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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154958/pathogenic-th17-inflammation-is-sustained-in-the-lungs-by-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-tlr4-signaling
#1
Karim H Shalaby, Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Gregory S Whitehead, Seddon Y Thomas, Immo Prinz, Hideki Nakano, Donald N Cook
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that elicit mucosal Th17 cell responses have been described, yet how these cells are sustained in chronically inflamed tissues remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand whether the maintenance of lung Th17 inflammation requires environmental agents in addition to antigen, and to identify the lung antigen-presenting cell types (APCs) that sustain the self-renewal of Th17 cells. METHODS: Animals were repeatedly exposed to aspiration of ovalbumin alone, or together with environmental adjuvants, including extracts of common house dust (HDE), to test their role in maintaining lung inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152573/self-organization-of-helium-precipitates-into-elongated-channels-within-metal-nanolayers
#2
Di Chen, Nan Li, Dina Yuryev, J Kevin Baldwin, Yongqiang Wang, Michael J Demkowicz
Material degradation due to precipitation of implanted helium (He) is a key concern in nuclear energy. Decades of research have mapped out the fate of He precipitates in metals, from nucleation and growth of equiaxed bubbles and voids to formation and bursting of surface blisters. By contrast, we show that He precipitates confined within nanoscale metal layers depart from their classical growth trajectories: They self-organize into elongated channels. These channels form via templated nucleation of He precipitates along layer surfaces followed by their growth and spontaneous coalescence into stable precipitate lines...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149405/current-understanding-of-the-tctp-interactome
#3
Siting Li, Feng Ge
Evolutionarily conserved and pleiotropic, the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein present in eukaryotic organisms. It plays an important role in regulating many fundamental processes, such as cell proliferation, cell death, immune responses, and apoptosis. As a result of the pioneer work by Adam Telerman and Robert Amson, the critical role of TCTP in tumor reversion was revealed. Moreover, TCTP has emerged as a regulator of cell fate determination and a promising therapeutic target for cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145781/analytical-high-resolution-electron-microscopy-reveals-organ-specific-nanoceria-bioprocessing
#4
Uschi M Graham, Robert A Yokel, Alan K Dozier, Lawrence Drummy, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Michael T Tseng, Eileen Birch, Joseph Fernback
This is the first utilization of advanced analytical electron microscopy methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping to characterize the organ-specific bioprocessing of a relatively inert nanomaterial (nanoceria). Liver and spleen samples from rats given a single intravenous infusion of nanoceria were obtained after prolonged (90 days) in vivo exposure...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133812/surge-type-and-surge-modified-glaciers-in-the-karakoram
#5
R Bhambri, K Hewitt, P Kawishwar, B Pratap
Glaciers in the Karakoram exhibit irregular behavior. Terminus fluctuations of individual glaciers lack consistency and, unlike other parts of the Himalaya, total ice mass remained stable or slightly increased since the 1970s. These seeming anomalies are addressed through a comprehensive mapping of surge-type glaciers and surge-related impacts, based on satellite images (Landsat and ASTER), ground observations, and archival material since the 1840s. Some 221 surge-type and surge-like glaciers are identified in six main classes...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123176/acoustic-mapping-of-thermohaline-staircases-in-the-arctic-ocean
#6
Christian Stranne, Larry Mayer, Thomas C Weber, Barry R Ruddick, Martin Jakobsson, Kevin Jerram, Elizabeth Weidner, Johan Nilsson, Katarina Gårdfeldt
Although there is enough heat contained in inflowing warm Atlantic Ocean water to melt all Arctic sea ice within a few years, a cold halocline limits upward heat transport from the Atlantic water. The amount of heat that penetrates the halocline to reach the sea ice is not well known, but vertical heat transport through the halocline layer can significantly increase in the presence of double diffusive convection. Such convection can occur when salinity and temperature gradients share the same sign, often resulting in the formation of thermohaline staircases...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109435/developing-a-black-carbon-substituted-multimedia-model-for-simulating-the-pah-distributions-in-urban-environments
