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A E Munt, S R Partridge, M Allman-Farinelli
Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed...
October 20, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Qiang Xu, Yang Shi, Ting Yu, Xuewen Xu, Yali Yan, Xiaohua Qi, Xuehao Chen
Cucumber is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe diseases that can affect cucumber crops. There have been several research efforts to isolate PM resistance genes for breeding PM-resistant cucumber. In the present study, we used a chromosome segment substitution line, SSL508-28, which carried PM resistance genes from the donor parent, JIN5-508, through twelve generations of backcrossing with a PM-susceptible inbred line, D8. We performed whole-genome resequencing of SSL508-28 and D8 to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and insertions and deletions (indels)...
2016: PloS One
Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St George
CONTEXT: -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. OBJECTIVE: -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. DATA SOURCES: -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. CONCLUSIONS: -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Nicolás Grimblat, Ariel M Sarotti, Teodoro S Kaufman, Sebastian O Simonetti
The Duff reaction is one of the most employed methods for the ortho-formylation of phenols; however, not much is truly known about its mechanism. Using DFT calculations, we disclose the first theoretical study regarding the selectivity-determining step of the reaction. We have found that this stage is governed by a hydrogen bond, that gives rise to a cyclohexa-2,4-dienone intermediate and establishes the position where the formylation will take place. These findings were evaluated by analysis of the reaction outcome of several non-symmetrically substituted phenols...
October 20, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Melissa A Simon, Emily L Malin, Brian L Hitsman, Christina C Ciecierski, David E Victorson, Jennifer R Banas, Moira Stuart, Tracy Luedke, Nu-Neighbors Advisory Committees, David Cella
A partnership formed between Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) and the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University sought to address well-documented cancer health disparities in Chicago by developing a collaborative research, training, and educational infrastructure between a minority-serving institution and a National Cancer Institute designated comprehensive cancer center. With a critical examination of partnership documentation and outputs, we describe the partnership's community-engaged approaches, challenges, and lessons learned...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Kostas Kapellas, Lisa M Jamieson
The Northern Territory (N.T.) of Australia has the highest imprisonment rate per capita in the country. The vast majority of prisoners (86%) are Indigenous Australian despite only 30% of the N.T. population identifying as Indigenous. This paper investigates factors influencing this over-representation. The most common reason for imprisonment concerns violence. Alcohol is consumed in high quantities, particularly in Central Australia and is thought to affect incarceration rates. Recent strategies to control alcohol abuse in the N...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Jonathan Green
At the outset of the French Revolution John Adams penned a series of Discourses of Davila, philosophical ruminations on the sixteenth-century French Wars of Religion. Recent historians have read these Discourses in terms of Adams's Machiavellianism-his conviction that men's passions lead to violence, if unrestrained. But this reading overlooks the extent to which Adams intended his Discourses as a particular investigation into the French nation's character, and into whether the revolutionaries could lay claim to a native, French tradition of mixed constitutional government...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Elena Kochetkova
This article examines the transfer of technology from Finnish enterprises to Soviet industry during the USSR's period of technological modernization between 1955 and 1964. It centers on the forestry sector, which was a particular focus of modernization programs and a key area for the transfer of foreign techniques and expertise. The aim of the article is to investigate the role of trips made by Soviet specialists to foreign (primarily Finnish) enterprises in order to illustrate the nontechnological influences that occurred during the transfer of technologies across the cold war border...
