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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818574/antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-and-susceptibility-profiles-of-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#1
Paulina A Hawkins, Patrick E Akpaka, Michele Nurse-Lucas, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Lesley McGee, William H Swanston
INTRODUCTION: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections were estimated to account for 12,000-18,000 deaths, 327,000 cases of pneumonia, 4,000 cases of meningitis and 1,229 cases of sepsis each year in children under five years old. Resistance of pneumococci to antimicrobial agents has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 98 pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and associated genetic determinants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756964/key-features-of-invasive-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-lima-peru-determined-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Paulina Hawkins, Erik Mercado, Sopio Chochua, Maria E Castillo, Isabel Reyes, Eduardo Chaparro, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Benjamin J Metcalf, Bernard Beall, Theresa J Ochoa, Lesley McGee
Before PCV7 introduction, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was responsible for approximately 12,000-18,000 deaths annually among children <5years in Latin America. In Peru, PCV7 was introduced in 2009. We used whole genome sequencing to deduce key features of invasive strains collected in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2011. We sequenced 212 IPD isolates from 16 hospitals in Lima pre (2006-2009; n=133) and post (2010-2011; n=79) PCV7 introduction; 130 (61.3%) isolates were from children≤5years old. CDC's Streptococcus lab bioinformatics pipeline revealed serotypes, sequence types (STs), pilus genes, PBP types and other resistance determinants...
October 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711389/population-genetic-structure-antibiotic-resistance-capsule-switching-and-evolution-of-invasive-pneumococci-before-conjugate-vaccination-in-malawi
#3
Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Cheryl P Andam, Rebecca A Gladstone, Maaike Alaerts, Patrick Musicha, Chikondi Peno, Naor Bar-Zeev, Arox W Kamng'ona, Anmol M Kiran, Chisomo L Msefula, Lesley McGee, Robert F Breiman, Aras Kadioglu, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, William P Hanage, Stephen D Bentley, Dean B Everett
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections cause a high death toll in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) but the recently rolled out pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) will reduce the disease burden. To better understand the population impact of these vaccines, comprehensive analysis of large collections of pneumococcal isolates sampled prior to vaccination is required. Here we present a population genomic study of the invasive pneumococcal isolates sampled before the implementation of PCV13 in Malawi...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498895/acute-illness-among-surfers-after-exposure-to-seawater-in-dry-and-wet-weather-conditions
#4
Benjamin F Arnold, Kenneth C Schiff, Ayse Ercumen, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Joshua A Steele, John F Griffith, Steven J Steinberg, Paul Smith, Charles D McGee, Richard Wilson, Chad Nelsen, Stephen B Weisberg, John M Colford
Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions)...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425328/the-use-of-a-smartwatch-as-a-prompting-device-for-people-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-single-case-experimental-design-study
#5
Matthew Jamieson, Mattia Monastra, Graeme Gillies, Rumen Manolov, Breda Cullen, Marilyn McGee-Lennon, Stephen Brewster, Jonathan Evans
Prompting-based memory compensation is a potential application for smartwatches. This study investigated the usability and efficacy of a Moto360 smartwatch as a memory aid. Four community dwelling adults with memory difficulties following acquired brain injury (ABI) were included in an A-B-A single case experimental design study. Performance of everyday memory tasks was tested over six weeks with the smartwatch and software provided during weeks three and four. Participants were asked to use their usual memory aids and strategies during the control phases (weeks 1-2, 5-6)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230908/probiotics-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Rohan Dalal, Richard G McGee, Stephen M Riordan, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190634/discovery-and-characterization-of-cyclopentyl-ethyl-benzoic-acid-inhibitors-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1
#7
Katherine M Partridge, Stephen Antonysamy, Shobha N Bhattachar, Srinivasan Chandrasekhar, Matthew J Fisher, Adrian Fretland, Karen Gooding, Anita Harvey, Norman E Hughes, Steven L Kuklish, John G Luz, Peter R Manninen, James E McGee, Daniel R Mudra, Antonio Navarro, Bryan H Norman, Steven J Quimby, Matthew A Schiffler, Ashley V Sloan, Alan M Warshawsky, Jennifer M Weller, Jeremy S York, Xiao-Peng Yu
We describe a novel class of acidic mPGES-1 inhibitors with nanomolar enzymatic and human whole blood (HWB) potency. Rational design in conjunction with structure-based design led initially to the identification of anthranilic acid 5, an mPGES-1 inhibitor with micromolar HWB potency. Structural modifications of 5 improved HWB potency by over 1000×, reduced CYP2C9 single point inhibition, and improved rat clearance, which led to the selection of [(cyclopentyl)ethyl]benzoic acid compound 16 for clinical studies...