#7
Chunhui Wang, Shenglu Zhou, Yue He, Junxiao Wang, Fei Wang, Shaohua Wu
A multimedia fugacity model with spatially resolved environmental phases at an urban scale was developed. In this model, the key parameter, organic matter, was replaced with black carbon (BC) and applied to simulate the distributions of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) in Nanjing, China. Based on the estimated emissions and measured inflows of air and water, the Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations in different environment media were calculated under steady-state assumptions. The original model (OC-Model), BC-inclusive model (dual C-Model) and improved model (BC-Model) were validated by comparing observed and predicted Phe, Pyr and BaP concentrations...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109178/a-hard-y-look-at-b-1-cell-development-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Baumgarth
A small population of B cells exists in lymphoid tissues and body cavities of mice that is distinct in development, phenotype, and function from the majority (B-2) B cell population. This population, originally termed "Ly-1" and now "B-1," has received renewed interest as an innate-like B cell population of fetal-derived hematopoiesis, responsible for natural Ab production and rapid immune responses. Molecular analyses have begun to define fetal and adult hematopoiesis, while cell-fate mapping studies have revealed complex developmental origins of B-1 cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090082/the-trochoblasts-in-the-pilidium-larva-break-an-ancient-spiralian-constraint-to-enable-continuous-larval-growth-and-maximally-indirect-development
#9
George von Dassow, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: Nemertean embryos undergo equal spiral cleavage, and prior fate-mapping studies showed that some also exhibit key aspects of spiralian lineage-based fate specification, including specification of the primary trochoblasts, which differentiate early as the core of the prototroch of the spiralian trochophore larva. Yet it remains unclear how the nemertean pilidium larva, a long-lived planktotroph that grows substantially as it builds a juvenile body from isolated rudiments, develops within the constraints of spiral cleavage...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082915/th2-cell-development-and-function
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer A Walker, Andrew N J McKenzie
T helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate protective type 2 immune responses, such as those that target helminths and facilitate tissue repair, but also contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and allergy. Here, we review recent insights into how diverse molecular signals from cellular sources, including dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells and the epithelium, are integrated by T cells to guide the transcriptional and epigenetic changes necessary for TH2 cell differentiation. Our improved understanding of these pathways has opened new avenues for therapeutically targeting TH2 cells in asthma and allergy...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075005/exploratory-testing-of-diatom-silica-to-map-the-role-of-material-attributes-on-cell-fate
#11
Pamela J Walsh, Susan A Clarke, Matthew Julius, Phillip B Messersmith
Porous silica is an attractive biomaterial in many applications, including drug-delivery systems, bone-graft fillers and medical devices. The issue with porous silica biomaterials is the rate at which they resorb and the significant role played by interfacial chemistry on the host response in vivo. This paper explores the potential of diatom-biosilica as a model tool to assist in the task of mapping and quantifying the role of surface topography and chemical cues on cell fate. Diatoms are unicellular microalgae whose cell walls are composed of, amorphous nanopatterned biosilica that cannot be replicated synthetically...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072297/the-m-1-a-landscape-on-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-mrna-at-single-base-resolution
#12
Modi Safra, Aldema Sas-Chen, Ronit Nir, Roni Winkler, Aharon Nachshon, Dan Bar-Yaacov, Matthias Erlacher, Walter Rossmanith, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Schraga Schwartz
Modifications on mRNA offer the potential of regulating mRNA fate post-transcriptionally. Recent studies suggested the widespread presence of N(1)-methyladenosine (m(1)A), which disrupts Watson-Crick base pairing, at internal sites of mRNAs. These studies lacked the resolution of identifying individual modified bases, and did not identify specific sequence motifs undergoing the modification or an enzymatic machinery catalysing them, rendering it challenging to validate and functionally characterize putative sites...
