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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432970/insights-into-key-factors-controlling-go-stability-in-natural-surface-waters
#1
Yang Gao, Xuemei Ren, Xiaoli Tan, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Changlun Chen
The effects of pH, cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+)), and anions (Cl(-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) on graphene oxide (GO) stability were investigated to address the current limitations in the knowledge regarding the stability of GO in natural surface water and its underlying mechanism. The threshold values of cations that destabilize GO were obtained and affected by both pH and anions. By employing elemental mapping and studying the effects of polyacrylic acid (PAA) on GO sedimentation and the re-dispersion of GO aggregates, we find that the GO aggregates induced by Na(+) and K(+) via electric double layer suppression and by Ca(2+) and Al(3+) via strong complxing are difficult to re-disperse completely...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414331/a-new-fate-mapping-system-reveals-context-dependent-random-or-clonal-expansion-of-microglia
#2
Tuan Leng Tay, Dominic Mai, Jana Dautzenberg, Francisco Fernández-Klett, Gen Lin, Sagar, Moumita Datta, Anne Drougard, Thomas Stempfl, Alberto Ardura-Fabregat, Ori Staszewski, Anca Margineanu, Anje Sporbert, Lars M Steinmetz, J Andrew Pospisilik, Steffen Jung, Josef Priller, Dominic Grün, Olaf Ronneberger, Marco Prinz
Microglia constitute a highly specialized network of tissue-resident immune cells that is important for the control of tissue homeostasis and the resolution of diseases of the CNS. Little is known about how their spatial distribution is established and maintained in vivo. Here we establish a new multicolor fluorescence fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics during steady state and disease. Our findings suggest that microglia establish a dense network with regional differences, and the high regional turnover rates found challenge the universal concept of microglial longevity...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393527/investigation-of-pesticide-penetration-and-persistence-on-harvested-and-live-basil-leaves-using-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-mapping
#3
Tianxi Yang, Bin Zhao, Amanda J Kinchla, John M Clark, Lili He
Understanding pesticide behavior in plants is important for effectively applying pesticides and in reducing pesticide exposures from ingestion. This study aimed to investigate the penetration and persistence of pesticides applied on harvested and live basil leaves. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticides over time using gold nanoparticles as probes. The results showed that, after surface exposure of 30 min to 48 h, pesticides (10 mg/L) penetrated more rapidly and deeply into the live leaves than the harvested leaves...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387645/evolution-of-the-hypoxia-sensitive-cells-involved-in-amniote-respiratory-reflexes
#4
Dorit Hockman, Alan J Burns, Gerhard Schlosser, Keith P Gates, Benjamin Jevans, Alessandro Mongera, Shannon Fisher, Gokhan Unlu, Ela W Knapik, Charles K Kaufman, Christian Mosimann, Leonard I Zon, Joseph J Lancman, P Duc S Dong, Heiko Lickert, Abigail S Tucker, Clare Vh Baker
The evolutionary origins of the hypoxia-sensitive cells that trigger amniote respiratory reflexes - carotid body glomus cells, and 'pulmonary neuroendocrine cells' (PNECs) - are obscure. Homology has been proposed between glomus cells, which are neural crest-derived, and the hypoxia-sensitive 'neuroepithelial cells' (NECs) of fish gills, whose embryonic origin is unknown. NECs have also been likened to PNECs, which differentiate in situ within lung airway epithelia. Using genetic lineage-tracing and neural crest-deficient mutants in zebrafish, and physical fate-mapping in frog and lamprey, we find that NECs are not neural crest-derived, but endoderm-derived, like PNECs, whose endodermal origin we confirm...
April 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385536/mining-the-topography-and-dynamics-of-the-4d-nucleome-to-identify-novel-cns-drug-pathways
#5
Gerald A Higgins, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Hasan Alam, Brian D Athey
The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications...
