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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340486/review-of-current-nuclear-fallout-codes
#1
REVIEW
Jerrad P Auxier, John D Auxier, Howard L Hall
The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340410/development-of-fusogenic-glass-surfaces-that-impart-spatiotemporal-control-over-macrophage-fusion-direct-visualization-of-multinucleated-giant-cell-formation
#2
James J Faust, Wayne Christenson, Kyle Doudrick, Robert Ros, Tatiana P Ugarova
Implantation of synthetic material, including vascular grafts, pacemakers, etc. results in the foreign body reaction and the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the exterior surface of the implant. Despite the long-standing premise that fusion of mononucleated macrophages results in the formation of MGCs, to date, no published study has shown fusion in context with living specimens. This is due to the fact that optical-quality glass, which is required for the majority of live imaging techniques, does not promote macrophage fusion...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340332/super-elongation-complex-promotes-early-hiv-transcription-and-its-function-is-modulated-by-p-tefb
#3
Alona Kuzmina, Simona Krasnopolsky, Ran Taube
Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340247/usability-testing-of-the-iphone-app-to-improve-pain-assessment-for-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment-prehospital-setting-a-qualitative-study
#4
Rachael E Docking, Matthew Lane, Pat A Schofield
Objectives. : Pain assessment in older adults with cognitive impairment is often challenging, and paramedics are not given sufficient tools/training to assess pain. The development of a mobile app may improve pain assessment and management in this vulnerable population. We conducted usability testing of a newly developed iPhone pain assessment application with potential users, in this case as a tool for clinical paramedic practice to improve pain assessment of older adults with cognitive impairment...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339898/the-impact-of-the-psychoactive-substances-act-2016-on-the-online-availability-of-mdmb-chmica
#5
M Haden, D M Wood, P I Dargan
Background: In May 2016, the UK Government enacted the Psychoactive Substances Act which made it an offense to produce or supply many drugs including new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: We aimed to assess the impact of the Act on the availability of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (MDMB-CHMICA) from internet-based suppliers. Design: Internet snapshot availability study...
February 28, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339697/are-informed-policies-in-place-to-promote-safe-and-usable-ehrs-a-cross-industry-comparison
#6
Erica L Savage, Rollin J Fairbanks, Raj M Ratwani
Objective: Despite federal policies put in place by the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) to promote safe and usable electronic health record (EHR) products, the usability of EHRs continues to frustrate providers and have patient safety implications. This study sought to compare government policies on usability and safety, and methods of examining compliance to those policies, across 3 federal agencies: the ONC and EHRs, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and avionics, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and medical devices...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339665/an-evaluation-of-a-public-private-partnership-to-reduce-artificial-trans-fatty-acids-in-england-2011-16
#7
C Knai, L James, M Petticrew, E Eastmure, M A Durand, N Mays
The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership in England involving voluntary pledges between government, and business and other public organizations to improve public health. One such voluntary pledge refers to the reduction of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the food supply in England by either pledging not to use artificial TFAs or pledging artificial TFA removal. This paper evaluates the RD's effectiveness at encouraging signatory organizations to remove artificially produced TFAs from their products...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339619/relationship-of-neuropeptide-ff-receptors-with-pubertal-maturation-of-gilts%C3%A2
#8
Jennifer F Thorson, Neely L Heidorn, Vitaly Ryu, Krzysztof Czaja, Danny J Nonneman, C Richard Barb, Gary J Hausman, Gary A Rohrer, Ligia D Prezotto, Richard B McCosh, Elane C Wright, Brett R White, Bradley A Freking, William T Oliver, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents
Mechanisms governing the timing of puberty in pigs are poorly understood. A genome-wide association study for age at first estrus in pigs identified candidate genes including neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which is a putative receptor for RFamide-related peptides (RFRP). RFRP has been shown to negatively regulate secretion of reproductive hormones from hypothalamic and pituitary tissue of pigs in culture. Here, the porcine NPFFR2 gene was further screened and four potentially functional variants were identified to be associated with age at first estrus in pigs (1,288 gilts)...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339427/a-critical-analysis-of-obamacare-affordable-care-or-insurance-for-many-and-coverage-for-few
#9
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Standiford Helm Ii, Ramsin M Benyamin, Joshua A Hirsch
The Affordable Care Act (ACA), of 2010, or Obamacare, was the most monumental change in US health care policy since the passage of Medicaid and Medicare in 1965. Since its enactment, numerous claims have been made on both sides of the aisle regarding the ACA's success or failure; these views often colored by political persuasion. The ACA had 3 primary goals: increasing the number of the insured, improving the quality of care, and reducing the costs of health care. One point often lost in the discussion is the distinction between affordability and access...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339426/evolution-of-us-health-care-reform
#10
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Standiford Helm Ii, Ramsin M Benyamin, Joshua A Hirsch
Major health policy creation or changes, including governmental and private policies affecting health care delivery are based on health care reform(s). Health care reform has been a global issue over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the years. A successful, health care proposal in the United States with involvement of the federal government was the short-lived establishment of the first system of national medical care in the South. In the 20th century, the United States was influenced by progressivism leading to the initiation of efforts to achieve universal coverage, supported by a Republican presidential candidate, Theodore Roosevelt...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339281/gate-tunable-band-structure-of-the-laalo_-3-srtio_-3-interface
#11
A E M Smink, J C de Boer, M P Stehno, A Brinkman, W G van der Wiel, H Hilgenkamp