March 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151488/zika-virus-protection-by-a-single-low-dose-nucleoside-modified-mrna-vaccination
#8
Norbert Pardi, Michael J Hogan, Rebecca S Pelc, Hiromi Muramatsu, Hanne Andersen, Christina R DeMaso, Kimberly A Dowd, Laura L Sutherland, Richard M Scearce, Robert Parks, Wendeline Wagner, Alex Granados, Jack Greenhouse, Michelle Walker, Elinor Willis, Jae-Sung Yu, Charles E McGee, Gregory D Sempowski, Barbara L Mui, Ying K Tam, Yan-Jang Huang, Dana Vanlandingham, Veronica M Holmes, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Sujata Sahu, Michelle Lifton, Stephen Higgs, Scott E Hensley, Thomas D Madden, Michael J Hope, Katalin Karikó, Sampa Santra, Barney S Graham, Mark G Lewis, Theodore C Pierson, Barton F Haynes, Drew Weissman
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a pandemic associated with severe neuropathology in newborns and adults. There are no ZIKV-specific treatments or preventatives. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine is a high priority. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has emerged as a versatile and highly effective platform to deliver vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins. Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013 elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates...
March 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821148/understanding-pneumococcal-serotype-1-biology-through-population-genomic-analysis
#9
Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Simon R Harris, Cheryl P Andam, Laura Bricio-Moreno, Marie Yang, Feyruz Yalcin, Sani Ousmane, Shanil Govindpersad, Madikay Senghore, Chinelo Ebruke, Mignon Du Plessis, Anmol M Kiran, Gerd Pluschke, Betuel Sigauque, Lesley McGee, Keith P Klugman, Paul Turner, Jukka Corander, Julian Parkhill, Jean-Marc Collard, Martin Antonio, Anne von Gottberg, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Aras Kadioglu, William P Hanage, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcus kills over one million children annually and over 90 % of these deaths occur in low-income countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV exacerbates the disease burden. In SSA, serotype 1 pneumococci particularly the endemic ST217 clone, causes majority of the pneumococcal disease burden. To understand the evolution of the virulent ST217 clone, we analysed ST217 whole genomes from isolates sampled from African and Asian countries. METHODS: We analysed 226 whole genome sequences from the ST217 lineage sampled from 9 African and 4 Asian countries...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554445/characterization-of-3-3-dimethyl-substituted-n-aryl-piperidines-as-potent-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-inhibitors
#10
Steven L Kuklish, Stephen Antonysamy, Shobha N Bhattachar, Srinivasan Chandrasekhar, Matthew J Fisher, Adrian J Fretland, Karen Gooding, Anita Harvey, Norman E Hughes, John G Luz, Peter R Manninen, James E McGee, Antonio Navarro, Bryan H Norman, Katherine M Partridge, Steven J Quimby, Matthew A Schiffler, Ashley V Sloan, Alan M Warshawsky, Jeremy S York, Xiao-Peng Yu
Here we report on novel, potent 3,3-dimethyl substituted N-aryl piperidine inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthases-1(mPGES-1). Example 14 potently inhibited PGE2 synthesis in an ex vivo human whole blood (HWB) assay with an IC50 of 7nM. In addition, 14 had no activity in human COX-1 or COX-2 assays at 30μM, and failed to inhibit human mPGES-2 at 62.5μM in a microsomal prep assay. These data are consistent with selective mPGES-1-mediated reduction of PGE2. In dog, 14 had oral bioavailability (74%), clearance (3...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130160/huwe1-mutations-in-juberg-marsidi-and-brooks-syndromes-the-results-of-an-x-chromosome-exome-sequencing-study
#11
Michael J Friez, Susan Sklower Brooks, Roger E Stevenson, Michael Field, Monica J Basehore, Lesley C Adès, Courtney Sebold, Stephen McGee, Samantha Saxon, Cindy Skinner, Maria E Craig, Lucy Murray, Richard J Simensen, Ying Yzu Yap, Marie A Shaw, Alison Gardner, Mark Corbett, Raman Kumar, Matthias Bosshard, Barbara van Loon, Patrick S Tarpey, Fatima Abidi, Jozef Gecz, Charles E Schwartz
BACKGROUND: X linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes account for a substantial number of males with ID. Much progress has been made in identifying the genetic cause in many of the syndromes described 20-40 years ago. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the rapid discovery of XLID genes and identifying novel mutations in known XLID genes for many of these syndromes. METHODS: 2 NGS approaches were employed to identify mutations in X linked genes in families with XLID disorders...