April 3, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383882/uptake-and-distribution-of-silver-in-the-aquatic-plant-landoltia-punctata-duckweed-exposed-to-silver-and-silver-sulfide-nanoparticles
#6
John P Stegemeier, Benjamin P Colman, Fabienne Schwab, Mark R Wiesner, Gregory V Lowry
Aquatic ecosystems are expected to receive Ag0 and Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) through anthropogenic waste streams. The speciation of silver in Ag-NPs affects their fate in ecosystems, but its influence on interactions with aquatic plants is still unclear. Here, the Ag speciation and distribution was measured in an aquatic plant, duckweed (Landoltia punctata), exposed to Ag0 or Ag2S NPs, or to AgNO3. The silver distribution in duckweed roots was visualized using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping and Ag speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368778/monitoring-the-fate-and-behavior-of-tio2-nanoparticles-simulated-in-a-wwtp-with-industrial-dye-stuff-effluent-according-to-oecd-303a
#7
Lwazi C Mahlalela, Jane C Ngila, Langelihle N Dlamini
The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several consumer products has led to them finding their way into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some of these NPs have photocatalytic properties, thus providing a possible solution to textile industries to photodegrade dyes from their wastewater. Thus, the interaction of NPs with industrial dye effluents is inevitable. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline for testing of chemical 303A was employed to study the fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in industrial dye-stuff effluent...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366282/an-orchestrated-intron-retention-program-in-meiosis-controls-timely-usage-of-transcripts-during-germ-cell-differentiation
#8
Chiara Naro, Ariane Jolly, Sara Di Persio, Pamela Bielli, Niclas Setterblad, Antonio J Alberdi, Elena Vicini, Raffaele Geremia, Pierre De la Grange, Claudio Sette
Global transcriptome reprogramming during spermatogenesis ensures timely expression of factors in each phase of male germ cell differentiation. Spermatocytes and spermatids require particularly extensive reprogramming of gene expression to switch from mitosis to meiosis and to support gamete morphogenesis. Here, we uncovered an extensive alternative splicing program during this transmeiotic differentiation. Notably, intron retention was largely the most enriched pattern, with spermatocytes showing generally higher levels of retention compared with spermatids...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362422/in-vivo-imaging-of-transgenic-gene-expression-in-individual-retinal-progenitors-in-chimeric-zebrafish-embryos-to-study-cell-nonautonomous-influences
#9
Stefanie Dudczig, Peter D Currie, Lucia Poggi, Patricia R Jusuf
The genetic and technical strengths have made the zebrafish vertebrate a key model organism in which the consequences of gene manipulations can be traced in vivo throughout the rapid developmental period. Multiple processes can be studied including cell proliferation, gene expression, cell migration and morphogenesis. Importantly, the generation of chimeras through transplantations can be easily performed, allowing mosaic labeling and tracking of individual cells under the influence of the host environment...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357483/tracing-the-fate-and-transport-of-secondary-plant-metabolites-in-a-laboratory-mesocosm-experiment-by-employing-mass-spectrometric-imaging
#10
Anna C Crecelius, Beate Michalzik, Karin Potthast, Stefanie Meyer, Ulrich S Schubert
Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) has received considerable attention in recent years, since it allows the molecular mapping of various compound classes, such as proteins, peptides, glycans, secondary metabolites, lipids, and drugs in animal, human, or plant tissue sections. In the present study, the application of laser-based MSI analysis of secondary plant metabolites to monitor their transport from the grass leaves of Dactylis glomerata, over the crop of the grasshopper Chorthippus dorsatus to its excrements, and finally in the soil solution is described...
March 29, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#11
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349454/mapping-m-6-a-at-individual-nucleotide-resolution-using-crosslinking-and-immunoprecipitation-miclip
#12
Anya V Grozhik, Bastian Linder, Anthony O Olarerin-George, Samie R Jaffrey
N (6) -methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modified base in eukaryotic mRNA and has been linked to diverse effects on mRNA fate. Current m6A mapping approaches localize m6A residues to 100-200 nt-long regions of transcripts. The precise position of m6A in mRNAs cannot be identified on a transcriptome-wide level because there are no chemical methods to distinguish between m6A and adenosine. Here, we describe a method for using anti-m6A antibodies to induce specific mutational signatures at m6A residues after ultraviolet light-induced antibody-RNA crosslinking and reverse transcription...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334916/mocap-large-scale-inference-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites-from-chromatin-accessibility
#13
Xi Chen, Bowen Yu, Nicholas Carriero, Claudio Silva, Richard Bonneau
Differential binding of transcription factors (TFs) at cis-regulatory loci drives the differentiation and function of diverse cellular lineages. Understanding the regulatory interactions that underlie cell fate decisions requires characterizing TF binding sites (TFBS) across multiple cell types and conditions. Techniques, e.g. ChIP-Seq can reveal genome-wide patterns of TF binding, but typically requires laborious and costly experiments for each TF-cell-type (TFCT) condition of interest. Chromosomal accessibility assays can connect accessible chromatin in one cell type to many TFs through sequence motif mapping...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329690/tissue-myeloid-progenitors-differentiate-into-pericytes-through-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-developing-skin-vasculature
