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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931624/the-first-wave-of-t-lymphopoiesis-in-zebrafish-arises-from-aorta-endothelium-independent-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#1
Ye Tian, Jin Xu, Shachuan Feng, Sicong He, Shizheng Zhao, Lu Zhu, Wan Jin, Yimei Dai, Lingfei Luo, Jianan Y Qu, Zilong Wen
T lymphocytes are key cellular components of the adaptive immune system and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. Despite their heterogeneities, it is believed that all different types of T lymphocytes are generated exclusively via the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using temporal-spatial resolved fate-mapping analysis and time-lapse imaging, here we show that the ventral endothelium in the zebrafish aorta-gonad-mesonephros and posterior blood island, the hematopoietic tissues previously known to generate HSCs and erythromyeloid progenitors, respectively, gives rise to a transient wave of T lymphopoiesis independent of HSCs...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#2
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921616/tangential-migration-of-corridor-guidepost-neurons-contributes-to-anxiety-circuits
#3
Andrea Tinterri, Marie Deck, Maryama Keita, Caroline Mailhes, Anna Noren Rubin, Nicoletta Kessaris, Ludmilla Lokmane, Franck Bielle, Sonia Garel
In mammals, thalamic axons are guided internally towards their neocortical target by corridor (Co) neurons that act as axonal guideposts. The existence of Co-like neurons in non-mammalian species, in which thalamic axons do not grow internally, raised the possibility that Co cells might have an ancestral role. Here, we investigated the contribution of corridor (Co) cells to mature brain circuits using a combination of genetic fate-mapping and assays in mice. We unexpectedly found that Co neurons contribute to striatal-like projection neurons in the central extended amygdala...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913676/the-cost-of-being-cool-how-adolescent-pseudomature-behavior-maps-onto-adult-adjustment
#4
Leslie Gordon Simons, Tara E Sutton, Sarah Shannon, Mark T Berg, Frederick X Gibbons
During adolescence, one's status among peers is a major concern. Such status is often largely a function of popularity and establishing oneself as "cool." While there are conventional avenues to achieving status among adolescents, engaging in adult-like, or pseudomature, behaviors such as substance use or sexual activity is a frequent occurrence. Although past research has examined the consequences of adolescent delinquency, what remains unclear is the long-term fate of adolescents who are both popular and antisocial...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903618/biomaterial-cues-regulate-epigenetic-state-and-cell-functions-a-systematic-review
#5
Longwei Lv, Yiman Tang, Ping Zhang, Yunsong Liu, Xiangsong Bai, Yongsheng Zhou
Biomaterial cues can act as potent regulators of cell niche and microenvironment. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and reprograming. It is now well appreciated that biomaterials can alter epigenetic states of cells. Here we systematically reviewed the underlying epigenetic mechanisms of how different biomaterial cues, including material chemistry, topography, elasticity and mechanical stimulus, influence cell functions, such as nuclear deformation, cell proliferation, differentiation and reprograming, to summarize the differences and similarities among each biomaterial cues and their mechanisms, and to find common and unique properties of different biomaterial cues...
September 13, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900193/synchrotron-based-%C3%AE-xrf-mapping-and-%C3%AE-ftir-microscopy-enable-to-look-into-the-fate-and-effects-of-tattoo-pigments-in-human-skin
#6
Ines Schreiver, Bernhard Hesse, Christian Seim, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Julie Villanova, Peter Laux, Nadine Dreiack, Randolf Penning, Remi Tucoulou, Marine Cotte, Andreas Luch
The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (μ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#7
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling...