2016: Technology and Culture
(no author information available yet)
Thousands of people have signed a petition urging the government to scrap the NHS pay cap, which limits staff to a rise of just 1% each year.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Vincent Ronfard, Alain Vertes, Michael May, Anne Dupraz, Mark van Dyke, Yves Bayon
"Evaluating the Past & Present of Regenerative Medicine (RM)" was the first part of an Industry Symposium dedicated to the subject during the 2015 World TERMIS Congress in Boston. This working session presented a critical review of the current RM landscape in Europe and North America with possible projections for the future. Interestingly, the RM development cycle seems to obey the Gartner hype cycle, now at the enlightenment phase, after past exaggerated expectations and discouragements, as suggested by increasing numbers of clinical trials and recent market approvals of RM solutions in both Europe (Glybera & Holoclar® from Chiesi Pharma and Strimvelis® from GSK) and Japan (Remestemcel-L from Mesoblast® )...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Victoria Young, Eli Tsukayama, Steven M Brunwasser, Angela L Duckworth
Deliberate practice leads to world-class excellence across domains. In the current investigation, we examined whether psychologically "wise" interventions targeting expectancies and values-stock antecedents of ordinary effortful behaviors-could motivate nonexperts to engage in deliberate practice and improve their achievement. As a preliminary, we developed and validated a novel task measure of deliberate practice and confirmed its association with (a) expectancy-value beliefs, and (b) achievement in the nonexpert setting (Study 1)...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Min Li, Liya Shi, June Lay Ting Ong, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon Gee Neoh
Surface charge and wettability, the two prominent physical factors governing protein adsorption and cell adhesion, have been extensively investigated in the literature. However, a comparison between these driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol which features two-dimensional control over both surface charge and wettability with limited cross parameter influence. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the polyion charge density in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process and the polyion side chain chemical structures...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Animesh Pardanani
: Disease overview:Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. Risk stratification: The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has been shown to be prognostically relevant...
November 2016: American Journal of Hematology
S Malfait, K Eeckloo, J Hellings, G De Bodt, A Van Hecke
INTRODUCTION: In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. OBJECTIVES: To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes...
October 20, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
J Casey, E Jardim, J Th Martinsohn
Exploitation of fish and shellfish stocks by the European Union fishing fleet is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which aims to ensure that fishing and aquaculture are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable and that they provide a source of healthy food for E.U. citizens. A notable feature of the CFP is its legally enshrined requirement for sound scientific advice to underpin its objectives. The CFP was first conceived in 1970 when it formed part of the Common Agricultural Policy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Sigrid Bosteels, Michel Vandenbroeck, Geert Van Hove
New-born screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic disease are expanding worldwide and children "at risk" are identified by nationwide tracking systems at the earliest possible stage. These practices are never neutral and raise important social and ethical questions. An emergent concern is that a reflexive professionalism should interrogate the ever earlier interference in children's lives. The Flemish community of Belgium was among the first to generalize the screening for hearing loss in young children and is an interesting case to study the public justification of early interventions for families with deaf children...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Saad Mohammed Dahlawi, Samreen Siddiqui
Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael P Chu, Jitra Kriangkum, Christopher P Venner, Irwindeep Sandhu, Joanne Hewitt, Andrew R Belch, Linda M Pilarski
Cancer heterogeneity is a significant factor in response to treatment and escape leading to relapse. Within an individual cancer, especially blood cancers, there exists multiple subclones as well as distinct clonal expansions unrelated to the clinically detected, dominant clone. Over time, multiple subclones and clones undergo emergence, expansion, and extinction. Although sometimes this intra-clonal and inter-clonal heterogeneity can be detected and/or quantified in tests that measure aggregate populations of cells, frequently, such heterogeneity can only be detected using single cell analysis to determine its frequency and to detect minor clones that may subsequently emerge to become drug resistant and dominant...
October 19, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Anjali P Kusumbe
The vasculature of the skeletal system regulates osteogenesis and hematopoiesis, in addition to its primary function as a transportation network. Recent studies suggest that the vasculature in bone regulates multiple steps involved in the metastatic cascade. Matrix and growth factor abundant vascular microenvironments in bone not only provide a fertile soil for the metastatic growth but also support the dormancy of Disseminated Tumour Cells (DTCs). Interestingly, vasculature also seems to direct the reactivation of dormant DTCs...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
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