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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906172/inflammatory-macrophages-can-transdifferentiate-into-myofibroblasts-during-renal-fibrosis
#1
Xiao-Ming Meng, Shuang Wang, Xiao-Ru Huang, Chen Yang, Jun Xiao, Yang Zhang, Ka-Fai To, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Hui-Yao Lan
Myofibroblasts play a central role in renal fibrosis although the origin of these cells remains controversial. We recently reported that bone marrow-derived macrophages can give rise to myofibroblasts through macrophage to myofibroblast transition (MMT). However, several important issues remain to be addressed, including whether MMT occurs in human kidney disease and verification of the MMT process through lineage tracing. Biopsies from a cohort of 58 patients with various forms of kidney disease were examined for MMT cells that co-express macrophage (CD68) and myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) markers...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890658/magnetic-mapping-of-iron-in-rodent-spleen
#2
Angela R Blissett, Brooke Ollander, Brittany Penn, Dana M McTigue, Gunjan Agarwal
Evaluation of iron distribution and density in biological tissues is important to understand the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and the fate of exogenously administered iron-based carriers and contrast agents. Iron distribution in tissues is typically characterized via histochemical (Perl's) stains or immunohistochemistry for ferritin, the major iron storage protein. A more accurate mapping of iron can be achieved via ultrastructural transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques, which involve stringent sample preparation conditions...
November 24, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870830/clonal-fate-mapping-quantifies-the-number-of%C3%A2-haematopoietic-stem-cells-that-arise-during%C3%A2-development
#3
Jonathan Henninger, Buyung Santoso, Stefan Hans, Ellen Durand, Jessica Moore, Christian Mosimann, Michael Brand, David Traver, Leonard Zon
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) arise in the developing aorta during embryogenesis. The number of HSC clones born has been estimated through transplantation, but experimental approaches to assess the absolute number of forming HSCs in a native setting have remained challenging. Here, we applied single-cell and clonal analysis of HSCs in zebrafish to quantify developing HSCs. Targeting creER(T2) in developing cd41:eGFP(+) HSCs enabled long-term assessment of their blood contribution. We also applied the Brainbow-based multicolour Zebrabow system with drl:creER(T2) that is active in early haematopoiesis to induce heritable colour barcoding unique to each HSC and its progeny...
November 21, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862933/patterns-in-response-to-chronic-terrorism-threats-a-construct-of-emotional-cognitive-and-behavioral-responses-among-israeli-citizens
#4
Keren Cohen-Louck, Yael Saka
Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men)...
November 10, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853617/homology-of-the-cranial-vault-in-birds-new-insights-based-on-embryonic-fate-mapping-and-character-analysis
#5
Hillary C Maddin, Nadine Piekarski, Elizabeth M Sefton, James Hanken
Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842955/t-cell-development-by-the-numbers
#6
REVIEW
Andreas Krueger, Natalia Ziętara, Marcin Łyszkiewicz
T cells are continually generated in the thymus in a highly dynamic process comprising discrete steps of lineage commitment, T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, and selection. These steps are linked to distinct rates of proliferation, survival, and cell death, but a quantitative picture of T cell development is only beginning to emerge. Here we summarize recent technical advances, including genetic fate mapping, barcoding, and molecular timers, that have allowed the implementation of computational models to quantify developmental dynamics in the thymus...
November 11, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834664/%C3%AE-sma-expressing-perivascular-cells-represent-dental-pulp-progenitors-in-vivo
#7
I Vidovic, A Banerjee, R Fatahi, B G Matthews, N A Dyment, I Kalajzic, M Mina
The goal of this study was to examine the contribution of perivascular cells to odontoblasts during the development, growth, and repair of dentin using mouse molars as a model. We used an inducible, Cre-loxP in vivo fate-mapping approach to examine the contributions of the descendants of cells expressing the αSMA-CreERT2 transgene to the odontoblast lineage. In vivo lineage-tracing experiments in molars showed the contribution of αSMA-tdTomato(+) cells to a small number of newly formed odontoblasts during primary dentinogenesis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834190/differentiated-smooth-muscle-cells-generate-a-subpopulation-of-resident-vascular-progenitor-cells-in-the-adventitia-regulated-by-klf4
#8
Mark W Majesky, Henrick Horita, Allison Ostriker, Sizhao Lu, Jenna N Regan, Ashim K Bagchi, Xiu R Dong, Joanna M Poczobutt, Raphael A Nemenoff, Mary C Weiser-Evans
RATIONALE: The vascular adventitia is a complex layer of the vessel wall consisting of vasa vasorum microvessels, nerves, fibroblasts, immune cells, and resident progenitor cells. Adventitial progenitors express the stem cell markers, Sca1 and CD34 (AdvSca1 cells), have the potential to differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages, and potentially contribute to intimal lesions in vivo. OBJECTIVE: While emerging data support the existence of AdvSca1 cells, the goal of this study was to determine their origin, degree of multipotency and/or heterogeneity, and contribution to vessel remodeling...
