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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329912/identification-and-fate-mapping-of-the-pancreatic-mesenchyme
#1
Jesse Angelo, Kimberly D Tremblay
The murine pancreas buds from the ventral embryonic endoderm at approximately 8.75 dpc and a second pancreas bud emerges from the dorsal endoderm by 9.0 dpc. Although it is clear that secreted signals from adjacent mesoderm-derived sources are required for both the appropriate emergence and further refinement of the pancreatic endoderm, neither the exact signals nor the requisite tissue sources have been defined in mammalian systems. Herein we use DiI fate mapping of cultured murine embryos to identify the embryonic sources of both the early inductive and later condensed pancreatic mesenchyme...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316425/hedgehog-pathway-drives-fusion-negative-rhabdomyosarcoma-initiated-from-non-myogenic-endothelial-progenitors
#2
Catherine J Drummond, Jason A Hanna, Matthew R Garcia, Daniel J Devine, Alana J Heyrana, David Finkelstein, Jerold E Rehg, Mark E Hatley
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that histologically resembles embryonic skeletal muscle. RMS occurs throughout the body and an exclusively myogenic origin does not account for RMS occurring in sites devoid of skeletal muscle. We previously described an RMS model activating a conditional constitutively active Smoothened mutant (SmoM2) with aP2-Cre. Using genetic fate mapping, we show SmoM2 expression in Cre-expressing endothelial progenitors results in myogenic transdifferentiation and RMS...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311541/yolk-sac-macrophage-progenitors-traffic-to-the-embryo-during-defined-stages-of-development
#3
C Stremmel, R Schuchert, F Wagner, R Thaler, T Weinberger, R Pick, E Mass, H C Ishikawa-Ankerhold, A Margraf, S Hutter, R Vagnozzi, S Klapproth, J Frampton, S Yona, C Scheiermann, J D Molkentin, U Jeschke, M Moser, M Sperandio, S Massberg, F Geissmann, C Schulz
Tissue macrophages in many adult organs originate from yolk sac (YS) progenitors, which invade the developing embryo and persist by means of local self-renewal. However, the route and characteristics of YS macrophage trafficking during embryogenesis are incompletely understood. Here we show the early migration dynamics of YS-derived macrophage progenitors in vivo using fate mapping and intravital microscopy. From embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) CX3CR1+ pre-macrophages are present in the mouse YS where they rapidly proliferate and gain access to the bloodstream to migrate towards the embryo...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311336/troy-brain-stem-cells-cycle-through-quiescence-and-regulate-their-number-by-sensing-niche-occupancy
#4
Onur Basak, Teresa G Krieger, Mauro J Muraro, Kay Wiebrands, Daniel E Stange, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Nicolas C Rivron, Marc van de Wetering, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Hans Clevers
The adult mouse subependymal zone provides a niche for mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the molecular signature, self-renewal potential, and fate behavior of NSCs remain poorly defined. Here we propose a model in which the fate of active NSCs is coupled to the total number of neighboring NSCs in a shared niche. Using knock-in reporter alleles and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that the Wnt target Tnfrsf19/Troy identifies both active and quiescent NSCs. Quantitative analysis of genetic lineage tracing of individual NSCs under homeostasis or in response to injury reveals rapid expansion of stem-cell number before some return to quiescence...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307815/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-the-involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-hematopoiesis-from-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#5
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Xiudan Wang, Lingling Wang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in vivo during various electron transfer reactions are generally kept at a certain level since they are harmful to cells. However, it can sensitize hematopoietic progenitors to differentiation, and plays a signaling role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell fate. In the present study, the transcriptomes of crab HPT and hemocytes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton sequencing platform. A total of 51,229,690 single end reads were obtained from six single-end libraries, which were assembled into 31346 unireads as reference...