September 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881967/hopland-single-cell-pseudotime-recovery-using-continuous-hopfield-network-based-modeling-of-waddington-s-epigenetic-landscape
#8
Jing Guo, Jie Zheng
Motivation: The interpretation of transcriptional dynamics in single-cell data, especially pseudotime estimation, could help understand the transition of gene expression profiles. The recovery of pseudotime increases the temporal resolution of single-cell transcriptional data, but is challenging due to the high variability in gene expression between individual cells. Here, we introduce HopLand, a pseudotime recovery method using continuous Hopfield network to map cells to a Waddington's epigenetic landscape...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878630/temporal-expression-of-wnt1-defines-the-competency-state-and-terminal-identity-of-progenitors-in-the-developing-cochlear-nucleus-and-inferior-colliculus
#9
Stephen Brown, Mark Zervas
The auditory system contains a diverse array of interconnected anatomical structures that mediate the perception of sound. The cochlear nucleus of the hindbrain serves as the initial site of convergence for auditory stimuli, while the inferior colliculus of the midbrain serves as an integration and relay station for all ascending auditory information. We used Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) to determine how the timing of Wnt1 expression is related to the competency states of auditory neuron progenitors...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874662/cre-lox-assisted-non-invasive-in-vivo-tracking-of-specific-cell-populations-by-positron-emission-tomography
#10
Martin Thunemann, Barbara F Schörg, Susanne Feil, Yun Lin, Jakob Voelkl, Matthias Golla, Angelos Vachaviolos, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Marcus Olbrich, Walter Ehrlichmann, Gerald Reischl, Christoph M Griessinger, Harald F Langer, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang, Michael Schäfers, Manfred Kneilling, Bernd J Pichler, Robert Feil
Many pathophysiological processes are associated with proliferation, migration or death of distinct cell populations. Monitoring specific cell types and their progeny in a non-invasive, longitudinal and quantitative manner is still challenging. Here we show a novel cell-tracking system that combines Cre/lox-assisted cell fate mapping with a thymidine kinase (sr39tk) reporter gene for cell detection by positron emission tomography (PET). We generate Rosa26-mT/sr39tk PET reporter mice and induce sr39tk expression in platelets, T lymphocytes or cardiomyocytes...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874534/treg-specific-il-27r%C3%AE-deletion-uncovers-a-key-role-for-il-27-in-treg-function-to-control-autoimmunity
#11
Jeongsu Do, Dongkyun Kim, Sohee Kim, Alice Valentin-Torres, Nina Dvorina, Eunjung Jang, Vivekananthan Nagarajavel, Tara M DeSilva, Xiaoxia Li, Angela H Ting, Dario A A Vignali, Stephen A Stohlman, William M Baldwin, Booki Min
Dysregulated Foxp3(+) Treg functions result in uncontrolled immune activation and autoimmunity. Therefore, identifying cellular factors modulating Treg functions is an area of great importance. Here, using Treg-specific Il27ra(-/-) mice, we report that IL-27 signaling in Foxp3(+) Tregs is essential for Tregs to control autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction, Treg-specific Il27ra(-/-) mice develop more severe EAE. Consistent with the severe disease, the numbers of IFNγ- and IL-17-producing CD4 T cells infiltrating the CNS tissues are greater in these mice...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870694/embryonic-fate-mapping-uncovers-the-critical-role-of-micrornas-in-the-development-of-epidermal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#12
Yi Yao, Queping Liu, Carly Martin, Congcong Yin, Zheng Dong, Qing-Sheng Mi, Li Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863946/regulatory-elements-driving-the-expression-of-skeletal-lineage-reporters-differ-during-bone-development-and-adulthood
#13
Pieter-Jan Stiers, Nick van Gastel, Karen Moermans, Ingrid Stockmans, Geert Carmeliet
To improve bone healing or regeneration more insight in the fate and role of the different skeletal cell types is required. Mouse models for fate mapping and lineage tracing of skeletal cells, using stage-specific promoters, have advanced our understanding of bone development, a process that is largely recapitulated during bone repair. However, validation of these models is often only performed during development, whereas proof of the activity and specificity of the used promoters during the bone regenerative process is limited...
August 31, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855574/genetic-studies-in-mice-directly-link-oocytes-produced-during-adulthood-to-ovarian-function-and-natural-fertility
#14
Ning Wang, Chonthicha Satirapod, Yasuyo Ohguchi, Eun-Sil Park, Dori C Woods, Jonathan L Tilly
Multiple labs have reported that mammalian ovaries contain oogonial stem cells (OSCs), which can differentiate into oocytes that fertilize to produce offspring. However, the physiological relevance of these observations to adult ovarian function is unknown. Here we performed targeted and reversible ablation of premeiotic germ cells undergoing differentiation into oocytes in transgenic mice expressing the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk), driven by the promoter of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), a germ cell-specific gene activated during meiotic commitment...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855306/il-23-drives-differentiation-of-peripheral-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17-t-cells-from-adult-bone-marrow-derived-precursors
#15
Pedro H Papotto, Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa, Nina Schmolka, Andrea Iseppon, Sofia Mensurado, Brigitta Stockinger, Julie C Ribot, Bruno Silva-Santos
Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells are thought to develop exclusively in the thymus during fetal/perinatal life, as adult bone marrow precursors fail to generate γδ17 T cells under homeostatic conditions. Here, we employ a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in which hematopoiesis is reset by bone marrow transplantation and demonstrate unequivocally that Vγ4(+) γδ17 T cells can develop de novo in draining lymph nodes in response to innate stimuli...