#14
Tomoko Yamazaki, Ani Nalbandian, Yutaka Uchida, Wenling Li, Thomas D Arnold, Yoshiaki Kubota, Seiji Yamamoto, Masatsugu Ema, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) are essential for the regulation of vascular networks and maintenance of vascular integrity, but their origins are diverse in different tissues and not known in the organs that arise from the ectoderm, such as skin. Here, we show that tissue-localized myeloid progenitors contribute to pericyte development in embryonic skin vasculature. A series of in vivo fate-mapping experiments indicates that tissue myeloid progenitors differentiate into pericytes...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325876/comprehensive-and-quantitative-mapping-of-rna-protein-interactions-across-a-transcribed-eukaryotic-genome
#15
Richard She, Anupam K Chakravarty, Curtis J Layton, Lauren M Chircus, Johan O L Andreasson, Nandita Damaraju, Peter L McMahon, Jason D Buenrostro, Daniel F Jarosz, William J Greenleaf
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control the fate of nearly every transcript in a cell. However, no existing approach for studying these posttranscriptional gene regulators combines transcriptome-wide throughput and biophysical precision. Here, we describe an assay that accomplishes this. Using commonly available hardware, we built a customizable, open-source platform that leverages the inherent throughput of Illumina technology for direct biophysical measurements. We used the platform to quantitatively measure the binding affinity of the prototypical RBP Vts1 for every transcript in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321204/a-comprehensive-view-of-the-%C3%AE-arrestinome
#16
Pascale Crépieux, Anne Poupon, Nathalie Langonné-Gallay, Eric Reiter, Javier Delgado, Martin H Schaefer, Thomas Bourquard, Luis Serrano, Christina Kiel
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane receptors critically involved in sensing the environment and orchestrating physiological processes. As such, they transduce extracellular signals such as hormone, neurotransmitters, ions, and light into an integrated cell response. The intracellular trafficking, internalization, and signaling ability of ligand-activated GPCRs are controlled by arrestins, adaptor proteins that they interact with upon ligand binding. β-arrestins 1 and 2 in particular are now considered as hub proteins assembling multiprotein complexes to regulate receptor fate and transduce diversified cell responses...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284818/distribution-and-importance-of-microplastics-in-the-marine-environment-a-review-of-the-sources-fate-effects-and-potential-solutions
#17
REVIEW
H S Auta, C U Emenike, S H Fauziah
The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics...
March 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272836/mapping-carbon-fate-during-bleaching-in-a-model-cnidarian-symbiosis-the-application-of-13-c-metabolomics
#18
Katie E Hillyer, Daniel A Dias, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching is a major threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Yet we lack detailed knowledge of the metabolic interactions that determine symbiosis function and bleaching-induced change. We mapped autotrophic carbon fate within the free metabolite pools of both partners of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis (Aiptasia-Symbiodinium) during exposure to thermal stress via the stable isotope tracer ((13) C bicarbonate), coupled to GC-MS. Symbiont photodamage and pronounced bleaching coincided with substantial increases in the turnover of non(13) C-labelled pools in the dinoflagellate (lipid and starch store catabolism)...
March 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271248/network-reconstruction-reveals-that-valproic-acid-activates-neurogenic-transcriptional-programs-in-adult-brain-following-traumatic-injury
#19
Gerald A Higgins, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Brian Pauls, Richard Higgins, Brian D Athey, Hasan E Alam
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mechanism of action of valproic acid (VPA) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Data were analyzed from different sources, including experiments in a porcine model, data from postmortem human brain, published studies, public and commercial databases. RESULTS: The transcriptional program in the CNS following TBI, HS, and VPA treatment includes activation of regulatory pathways that enhance neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis...
March 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263708/supporting-cells-remove-and-replace-sensory-receptor-hair-cells-in-a-balance-organ-of-adult-mice
#20
Stephanie A Bucks, Brandon C Cox, Brittany A Vlosich, James P Manning, Tot B Nguyen, Jennifer S Stone
Vestibular hair cells in the inner ear encode head movements and mediate the sense of balance. These cells undergo cell death and replacement (turnover) throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there is no definitive evidence that this process occurs in mammals. We used fate-mapping and other methods to demonstrate that utricular type II vestibular hair cells undergo turnover in adult mice under normal conditions. We found that supporting cells phagocytose both type I and II hair cells. Plp1-CreER(T2)-expressing supporting cells replace type II hair cells...
March 6, 2017: ELife
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