October 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070526/circulating-tumors-cells-from-different-vascular-sites-exhibit-spatial-heterogeneity-in-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-composition-and-distinct-clinical-significance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Yunfan Sun, Wei Guo, Yang Xu, Ying-Hong Shi, Zijun Gong, Yuan Ji, Min Du, Xin Zhang, Bo Hu, Ao Huang, George G Chen, Paul B S Lai, Ya Cao, Shuang-Jian Qiu, Jian Zhou, Xin-Rong Yang, Jia Fan
PURPOSE: The spatial heterogeneity of phenotypic and molecular characteristics of CTCs within circulatory system remains unclear. Herein, we mapped the distribution and characterized biological features of CTCs along the transportation route in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  Experimental Design: In 73 localized HCC patients, blood was drawn from peripheral vein (PV), peripheral artery (PA), hepatic veins (HV), infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IHIVC) and portal vein (PoV) before tumor resection...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055001/listeria-monocytogenes-replicate-in-bone-marrow-derived-cd11c-cells-but-not-in-dendritic-cells-isolated-from-the-murine-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
Grant S Jones, Victoria C Smith, Sarah E F D'Orazio
Recent fate-mapping studies and gene-expression profiles suggest that commonly used protocols to generate bone marrow-derived cultured dendritic cells yield a heterogeneous mixture, including some CD11c(hi) cells that may not have a bona fide counterpart in vivo. In this study, we provide further evidence of the discordance between ex vivo-isolated and in vitro-cultured CD11c(+) cells by analyzing an additional phenotype, the ability to support cytosolic growth of the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes Two days after foodborne infection of mice with GFP-expressing L...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054843/contribution-of-extra-cardiac-cells-in-murine-heart-valves-is-age-dependent
#15
Lindsey J Anstine, Tori E Horne, Edwin M Horwitz, Joy Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Heart valves are dynamic structures that open and close over 100 000 times a day to maintain unidirectional blood flow during the cardiac cycle. Function is largely achieved by highly organized layers of extracellular matrix that provide the necessary biomechanical properties. Homeostasis of valve extracellular matrix is mediated by valve endothelial and interstitial cell populations, and although the embryonic origins of these cells are known, it is not clear how they are maintained after birth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053968/multiscale-3d-genome-rewiring-during-mouse-neural-development
#16
Boyan Bonev, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Quentin Szabo, Lauriane Fritsch, Giorgio L Papadopoulos, Yaniv Lubling, Xiaole Xu, Xiaodan Lv, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Amos Tanay, Giacomo Cavalli
Chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed important insights into genome folding. Yet, how spatial genome architecture is related to gene expression and cell fate remains unclear. We comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization during mouse neural differentiation in vitro and in vivo, generating the highest-resolution Hi-C maps available to date. We found that transcription is correlated with chromatin insulation and long-range interactions, but dCas9-mediated activation is insufficient for creating TAD boundaries de novo...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#17
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046422/the-fate-of-non-selected-activity-in-saccadic-decisions-distinct-goal-related-and-history-related-modulation
#18
Geoffrey Mégardon, Petroc Sumner
The Global Effect (GE) traditionally refers to the tendency of effectors (e.g. hand, eyes) to first land in between two nearby stimuli - forming a unimodal distribution. By measuring a shift of this distribution, recent studies used the GE to assess the presence of decision-related inputs on the motor map for eye movements. However, this method cannot distinguish whether one stimulus is inhibited or the other is facilitated and could not detect situations where both stimuli are inhibited or facilitated. Here, we detect deviations in the bimodal distribution of landing positions for remote stimuli, and find that this bimodal GE reveals the presence, location and polarity (facilitation or inhibition) of history-related and goal-related modulation of the non-selected activity (e...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037931/distinct-populations-of-embryonic-epithelial-progenitors-generate-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#19
Margarita M Dzama, Lira Nigmatullina, Sergi Sayols, Nastasja Kreim, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are transcriptionally heterogeneous. As the mechanisms governing their developmental specification are still poorly understood, whether this heterogeneity reflects an early determination of distinct cellular sub-types with potentially distinct physiological functions remains an open question. We investigate the cellular heterogeneity within the mouse embryonic midgut epithelium at the molecular and functional levels. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that multiple early embryonic epithelial progenitors give rise to Lgr5(+) ISCs...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033846/epithelial-markers-asma-krt14-and-krt19-unveil-elements-of-murine-lacrimal-gland-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#20
Alison Kuony, Frederic Michon
As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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