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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786506/wing-morphogenesis-in-lepidoptera
#1
REVIEW
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
The wings of Lepidoptera develop from imaginal disks that are made up of a simple two-layered epithelium whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout the period of growth and morphogenesis. The wings of different species of Lepidoptera differ greatly in both size and shape, yet it is possible to fate-map homologous locations on the developing wing disks and explicitly monitor the growth, size, and shape of the wing, or any of its regions, throughout the entire ontogeny of the wing...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783177/evaluating-long-term-patterns-of-decreasing-groundwater-discharge-through-a-lake-bottom-permeable-reactive-barrier
#2
Timothy D McCobb, Martin A Briggs, Denis R LeBlanc, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Carole D Johnson
Identifying and quantifying groundwater exchange is critical when considering contaminant fate and transport at the groundwater/surface-water interface. In this paper, areally distributed temperature and point seepage measurements are used to efficiently assess spatial and temporal groundwater discharge patterns through a glacial-kettle lakebed area containing a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Concern was that the PRB was becoming less permeable with time owing to biogeochemical processes within the PRB...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780306/spontaneous-hair-cell-regeneration-is-prevented-by-increased-notch-signaling-in-supporting-cells
#3
Melissa M McGovern, Luyi Zhou, Michelle R Randle, Brandon C Cox
During embryonic development, differentiation of cochlear progenitor cells into hair cells (HCs) or supporting cells (SCs) is partially controlled through Notch signaling. Many studies have shown that inhibition of Notch signaling allows SCs to convert into HCs in both normal and drug damaged neonatal mouse cochleae. This mechanism is also implicated during HC regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates; however, the mechanism of spontaneous HC regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea is less understood. While inhibition of Notch signaling can force SCs to convert into HCs and increase the number of regenerated HCs, it is currently unknown whether this pathway is involved in spontaneous HC regeneration observed in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774393/developmental-origin-of-the-cardiac-conduction-system-insight-from-lineage-tracing
#4
Rajiv A Mohan, Bastiaan J Boukens, Vincent M Christoffels
The components of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) generate and propagate the electrical impulse that initiates cardiac contraction. These interconnected components share properties, such as automaticity, that set them apart from the working myocardium of the atria and ventricles. A variety of tools and approaches have been used to define the CCS lineages. These include genetic labeling of cells expressing lineage markers and fate mapping of dye labeled cells, which we will discuss in this review. We conclude that there is not a single CCS lineage, but instead early cell fate decisions segregate the lineages of the CCS components while they remain interconnected...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769398/cleavage-blastomere-deletion-and-transplantation-to-test-cell-fate-commitment-in-xenopus
#5
Sally A Moody
Fate maps identify the precursors of an organ, and tracing the members of a blastomere lineage over time shows how its descendants come to populate that organ. The fates of the individual blastomeres of the two- to 32-cell Xenopus embryo have been fully mapped to reveal which cells are the major contributors to various cell types, tissues, and organs. However, because these fate maps were produced in the normal embryo, they do not reveal whether a precursor blastomere is competent to give rise to additional tissues or is already committed to its fate-mapped repertoire of descendants...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769394/analysis-of-cell-fate-commitment-in-xenopus-embryos
#6
Sally A Moody
The fates of individual cleavage-stage blastomeres and of groups of cells at the blastula through gastrula stages of Xenopus embryos have been mapped in great detail. These studies identified the major contributors of the three germ layers as well as a variety of tissues and organs and several specific cell types. One can use these fate maps to test the commitment of single cells or groups of cells to produce their normal repertoire of descendants, to identify the genes that regulate fate commitment, and to modulate the levels of gene expression in specific lineages to determine gene function in a variety of developmental processes...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769392/cleavage-blastomere-explant-culture-in-xenopus
#7
Sally A Moody
The individual blastomeres of Xenopus two- to 32-cell embryos have been fate mapped. This work identified the precursors of most of the embryonic cell types, tissues and organs; however, the maps do not reveal the cell interactions or signaling pathways that are required for establishing cell fates. This protocol describes an explant culture approach for culturing blastomeres in isolation to test whether a cell's fate has been determined. Cleavage blastomeres can be cultured in a simple salt medium without added factors because they contain intracellular yolk platelets, which provide an intrinsic energy source...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769388/lineage-tracing-and-fate-mapping-in-xenopus-embryos
#8
Sally A Moody