January 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301847/long-noncoding-rna-discovery-in-cardiovascular-disease-decoding-form-to-function
#6
REVIEW
Tamer Sallam, Jaspreet Sandhu, Peter Tontonoz
Despite significant improvements during the past 3 decades, cardiovascular disease remains a leading worldwide health epidemic. The recent identification of a fascinating group of mediators known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has provided a wealth of new biology to explore for cardiovascular risk mitigation. lncRNAs are expressed in a highly context-specific fashion, and multiple lines of evidence implicated them in diverse biological processes. Indeed, abnormalities of lncRNAs have been directly linked with human ailments, including cardiovascular biology and disease...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296949/th17-plasticity-and-transition-toward-a-pathogenic-cytokine-signature-are-regulated-by-cyclosporine-after-allogeneic-sct
#7
Kate H Gartlan, Antiopi Varelias, Motoko Koyama, Renee J Robb, Kate A Markey, Karshing Chang, Andrew N Wilkinson, David Smith, Md Ashik Ullah, Rachel D Kuns, Neil C Raffelt, Stuart D Olver, Katie E Lineburg, Bianca E Teal, Melody Cheong, Michele W L Teng, Mark J Smyth, Siok-Keen Tey, Kelli P A MacDonald, Geoffrey R Hill
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells have been widely implicated as drivers of autoimmune disease. In particular, Th17 cytokine plasticity and acquisition of an interleukin-17A+(IL-17A+)interferon γ(IFNγ)+ cytokine profile is associated with increased pathogenic capacity. Donor Th17 polarization is known to exacerbate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT); however, donor Th17 cytokine coexpression and plasticity have not been fully characterized. Using IL-17 "fate-mapping" mice, we identified IL-6-dependent Th17 cells early after allo-SCT, characterized by elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-17A, IL-22, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor...
February 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285761/aire-controls-the-recirculation-of-murine-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-back-to-the-thymus
#8
Jennifer E Cowan, Song Baik, Nicholas I McCarthy, Sonia M Parnell, Andrea J White, William E Jenkinson, Graham Anderson
In the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC) determine the fate of newly selected CD4+ and CD8+ single positive (SP) thymocytes. For example, mTEC expression of Aire controls intrathymic self-antigen availability for negative selection. Interestingly, alterations in both Foxp3+ Regulatory T-cells (T-Reg) and conventional SP thymocytes in Aire-/- mice suggest additional, yet poorly understood, roles for Aire during intrathymic T-cell development. To examine this, we analysed thymocytes from Aire-/- mice using Rag2GFP and Foxp3 expression, and a recently described CD69/MHCI subset definition of post-selection CD4+ conventional thymocytes...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249158/multi-scale-spatial-modeling-of-human-exposure-from-local-sources-to-global-intake
#9
Cedric Wannaz, Peter Fantke, Olivier Jolliet
Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249001/distinguishing-features-of-microglia-and-monocyte-derived-macrophages-after-stroke
#10
Golo Kronenberg, Ria Uhlemann, Nadine Richter, Friederike Klempin, Stephanie Wegner, Lilian Staerck, Susanne Wolf, Wolfgang Uckert, Helmut Kettenmann, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz
After stroke, macrophages in the ischemic brain may be derived from either resident microglia or infiltrating monocytes. Using bone marrow (BM)-chimerism and dual-reporter transgenic fate mapping, we here set out to delimit the responses of either cell type to mild brain ischemia in a mouse model of 30 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A discriminatory analysis of gene expression at 7 days post-event yielded 472 transcripts predominantly or exclusively expressed in blood-derived macrophages as well as 970 transcripts for microglia...
December 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247852/developmental-control-of-macrophage-function
#11
REVIEW
Johnny Bonnardel, Martin Guilliams
The combination between novel fate-mapping tools and single-cell RNA-sequencing technology has revealed the presence of multiple macrophage progenitors. This raises the fascinating possibility that what was once perceived as immense functional plasticity of macrophages could in fact come down to separate macrophage subsets performing distinct functions because of their differential cellular origin. The question of macrophage plasticity versus macrophage heterogeneity is broader than the difference between macrophages of embryonic or adult hematopoietic origin and is particularly relevant in the context of inflammation...