August 30, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854171/fate-mapping-of-human-glioblastoma-reveals-an-invariant-stem-cell-hierarchy
#16
Xiaoyang Lan, David J Jörg, Florence M G Cavalli, Laura M Richards, Long V Nguyen, Robert J Vanner, Paul Guilhamon, Lilian Lee, Michelle M Kushida, Davide Pellacani, Nicole I Park, Fiona J Coutinho, Heather Whetstone, Hayden J Selvadurai, Clare Che, Betty Luu, Annaick Carles, Michelle Moksa, Naghmeh Rastegar, Renee Head, Sonam Dolma, Panagiotis Prinos, Michael D Cusimano, Sunit Das, Mark Bernstein, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Andrew J Mungall, Richard A Moore, Yussanne Ma, Marco Gallo, Mathieu Lupien, Trevor J Pugh, Michael D Taylor, Martin Hirst, Connie J Eaves, Benjamin D Simons, Peter B Dirks
Human glioblastomas harbour a subpopulation of glioblastoma stem cells that drive tumorigenesis. However, the origin of intratumoural functional heterogeneity between glioblastoma cells remains poorly understood. Here we study the clonal evolution of barcoded glioblastoma cells in an unbiased way following serial xenotransplantation to define their individual fate behaviours. Independent of an evolving mutational signature, we show that the growth of glioblastoma clones in vivo is consistent with a remarkably neutral process involving a conserved proliferative hierarchy rooted in glioblastoma stem cells...
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851573/x-ray-microfluorescence-for-biodistribution-studies-of-nanomedicines
#17
Céline Epaule, Andrey Maksimenko, Gérard Bastian, Joachim Caron, Didier Desmaële, Fatima Zouhiri, Patrick Couvreur, Jean Doucet
Currently, the in vivo distribution of drugs is investigated by non-spatial quantitative techniques. With the emergence of personal therapies using nanomedicines, deeper investigations are required to precisely know the in vivo fate of entrapped drugs, especially to predict possible toxicity. Here, we assess the capabilities of SR-μXRF for i) detecting drugs into nanomedicines without adding any marker, ii) mapping their distribution into tissues and iii) locally quantifying the drugs loaded into nanomedicines...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838968/tbx1-and-jag1-act-in-concert-to-modulate-the-fate-of-neurosensory-cells-of-the-mouse-otic-vesicle
#18
Stephania Macchiarulo, Bernice E Morrow
The domain within the otic vesicle (OV) known as the neurosensory domain (NSD), contains cells that will give rise to the hair and support cells of the otic sensory organs, as well as the neurons that form the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG). The molecular dynamics that occur at the NSD boundary relative to adjacent OV cells is not well defined. The Tbx1 transcription factor gene expression pattern is complementary to the NSD, and inactivation results in an expansion of the NSD and expression of the Notch ligand, Jag1 mapping, in part to the NSD...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837854/north-east-south-west-mapping-vascular-tissues-onto-the-arabidopsis-root
#19
REVIEW
John Vaughan-Hirsch, Benjamin Goodall, Anthony Bishopp
The Arabidopsis root has provided an excellent model for understanding patterning processes and cell fate specification. Vascular patterning represents an especially interesting process, as new positional information must be generated to transform an approximately radially symmetric root pole into a bisymmetric structure with a single xylem axis. This process requires both growth of the embryonic tissue alongside the subsequent patterning. Recently researchers have identified a series of transcription factors that modulate cell divisions to control vascular tissues growth...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833924/agriculture-erases-climate-driven-%C3%AE-diversity-in-neotropical-bird-communities
#20
Daniel S Karp, Luke O Frishkoff, Alejandra Echeverri, Jim Zook, Pedro Juárez, Kai M A Chan
Earth is experiencing multiple global changes that will, together, determine the fate of many species. Yet, how biological communities respond to concurrent stressors at local-to-regional scales remains largely unknown. In particular, understanding how local habitat conversion interacts with regional climate change to shape patterns in β-diversity-differences among sites in their species compositions-is critical to forecast communities in the Anthropocene. Here, we study patterns in bird β-diversity across land-use and precipitation gradients in Costa Rica...
August 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
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