Fate mapping approaches reveal what types of cells, tissues, and organs are derived from specific embryonic cells. Classical fate maps were made by microscopic techniques using embryos comprising small numbers of transparent cells. More complex and opaque embryos require use of a vital or lipophilic dye that labels small groups of cells. Intracellular injection of a lineage tracer that labels the injected cell and all of its descendants can be used to mark a single cell in Xenopus embryos, whose large cells are easy to microinject and usually cleave in regular patterns...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764980/interplay-of-cell-cell-contacts-and-rhoa-mrtf-a-signaling-regulates-cardiomyocyte-identity
#9
Tatjana Dorn, Jessica Kornherr, Elvira I Parrotta, Dorota Zawada, Harold Ayetey, Gianluca Santamaria, Laura Iop, Elisa Mastantuono, Daniel Sinnecker, Alexander Goedel, Ralf J Dirschinger, Ilaria My, Svenja Laue, Tarik Bozoglu, Christian Baarlink, Tilman Ziegler, Elisabeth Graf, Rabea Hinkel, Giovanni Cuda, Stefan Kääb, Andrew A Grace, Robert Grosse, Christian Kupatt, Thomas Meitinger, Austin G Smith, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alessandra Moretti
Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions guide organ development and homeostasis by controlling lineage specification and maintenance, but the underlying molecular principles are largely unknown. Here, we show that in human developing cardiomyocytes cell-cell contacts at the intercalated disk connect to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the RhoA-ROCK signaling to maintain an active MRTF/SRF transcriptional program essential for cardiomyocyte identity. Genetic perturbation of this mechanosensory pathway activates an ectopic fat gene program during cardiomyocyte differentiation, which ultimately primes the cells to switch to the brown/beige adipocyte lineage in response to adipogenesis-inducing signals...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764857/lineage-guided-notch-dependent-gliogenesis-by-drosophila-multi-potent-progenitors
#10
Qingzhong Ren, Takeshi Awasaki, Yu-Chun Wang, Yu-Fen Huang, Tzumin Lee
Macroglial cells in the central nervous system exhibit regional specialization and carry out region-specific functions. Diverse glial cells arise from specific progenitors in specific spatiotemporal patterns. This raises an interesting possibility that there exist glial precursors with distinct developmental fates, which govern region-specific gliogenesis. Here we mapped the glial progeny produced by the Drosophila type II neuroblasts, which, like vertebrate radial glia cells, yield both neurons and glia via intermediate neural progenitors (INPs)...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753862/new-insights-into-microglia-neuron-interactions-a-neuron-s-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Balázs Pósfai, Csaba Cserép, Barbara Orsolits, Ádám Dénes
Microglia are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system. However, recent data indicate that microglia also contribute to diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes that extend beyond immune-related functions and there is a growing interest to understand the mechanisms through which microglia interact with other cells in the brain. In particular, the molecular processes that contribute to microglia-neuron communication in the healthy brain and their role in common brain diseases have been intensively studied during the last decade...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750189/repopulating-retinal-microglia-restore-endogenous-organization-and-function-under-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-regulation
#12
Yikui Zhang, Lian Zhao, Xu Wang, Wenxin Ma, Adam Lazere, Hao-Hua Qian, Jun Zhang, Mones Abu-Asab, Robert N Fariss, Jerome E Roger, Wai T Wong
Microglia have been discovered to undergo repopulation following ablation. However, the functionality of repopulated microglia and the mechanisms regulating microglia repopulation are unknown. We examined microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse retina, a specialized neural compartment containing regular arrays of microglia in discrete synaptic laminae that can be directly visualized. Using in vivo imaging and cell-fate mapping techniques, we discovered that repopulation originated from residual microglia proliferating in the central inner retina that subsequently spread by centrifugal migration to fully recapitulate pre-existing microglial distributions and morphologies...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738947/reconstructing-the-deposition-environment-and-long-term-fate-of-chernobyl-137-cs-at-the-floodplain-scale-through-mobile-gamma-spectrometry
#13
Adam Varley, Andrew Tyler, Yuri Bondar, Ali Hosseini, Viachaslau Zabrotski, Mark Dowdall
Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736183/universality-of-clone-dynamics-during-tissue-development
#14
Steffen Rulands, Fabienne Lescroart, Samira Chabab, Christopher J Hindley, Nicole Prior, Magdalena K Sznurkowska, Meritxell Huch, Anna Philpott, Cedric Blanpain, Benjamin D Simons
The emergence of complex organs is driven by the coordinated proliferation, migration and differentiation of precursor cells. The fate behaviour of these cells is reflected in the time evolution their progeny, termed clones, which serve as a key experimental observable. In adult tissues, where cell dynamics is constrained by the condition of homeostasis, clonal tracing studies based on transgenic animal models have advanced our understanding of cell fate behaviour and its dysregulation in disease (1, 2). But what can be learned from clonal dynamics in development, where the spatial cohesiveness of clones is impaired by tissue deformations during tissue growth? Drawing on the results of clonal tracing studies, we show that, despite the complexity of organ development, clonal dynamics may converge to a critical state characterized by universal scaling behaviour of clone sizes...