April 29, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001799/multistate-outbreak-of-respiratory-infections-among-unaccompanied-children-june-2014-july-2014
#12
Sara Tomczyk, Carmen S Arriola, Bernard Beall, Alvaro Benitez, Stephen R Benoit, LaShondra Berman, Joseph Bresee, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Amanda Cohn, Kristen Cross, Maureen H Diaz, Louise K Francois Watkins, Ryan Gierke, Jose E Hagan, Aaron M Harris, Seema Jain, Lindsay Kim, Miwako Kobayashi, Stephen Lindstrom, Lesley McGee, Meredith McMorrow, Benjamin L Metcalf, Matthew R Moore, Iaci Moura, W Allan Nix, Edith Nyangoma, M Steven Oberste, Sonja J Olsen, Fabiana Pimenta, Christina Socias, Kathleen Thurman, Jessica Waller, Stephen H Waterman, Matthew Westercamp, Melinda Wharton, Cynthia G Whitney, Jonas M Winchell, Bernard Wolff, Curi Kim
BACKGROUND: From January 2014-July 2014, more than 46 000 unaccompanied children (UC) from Central America crossed the US-Mexico border. In June-July, UC aged 9-17 years in 4 shelters and 1 processing center in 4 states were hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. We conducted a multistate investigation to interrupt disease transmission. METHODS: Medical charts were abstracted for hospitalized UC. Nonhospitalized UC with influenza-like illness were interviewed, and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected to detect respiratory pathogens...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962082/phylogenetic-analysis-of-invasive-serotype-1-pneumococcus-in-south-africa-1989-to-2013
#13
Mignon du Plessis, Mushal Allam, Stefano Tempia, Nicole Wolter, Linda de Gouveia, Claire von Mollendorf, Keith A Jolley, Nontombi Mbelle, Jeannette Wadula, Jennifer E Cornick, Dean B Everett, Lesley McGee, Robert F Breiman, Rebecca A Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Keith P Klugman, Anne von Gottberg
Serotype 1 is an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa and has declined following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2011. We genetically characterized 912 invasive serotype 1 isolates from 1989 to 2013. Simpson's diversity index (D) and recombination ratios were calculated. Factors associated with sequence types (STs) were assessed. Clonal complex 217 represented 96% (872/912) of the sampled isolates. Following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), ST diversity increased in children <5 years (D, 0...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818398/long-term-toxicity-of-naturally-occurring-asbestos-in-male-fischer-344-rats
#14
Jaime M Cyphert, Marie A McGee, Abraham Nyska, Mette C Schladweiler, Urmila P Kodavanti, Stephen H Gavett
Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509889/technological-memory-aid-use-by-people-with-acquired-brain-injury
#15
Matthew Jamieson, Breda Cullen, Marilyn McGee-Lennon, Stephen Brewster, Jonathan Evans
Evans, Wilson, Needham, and Brentnall ( 2003 ) investigated memory aid use by people with acquired brain injury (ABI) and found little use of technological memory aids. The present study aims to investigate use of technological and other memory aids and strategies 10 years on, and investigate what predicts use. People with ABI and self-reported memory impairments (n = 81) completed a survey containing a memory aid checklist, demographic questions and memory questionnaires. Chi-square analysis showed that 10 of 18 memory aids and strategies were used by significantly more people in the current sample than in Evans et al...