December 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229984/molecular-and-functional-variation-in-ipsc-derived-sensory-neurons
#12
Jeremy Schwartzentruber, Stefanie Foskolou, Helena Kilpinen, Julia Rodrigues, Kaur Alasoo, Andrew J Knights, Minal Patel, Angela Goncalves, Rita Ferreira, Caroline Louise Benn, Anna Wilbrey, Magda Bictash, Emma Impey, Lishuang Cao, Sergio Lainez, Alexandre Julien Loucif, Paul John Whiting, Alex Gutteridge, Daniel J Gaffney
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and cells derived from them, have become key tools for modeling biological processes, particularly in cell types that are difficult to obtain from living donors. Here we present a map of regulatory variants in iPSC-derived neurons, based on 123 differentiations of iPSCs to a sensory neuronal fate. Gene expression was more variable across cultures than in primary dorsal root ganglion, particularly for genes related to nervous system development. Using single-cell RNA-sequencing, we found that the number of neuronal versus contaminating cells was influenced by iPSC culture conditions before differentiation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#13
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224144/low-input-whole-genome-bisulfite-sequencing-using-a-post-bisulfite-adapter-tagging-approach
#14
Julian R Peat, Sébastien A Smallwood
The epigenetic mark 5-methylcytosine confers heritable regulation of gene expression that can be dynamically modulated during transitions in cell fate. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it is now possible to obtain comprehensive genome-wide maps of the mammalian DNA methylation landscape, but the application of these techniques to limited material remains challenging. Here, we present an optimized protocol to perform whole-genome bisulfite sequencing on low inputs (100-5000 somatic cells) using a post-bisulfite adapter tagging approach...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220766/a-global-framework-to-model-spatial-ecosystems-exposure-to-home-and-personal-care-chemicals-in-asia
#15
Cedric Wannaz, Antonio Franco, John Kilgallon, Juliet Hodges, Olivier Jolliet
This paper analyzes spatially ecosystem exposure to home and personal care (HPC) chemicals, accounting for market data and environmental processes in hydrological water networks, including multi-media fate and transport. We present a global modeling framework built on ScenAT (spatial scenarios of emission), SimpleTreat (sludge treatment plants), and Pangea (spatial multi-scale multimedia fate and transport of chemicals), that we apply across Asia to four chemicals selected to cover a variety of applications, volumes of production and emission, and physico-chemical and environmental fate properties: the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS), the personal care preservative methyl paraben (MeP), and the emollient decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220666/chromatin-accessibility-dynamics-during-ipsc-reprogramming
#16
Dongwei Li, Jing Liu, Xuejie Yang, Chunhua Zhou, Jing Guo, Chuman Wu, Yue Qin, Lin Guo, Jiangping He, Shenyong Yu, He Liu, Xiaoshan Wang, Fang Wu, Junqi Kuang, Andrew P Hutchins, Jiekai Chen, Duanqing Pei
Cell-fate decisions remain poorly understood at the chromatin level. Here, we map chromatin remodeling dynamics during induction of pluripotent stem cells. ATAC-seq profiling of MEFs expressing Oct4-Sox2-Klf4 (OSK) reveals dynamic changes in chromatin states shifting from open to closed (OC) and closed to open (CO), with an initial burst of OC and an ending surge of CO. The OC loci are largely composed of genes associated with a somatic fate, while the CO loci are associated with pluripotency. Factors/conditions known to impede reprogramming prevent OSK-driven OC and skew OC-CO dynamics...
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#17
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212878/a-complex-molecular-switch-directs-stress-induced-cyclin-c-nuclear-release-through-scfgrr1-mediated-degradation-of-med13
#18
David C Stieg, Stephen D Willis, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Kai Li Ong, Joseph Scurozo, Mia Song, Julianne Grose, Randy Strich, Katrina F Cooper
In response to oxidative stress, cells decide whether to mount a survival or cell death response. The conserved cyclin C and its kinase partner Cdk8 play a key role in this decision. Both are members of the Cdk8 kinase module that, with Med12 and Med13, associate with the core mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. In S. cerevisiae, oxidative stress triggers Med13 destruction, which thereafter releases cyclin C into the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic cyclin C associates with mitochondria where it induces hyper-fragmentation and regulated cell death...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212039/comprehensive-mapping-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-using-dynamic-genome-scale-network-modeling
#19
Sriram Chandrasekaran, Jin Zhang, Zhen Sun, Li Zhang, Christian A Ross, Yu-Chung Huang, John M Asara, Hu Li, George Q Daley, James J Collins
Metabolism is an emerging stem cell hallmark tied to cell fate, pluripotency, and self-renewal, yet systems-level understanding of stem cell metabolism has been limited by the lack of genome-scale network models. Here, we develop a systems approach to integrate time-course metabolomics data with a computational model of metabolism to analyze the metabolic state of naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells. Using this approach, we find that one-carbon metabolism involving phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, folate synthesis, and nucleotide synthesis is a key pathway that differs between the two states, resulting in differential sensitivity to anti-folates...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185060/the-comptox-chemistry-dashboard-a-community-data-resource-for-environmental-chemistry
#20
Antony J Williams, Christopher M Grulke, Jeff Edwards, Andrew D McEachran, Kamel Mansouri, Nancy C Baker, Grace Patlewicz, Imran Shah, John F Wambaugh, Richard S Judson, Ann M Richard
Despite an abundance of online databases providing access to chemical data, there is increasing demand for high-quality, structure-curated, open data to meet the various needs of the environmental sciences and computational toxicology communities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) web-based CompTox Chemistry Dashboard is addressing these needs by integrating diverse types of relevant domain data through a cheminformatics layer, built upon a database of curated substances linked to chemical structures...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
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