May 2018: Nature Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727938/combining-raw-and-compositional-data-to-determine-the-spatial-patterns-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-soils
#15
C Boente, M T D Albuquerque, A Fernández-Braña, S Gerassis, C Sierra, J R Gallego
When considering complex scenarios involving several attributes, such as in environmental characterization, a clearer picture of reality can be achieved through the dimensional reduction of data. In this context, maps facilitate the visualization of spatial patterns of contaminant distribution and the identification of enriched areas. A set, of 15 Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) - (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn), was measured in soil, collected in Langreo's municipality (80km2 ), Spain...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727788/exploring-the-fate-and-oxidation-behaviors-of-different-organic-constituents-in-landfill-leachate-upon-fenton-oxidation-processes-using-eem-parafac-and-2d-cos-ftir
#16
Bilal Aftab, Hyun-Sang Shin, Jin Hur
In this work, the changes of different organic constituents in landfill leachate were tracked in Fenton oxidation processes with different operation parameters including H2 O2 doses, pH, and the ratios of [H2 O2 ]/[Fe] via fluorescence excitation emission matrix - parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). One tryptophan-like (C1), one fulvic-like (C2), and one humic-like (C3) components were identified in the leachates. The removal behaviors of the individual fluorescent components were dependent upon the operation conditions, suggesting the existence of unique characteristics with respect to the responses to the oxidation mechanisms, which were likely altered by different operation conditions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727663/single-cell-transcriptomics-and-fate-mapping-of-ependymal-cells-reveals-an-absence-of-neural-stem-cell-function
#17
Prajay T Shah, Jo A Stratton, Morgan Gail Stykel, Sepideh Abbasi, Sandeep Sharma, Kyle A Mayr, Kathrin Koblinger, Patrick J Whelan, Jeff Biernaskie
Ependymal cells are multi-ciliated cells that form the brain's ventricular epithelium and a niche for neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In addition, ependymal cells are suggested to be latent NSCs with a capacity to acquire neurogenic function. This remains highly controversial due to a lack of prospective in vivo labeling techniques that can effectively distinguish ependymal cells from neighboring V-SVZ NSCs. We describe a transgenic system that allows for targeted labeling of ependymal cells within the V-SVZ...
May 3, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705088/time-is-brain-the-stroke-theory-of-relativity
#18
Camilo R Gomez
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of the philosophical tenet "Time is Brain!," multiple lines of research have demonstrated that other factors contribute to the degree of ischemic injury at any one point in time, and it is now clear that the therapeutic window of acute ischemic stroke is more protracted than it was first suspected. To define a more realistic relationship between time and the ischemic process, we used computational modeling to assess how these 2 variables are affected by collateral circulatory competence...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700229/single-cell-mapping-of-gene-expression-landscapes-and-lineage-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#19
Daniel E Wagner, Caleb Weinreb, Zach M Collins, James A Briggs, Sean G Megason, Allon M Klein
High-throughput mapping of cellular differentiation hierarchies from single-cell data promises to empower systematic interrogations of vertebrate development and disease. Here, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to >92,000 cells from zebrafish embryos during the first day of development. Using a graph-based approach, we mapped a cell state landscape that describes axis patterning, germ layer formation, and organogenesis. We tested how clonally related cells traverse this landscape by developing a transposon-based barcoding approach ("TracerSeq") for reconstructing single-cell lineage histories...
April 26, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700121/genetic-lineage-tracing-of-non-myocyte-population-by-dual-recombinases
#20
Yan Li, Lingjuan He, Xiuzhen Huang, Shirin Issa Bhaloo, Huan Zhao, Shaohua Zhang, Wenjuan Pu, Xueying Tian, Yi Li, Qiaozhen Liu, Wei Yu, Libo Zhang, Xiuxiu Liu, Kuo Liu, Juan Tang, Hui Zhang, Dongqing Cai, Ralf H Adams, Qingbo Xu, Kathy O Lui, Bin Zhou
Background -Whether the adult mammalian heart harbors cardiac stem cells (CSCs) for regeneration of cardiomyocytes is an important yet contentious topic in the field of cardiovascular regeneration. The putative myocyte stem cell populations recognized without specific cell markers such as the cardiosphere-derived cells or with markers such as Sca1+ , Bmi1+ , Isl1+ or Abcg2+ CSCs have been reported. Moreover, it remains unclear whether putative CSCs with unknown or unidentified markers exist and give rise to de novo cardiomyocytes in the adult heart...
April 26, 2018: Circulation
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