The two-dimensional electron system at the interface between LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3} has several unique properties that can be tuned by an externally applied gate voltage. In this work, we show that this gate tunability extends to the effective band structure of the system. We combine a magnetotransport study on top-gated Hall bars with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations and observe a Lifshitz transition at a density of 2.9×10^{13}cm^{-2}. Above the transition, the carrier density of one of the conducting bands decreases with increasing gate voltage...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339279/trade-off-between-speed-and-cost-in-shortcuts-to-adiabaticity
#12
Steve Campbell, Sebastian Deffner
Achieving effectively adiabatic dynamics is a ubiquitous goal in almost all areas of quantum physics. Here, we study the speed with which a quantum system can be driven when employing transitionless quantum driving. As a main result, we establish a rigorous link between this speed, the quantum speed limit, and the (energetic) cost of implementing such a shortcut to adiabaticity. Interestingly, this link elucidates a trade-off between speed and cost, namely, that instantaneous manipulation is impossible as it requires an infinite cost...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#13
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Rossi GA, Colin AA(.) Respiratory syncytial virus - host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338935/impact-of-the-ion-transportome-of-chloroplasts-on-the-optimization-of-photosynthesis
#14
Ildikò Szabò, Cornelia Spetea
Ions play fundamental roles in all living cells, and their gradients are often essential to fuel transport, regulate enzyme activities, and transduce energy within cells. Regulation of their homeostasis is essential for cell metabolism. Recent results indicate that modulation of ion fluxes might also represent a useful strategy to regulate one of the most important physiological processes taking place in chloroplasts, photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is highly regulated, due to its unique role as a cellular engine for growth in the light...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338901/characterization-of-the-genuine-type-2-chromatic-acclimation-in-the-two-geminocystis-cyanobacteria
#15
Yuu Hirose, Naomi Misawa, Chinatsu Yonekawa, Nobuyoshi Nagao, Mai Watanabe, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Toshihiko Eki
Certain cyanobacteria can adjust the wavelengths of light they absorb by remodeling their photosynthetic antenna complex phycobilisome via a process called chromatic acclimation (CA). Although several types of CA have been reported, the diversity of the molecular mechanisms of CA among the cyanobacteria phylum is not fully understood. Here, we characterized the molecular process of CA of Geminocystis sp. strains National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES)-3708 and NIES-3709. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that both strains dramatically alter their phycoerythrin content in response to green and red light...
March 8, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338744/understanding-the-molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-channeling-and-domain-communication-in-protozoal-bifunctional-ts-dhfr
#16
Karen S Anderson
Most species, such as humans, have monofunctional forms of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that are key folate metabolism enzymes making critical folate components required for DNA synthesis. In contrast, several parasitic protozoa, including Leishmania majorg(Lm), Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Cryptosporidium hominis(Ch), contain a unique bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) having the two sequential catalytic activities contained on a single polypeptide chain...
February 4, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338673/environmental-fluctuation-governs-selection-for-plasticity-in-biofilm-production
#17
Jing Yan, Carey D Nadell, Bonnie L Bassler
Bacteria can grow in a free-swimming state, as planktonic cells, or in surface-attached communities, termed biofilms. The planktonic and biofilm growth modes differ dramatically with respect to spatial constraints, nutrient access, population density and cell-cell interactions. Fitness trade-offs underlie how successfully bacteria compete in each of these environments. Accordingly, some bacteria have evolved to be specialists in biofilm formation, while others specialize in planktonic growth. There are species, however, that possess flexible strategies: they can transition between the molecular programs required for biofilm formation and for planktonic growth...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338474/kagome-like-chains-with-anisotropic-ferromagnetic-and-antiferromagnetic-interactions
#18
Dmitry Dmitriev, Valery Krivnov
We consider a spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ kagome-like chain with competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic anisotropic exchange interactions. The ground state phase diagram of this model consists of the ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic phases. We study the ground state and the low-temperature properties on the phase boundary between these phases. The ground state on this phase boundary is macroscopically degenerate and consists of localized magnon states. We calculate the ground state degeneracy and corresponding residual entropy...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338282/don-t-forget-to-look-down%C3%A2-%C3%A2-collaborative-approaches-to-predator-conservation
#19
Steve M Redpath, John D C Linnell, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Luigi Boitani, Nils Bunnefeld, Amy Dickman, R J Gutiérrez, R J Irvine, Maria Johansson, Aleksandra Majić, Barry J McMahon, Simon Pooley, Camilla Sandström, Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist, Ketil Skogen, Jon E Swenson, Arie Trouwborst, Juliette Young, E J Milner-Gulland
Finding effective ways of conserving large carnivores is widely recognised as a priority in conservation. However, there is disagreement about the most effective way to do this, with some favouring top-down 'command and control' approaches and others favouring collaboration. Arguments for coercive top-down approaches have been presented elsewhere; here we present arguments for collaboration. In many parts of the developed world, flexibility of approach is built into the legislation, so that conservation objectives are balanced with other legitimate goals...
March 24, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338079/dissecting-mirna-gene-repression-on-single-cell-level-with-an-advanced-fluorescent-reporter-system
#20
Nicolas Lemus-Diaz, Kai O Böker, Ignacio Rodriguez-Polo, Michael Mitter, Jasmin Preis, Maximilian Arlt, Jens Gruber
Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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