October 28, 2015: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479704/ameliorating-spinal-cord-injury-in-an-animal-model-with-mechanical-tissue-resuscitation
#16
Zhen-Lin Zheng, Michael J Morykwas, Stephen Tatter, Stan Gordon, Maria McGee, Heather Green, Louis C Argenta
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major worldwide cause of mortality and disability with limited treatment options. Previous research applying controlled negative pressure to traumatic brain injury in rat and swine models resulted in smaller injuries and more rapid recovery. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the application of a controlled vacuum (mechanical tissue resuscitation [MTR]) to SCI in a rat model under several magnitudes of vacuum...
June 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26363404/strain-features-and-distributions-in-pneumococci-from-children-with-invasive-disease-before-and-after-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-the-usa
#17
B J Metcalf, R E Gertz, R A Gladstone, H Walker, L K Sherwood, D Jackson, Z Li, C Law, P A Hawkins, S Chochua, M Sheth, N Rayamajhi, S D Bentley, L Kim, C G Whitney, L McGee, B Beall
The effect of second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strain distributions have not yet been well described. We analysed IPD isolates recovered from children aged <5 years through Active Bacterial Core surveillance before (2008-2009; n = 828) and after (2011-2013; n = 600) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) implementation. We employed conventional testing, PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis to identify serotypes, resistance features, genotypes, and pilus types...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26123971/loving-nature-from-the-inside-out-a-biophilia-matrix-identification-strategy-for-designers
#18
Beth McGee, Anna Marshall-Baker
OBJECTIVE: The development of the Biophilic Design Matrix (BDM) was to aid designers or other specialists in identifying and quantifying biophilic features through a visual inventory of interior spaces. BACKGROUND: With mounting evidence to support the healing attributes of biophilic environments, we propose a method to identify biophilic content within interior spaces. Such a strategy offers much promise to the advancement of restorative environments. METHODS: The BDM was based on Stephen Kellert's biophilic design attribute list and modified to be appropriate for interior environments, specifically children's healthcare spaces...
2015: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25710269/differential-effects-of-particulate-matter-upwind-and-downwind-of-an-urban-freeway-in-an-allergic-mouse-model
#19
Marie A McGee, Ali S Kamal, John K McGee, Charles E Wood, Janice A Dye, Q Todd Krantz, Matthew S Landis, M Ian Gilmour, Stephen H Gavett
Near-road exposure to air pollutants has been associated with decreased lung function and other adverse health effects in susceptible populations. This study was designed to investigate whether different types of near-road particulate matter (PM) contribute to exacerbation of allergic asthma. Samples of upwind and downwind coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM were collected using a wind direction-actuated ChemVol sampler at a single site 100 m from Interstate-96 in Detroit, MI during winter 2010/2011. Upwind PM was enriched in crustal and wood combustion sources while downwind PM was dominated by traffic sources...
March 17, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480686/global-phylogenomic-analysis-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-reveals-a-deep-branching-classic-lineage-that-is-distinct-from-multiple-sporadic-lineages
#20
Markus Hilty, Daniel Wüthrich, Susannah J Salter, Hansjürg Engel, Samuel Campbell, Raquel Sá-Leão, Hermínia de Lencastre, Peter Hermans, Ewa Sadowy, Paul Turner, Claire Chewapreecha, Mathew Diggle, Gerd Pluschke, Lesley McGee, Özgen Köseoğlu Eser, Donald E Low, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Andrea Endimiani, Marianne Küffer, Mélanie Dupasquier, Emmanuel Beaudoing, Johann Weber, Rémy Bruggmann, William P Hanage, Julian Parkhill, Lucy J Hathaway, Kathrin Mühlemann, Stephen D Bentley
The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). However, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (non-Ec-Sp) have also been isolated globally, mainly in carriage studies. It is unknown if non-Ec-Sp evolve sporadically, if they have high antibiotic nonsusceptiblity rates and a unique, specific gene content. Here, whole-genome sequencing of 131 non-Ec-Sp isolates sourced from 17 different locations around the world was performed...
December 2014: Genome Biology and Evolution
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