821010/willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-a-contingent-valuation-study-in-jacksonville-fl
#11
Chiradip Chatterjee, Russell Triplett, Christopher K Johnson, Parvez Ahmed
A surprising number of U.S. cities have drinking water with unhealthy levels of chemicals and contaminants. The city of Jacksonville (Florida), the location for this study, owns the dubious distinction of being ranked among the worst major American cities in water quality according to water quality tests conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Environmental Working Group (EWG). This report of toxic chemicals in the Jacksonville water supply generated considerable negative publicity and coincides with a frequent and common complaint among residents of foul-smelling water...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820933/surface-chemistry-of-la0-99sr0-01nbo4-d-and-its-implication-for-proton-conduction
#12
Cheng Li, Stevin S Pramana, Na Ni, John A Kilner, Stephen J Skinner
Acceptor doped LaNbO4 is a promising electrolyte material for proton conducting fuel cell (PCFC) applications. As charge transfer processes govern device performance, the outermost surface of acceptor doped LaNbO4 will play an important role in determining the overall cell performance. However, the surface composition is poorly characterized, and the understanding of its impact on the proton exchange process is rudimentary. In this work, the surface chemistry of 1 at% Sr doped LaNbO4 (La0.99Sr0.01NbO4-d, denoted as LSNO) proton conductor is characterized using LEIS and SIMS...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820605/body-sovereignty-and-body-liability-in-the-wake-of-an-obesity-epidemic-a-poststructural-analysis-of-the-soda-ban
#13
Sonia R Ivancic
Public discourse about the 2012 soda ban proposal and its eventual dissolution offers a useful context for interrogating how discursive processes constitute and regulate normality, risk, and obesity. Using poststructural sensibilities, I critique the soda ban and public discourse about it. Although architects of the soda ban and its proponents challenged the neoliberal narrative of free choice by self-governing citizens, their efforts were stymied by (1) arguments that offered a minimalist role for the state in regulating health, and (2) contemporary anxieties about losing the ability to self-determine what to let into the body...
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820046/-nurture-the-sprouting-bud-do-not-uproot-it-using-saving-groups-to-save-for-maternal-and-newborn-health-lessons-from-rural-eastern-uganda
#14
Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Ligia Paina, Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Aloysius Mutebi, Pacuto Jane, Juliet Tumuhairwe, Moses Tetui, Suzanne N Kiwanuka
BACKGROUND: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. METHODS: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820025/interaction-between-progesterone-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-modulating-progesterone-receptor-expression-and-the-inflammatory-phenotype-in-human-cervical-fibroblasts
#15
Stephanie Pierce, Amy E Roberson, Kimberly Hyatt, Krista Singleton, David Deschamps, Dean A Myers
Progesterone helps maintain cervical structure during pregnancy via the progesterone receptor (PR). Two PR isoforms exist, PR-A and PR-B, which have overlapping as well as isoform-specific target genes. During late gestation, leukocytes infiltrate the cervical stroma accompanied by increased cervical cytokine levels, resembling an inflammatory process. We examined interleukin (IL)-1β regulation of the expression of PR-A, PR-B, and genes governing prostaglandin synthesis in human cervical fibroblasts (HCFs)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819687/central-not-peripheral-vestibular-processing-impairs-gait-coordination
#16
Yoav Gimmon, Jennifer Millar, Rebecca Pak, Elizabeth Liu, Michael C Schubert
Gait coordination is generated by neuronal inter-connections between central pattern generators in the spinal cord governed by cortical areas. Malfunction of central vestibular processing areas generates vestibular symptoms in the absence of an identifiable peripheral vestibular system lesion. Walking in the dark enforces a coordinated afference primarily from the vestibular and somatosensory systems. We hypothesized that patients with aberrant central vestibular processing would demonstrate unique gait characteristics, and have impaired gait coordination compared with those patients with abnormal peripheral vestibular function and healthy controls...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819505/use-of-validated-community-based-trachoma-trichiasis-tt-case-finders-to-measure-the-total-backlog-and-detect-when-elimination-threshold-is-achieved-a-tt-methodology-paper
#17
Jefitha Karimurio, Hillary Rono, Doris Njomo, John Sironka, Catherine Kareko, Michael Gichangi, Ernest Barasa, Alice Mwangi, Kefa Ronald, Francis Kiio
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends TT surveys to be conducted in adults aged 15+ years (TT 15 survey) and certifies elimination of TT as a public health problem when there is less than 1 unknown case per 1,000 people of all ages. There is no standard survey method to accurately confirm this elimination prevalence threshold of 0.1% because rare conditions require large and expensive prevalence survey samples. The aim of this study was to develop an accurate operational research method to measure the total backlog of TT in people of all ages and detect when the elimination threshold is achieved...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819502/pattern-and-outcome-of-dog-bite-injuries-among-children-in-ado-ekiti-southwest-nigeria
#18
Ezra Olatunde Ogundare, Oladele Simeon Olatunya, Isaac Oluwadare Oluwayemi, Adekoya Joshua Inubile, Adekunle Bamidele Taiwo, Oyinkansola Tolulope Agaja, Alfred Airemionkhale, Adewale Fabunmi
INTRODUCTION: Dog bites in humans are a major public health problem. Globally, millions of people are bitten by dogs but most of the fatal cases occur in children. There is paucity of data on dog bite related diseases among Nigerian children. Objectives: to determine the pattern of dog bite injuries and associated health problems among children seen at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on the clinical data of patients managed for dog bite related injuries between January 2010 and June 2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819301/asymmetry-of-the-temporal-code-for-space-by-hippocampal-place-cells
#19
Bryan C Souza, Adriano B L Tort
Hippocampal place cells convey spatial information through spike frequency ("rate coding") and spike timing relative to the theta phase ("temporal coding"). Whether rate and temporal coding are due to independent or related mechanisms has been the subject of wide debate. Here we show that the spike timing of place cells couples to theta phase before major increases in firing rate, anticipating the animal's entrance into the classical, rate-based place field. In contrast, spikes rapidly decouple from theta as the animal leaves the place field and firing rate decreases...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819173/disentangling-the-coupling-between-sea-ice-and-tundra-productivity-in-svalbard
#20
Marc Macias-Fauria, Stein Rune Karlsen, Bruce C Forbes
The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice poses urgent questions concerning its ecological effects, such as on tundra terrestrial productivity. However, reported sea ice/terrestrial productivity linkages have seldom been constrained, and the mechanism governing them remains elusive, with a diversity of spatial scales and metrics proposed, at times in contradiction to each other. In this study, we use spatially explicit remotely sensed sea ice concentration and high-resolution terrestrial productivity estimates (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) across the Svalbard Archipelago to describe local/sub-regional and large-scale components of sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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