November 9, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816295/lead-bioaccumulation-in-opuntia-ficus-indica-following-foliar-or-root-exposure-to-lead-bearing-apatite
#9
Eliane El Hayek, Antoine El Samrani, Bruno Lartiges, Veronique Kazpard, Thierry Aigouy
The contamination of edible leafy vegetables by atmospheric heavy metal-bearing particles is a major issue in environmental toxicology. In this study, the uptake of lead by cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi), traditionally used in Mexican cuisine and in livestock fodder, is investigated after a 4-months exposure of either cladodes or roots to synthetic Pb-fluorapatite particles. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the quantitative analysis of Pb levels, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for the examination of the cladode surface and fate of particles, and Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements for elemental mapping of Pb in cladodes, were used...
November 2, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814740/spatio-temporal-profile-phenotypic-diversity-and-fate-of-recruited-monocytes-into-the-post-ischemic-brain
#10
Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Giuseppe Faraco, Jamie Moore, Michelle Murphy, Gianfranco Racchumi, Jayashree Srinivasan, David Brea, Costantino Iadecola, Josef Anrather
BACKGROUND: A key feature of the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia is the brain infiltration of blood monocytes. There are two main monocyte subsets in the mouse blood: CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) "inflammatory" monocytes involved in acute inflammation, and CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "patrolling" monocytes, which may play a role in repair processes. We hypothesized that CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes are recruited in the early phase after ischemia and transdifferentiate into CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "repair" macrophages in the brain...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812322/tamoxifen-in-the-mouse-brain-implications-for-fate-mapping-studies-using-the-tamoxifen-inducible-cre-loxp-system
#11
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Denisa Kirdajova, Zdenek Kamenik, Miroslava Anderova
The tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP system is widely used to overcome gene targeting pre-adult lethality, to modify a specific cell population at desired time-points, and to visualize and trace cells in fate-mapping studies. In this study we focused on tamoxifen degradation kinetics, because for all genetic fate-mapping studies, the period during which tamoxifen or its metabolites remain active in the CNS, is essential. Additionally, we aimed to define the tamoxifen administration scheme, enabling the maximal recombination rate together with minimal animal mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#12
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802171/cooperative-binding-of-ap-1-and-tead4-modulates-the-balance-between-vascular-smooth-muscle-and-hemogenic-cell-fate
#13
Nadine Obier, Pierre Cauchy, Salam A Assi, Jane Gilmour, Michael Lie-A-Ling, Monika Lichtinger, Maarten Hoogenkamp, Laura Noailles, Peter N Cockerill, Georges Lacaud, Valerie Kouskoff, Constanze Bonifer
The transmission of extracellular signals into the nucleus involves inducible transcription factors, but how different signalling pathways act in a cell type-specific fashion is poorly understood. Here, we studied the regulatory role of the AP-1 transcription factor family in blood development using embryonic stem cell differentiation coupled with genome-wide transcription factor binding and gene expression analyses. AP-1 factors respond to MAP kinase signalling and comprise dimers of FOS, ATF and JUN proteins...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798600/hypoxia-induces-heart-regeneration-in-adult-mice
#14
Yuji Nakada, Diana C Canseco, SuWannee Thet, Salim Abdisalaam, Aroumougame Asaithamby, Celio X Santos, Ajay Shah, Hua Zhang, James E Faber, Michael T Kinter, Luke I Szweda, Chao Xing, Ralph Deberardinis, Orhan Oz, Zhigang Lu, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Wataru Kimura, Hesham A Sadek
The adult mammalian heart is incapable of regeneration following cardiomyocyte loss, which underpins the devastating impact of cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has become clear that the mammalian heart is not a post-mitotic organ. For example, the neonatal heart is capable of regenerating lost myocardium(1), and the adult heart is capable of modest self-renewal(2,3). In both these scenarios, cardiomyocyte renewal occurs through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and is regulated by aerobic respiration-mediated oxidative DNA damage(4,5)...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789621/contribution-of-polycomb-group-proteins-to-olfactory-basal-stem-cell-self-renewal-in-a-novel-c-kit-culture-model-and-in-vivo
#15
Bradley J Goldstein, Garrett M Goss, Rhea Choi, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Joshua M Hare, Nirupa Chaudhari
Olfactory epithelium (OE) has a lifelong capacity for neurogenesis due to the presence of basal stem cells. Despite the ability to generate short-term cultures, the successful in vitro expansion of purified stem cells from adult OE has not been reported. We sought to establish expansion-competent OE stem cell cultures to facilitate further study of the mechanisms and cell populations important in OE renewal. Successful cultures were prepared using adult mouse basal cells selected for expression of c-KIT. We show that c-KIT signaling regulates self-renewal capacity and prevents neurodifferentiation in culture...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779190/single-cell-lineage-tracing-in-the-mammary-gland-reveals-stochastic-clonal-dispersion-of-stem-progenitor-cell-progeny
#16
Felicity M Davis, Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Olivia B Harris, Sarah Kozar, Douglas J Winton, Leila Muresan, Christine J Watson
The mammary gland undergoes cycles of growth and regeneration throughout reproductive life, a process that requires mammary stem cells (MaSCs). Whilst recent genetic fate-mapping studies using lineage-specific promoters have provided valuable insights into the mammary epithelial hierarchy, the true differentiation potential of adult MaSCs remains unclear. To address this, herein we utilize a stochastic genetic-labelling strategy to indelibly mark a single cell and its progeny in situ, combined with tissue clearing and 3D imaging...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777122/mapping-wild-type-and-r345w-fibulin-3-intracellular-interactomes
#17
John D Hulleman, Joseph C Genereux, Annie Nguyen
Fibulin-3 (F3) is an important, disulfide-rich, extracellular matrix glycoprotein that has been associated with a number of diseases ranging from cancer to retinal degeneration. An Arg345Trp (R345W) mutation in F3 causes the rare, autosomal dominant macular dystrophy, Malattia Leventinese. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate novel intracellular interacting partners of wild-type (WT) and R345W F3 in retinal pigment epithelium cells. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to generate 'heavy' and 'light' isotopically labeled ARPE-19 cell populations which were subsequently infected with adenovirus encoding for FLAG-tagged WT or R345W F3...
October 21, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776632/live-imaging-reveals-the-progenitors-and-cell-dynamics-of-limb-regeneration
#18
Frederike Alwes, Camille Enjolras, Michalis Averof
Regeneration is a complex and dynamic process, mobilizing diverse cell types and remodelling tissues over long time periods. Tracking cell fate and behaviour during regeneration in active adult animals is especially challenging. Here, we establish continuous live imaging of leg regeneration at single-cell resolution in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. By live recordings encompassing the first 4-5 days after amputation, we capture the cellular events that contribute to wound closure and morphogenesis of regenerating legs with unprecedented resolution and temporal detail...
October 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760341/clonal-proliferation-and-stochastic-pruning-orchestrate-lymph-node-vasculature-remodeling
#19
Isabelle Mondor, Audrey Jorquera, Cynthia Sene, Sahil Adriouch, Ralf Heinrich Adams, Bin Zhou, Stephan Wienert, Frederick Klauschen, Marc Bajénoff
Lymph node (LN) expansion during an immune response relies on the transient remodeling of its vasculature. Although the mechanisms driving LN endothelial cell division are beginning to be understood, a comprehensive view of LN endothelial cell dynamics at the single-cell level is lacking. Here, we used multicolored fluorescent fate-mapping models to track the behavior of blood endothelial cells during LN expansion upon inflammation and subsequent return to homeostasis. We found that expansion of the LN vasculature relied on the sequential assembly of endothelial cell proliferative units...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752364/p53-regulates-disruption-of-neuronal-development-in-the-adult-hippocampus-after-irradiation
#20
Y-Q Li, Zw-C Cheng, Sk-W Liu, I Aubert, C S Wong
Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in neurocognitive dysfunction after cranial irradiation for brain tumors. How irradiation results in impaired neuronal development remains poorly understood. The Trp53 (p53) gene is known to regulate cellular DNA damage response after irradiation. Whether it has a role in disruption of late neuronal development remains unknown. Here we characterized the effects of p53 on neuronal development in adult mouse hippocampus after irradiation. Different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms and a transplantation study were used for cell fate mapping...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
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