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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448197/surgical-site-infections-and-associated-operative-characteristics
#1
Paul K Waltz, Brian S Zuckerbraun
Surgical site infection (SSI) contributes significantly to surgical morbidity. Patient factors and operative factors contribute to the risk of development of SSI. This review focuses on understanding operative characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of SSI. Much attention has been given to protocol care to reduce SSI, such as hair removal, skin preparation, and pre-operative antibiotic agents. Even with this, the appropriate antibiotic and re-dosing regimens often remain a challenge. Other operative factors such as blood loss/transfusion, emergency/urgent cases, duration of the operation, type of anesthesia, and resident involvement are also potentially modifiable to reduce the risk of SSI...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447433/serum-vitamin-d-level-is-related-to-disease-severity-in-pediatric-alopecia-areata
#2
Mehmet Unal, Gulsum Gonulalan
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is the most common cause of inflammatory hair loss. AA is considered an autoimmune disease and occurs with various autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have revealed connection between autoimmune diseases and vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated vitamin D status in AA and its relationship with disease severity, number of patches, and disease duration. METHODS: This study included 20 pediatric patients with AA and 34 pediatric healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446866/the-contribution-of-immune-infiltrates-to-ototoxicity-and-cochlear-hair-cell-loss
#3
REVIEW
Megan B Wood, Jian Zuo
Cells of the immune system have been shown to infiltrate the cochlea after acoustic trauma or ototoxic drug treatment; however, the contribution of the immune system to hair cell loss in the inner ear is incompletely understood. Most studies have concentrated on the immediate innate response to hair cell damage using CD45 as a broad marker for all immune cells. More recent studies have used RNA sequencing, GeneChip arrays and quantitative PCR to analyze gene expression in the entire cochlea after auditory trauma, leading to a better understanding of the chemokines and cytokines that attract immune cells to the cochlea...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444757/hypocobalaminaemia-as-a-cause-of-bone-marrow-failure-and-pancytopenia-in-a-cat
#4
E L Stanley, A E Eatroff
CASE REPORT: A male Domestic Short-hair cat was presented for chronic weight loss, lethargy and hyporexia. Complete haematological examination revealed non-regenerative anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as Howell-Jolly bodies, anisocytosis, polychromasia and macrocytosis on blood smear evaluation. Histopathological evaluation of bone marrow biopsy disclosed hypocellularity consistent with bone marrow failure. Concurrent hypocobalaminaemia was identified and treated with parenteral cyanocobalamin supplementation...
May 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442873/anagen-effluvium-following-acute-colchicine-poisoning
#5
Andrea Combalia, Carola Baliu-Piqué, Adriana Fortea, Juan Ferrando
We present a case of a 17-year-old girl admitted to the Psychiatric Department recovering from a suicide attempt with colchicine. One week after poisoning, a sudden onset of hair loss was observed. Positive hair pull test and trichoscopy demonstrated the presence of anagen hairs with pigmented long roots covered by the root sheaths. Colchicine poisoning is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening toxicologic emergency. An overdose of colchicine inhibits cell division, and thus the most affected organs are those which have a high rate of cell turnover...
October 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442525/korean-monozygotic-twins-with-lethal-acantholytic-epidermolysis-bullosa-caused-by-two-novel-dsp-mutations
#6
Se Jin Kim, Jung Min Ko, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim, Kyung-A Lee
Desmoplakin is an essential cytoplasmic plaque protein in desmosomes, and it is the major linker between intercellular junctions in the skin and heart. The role of desmoplakin is anchoring transmembrane cadherins to cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. The desmoplakin gene (DSP) is located on chromosome 6, and six common allelic disorders are associated with this gene, including autosomal-dominant or -recessive disorders that affect the skin, heart, hair, and nails. In particular, lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa (LAEB) is an autosomal recessively inherited and extremely rare genetic skin disorder, and only three molecularly confirmed families with LAEB have been reported previously...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440437/autophagy-related-protein-12-associates-with-anti-apoptotic-b-cell-lymphoma-2-to-promote-apoptosis-in-gentamicin-induced-inner-ear-hair-cell-loss
#7
Xiaofeng Ma, Yongze Liu, Waqas Muhammad, Dingding Liu, Junguo Wang, Han Zhou, Xia Gao, Xiaoyun Qian
The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of autophagy in a gentamicin (GM)-induced ototoxic model, and to establish whether the blocking of autophagy significantly increases the survival of inner ear hair cells. Cochleae were carefully dissected from four day‑old C57BL/6J mice and randomly divided into three groups prior to explant culture: Control (culture medium), GM‑treated (culture medium + GM) and GM + 3-methyladenine (3-MA; culture medium + GM + 3‑MA). Transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and western blotting were performed to observe the expression of the autophagy protein microtubule‑associated protein 1A/B‑light chain 3 in explant cultures treated with GM and the autophagy inhibitor 3‑MA...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440257/managing-multiple-caterpillar-hair-in-the-eye
#8
Manisha Agarwal, Manisha C Acharya, Shahana Majumdar, Lagan Paul
Ophthalmia nodosa with vitreoretinal involvement is rare and may cause permanent loss of eye due to persistent inflammation of the eye. A young female patient having multiple caterpillar hair in the eye including cornea, anterior chamber, sclera, and pars plana presented with recurrent vitritis and pars planitis. Ultrasound biomicroscopy played a vital role and helped in localizing the hair embedded in the pars plana region which were managed by pars plana vitrectomy leading to complete recovery.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439223/outer-hair-cell-and-auditory-nerve-function-in-speech-recognition-in-quiet-and-in-background-noise
#9
Richard Hoben, Gifty Easow, Sofia Pevzner, Mark A Parker
The goal of this study was to describe the contribution of outer hair cells (OHCs) and the auditory nerve (AN) to speech understanding in quiet and in the presence of background noise. Fifty-three human subjects with hearing ranging from normal to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were assayed for both speech in quiet (Word Recognition) and speech in noise (QuickSIN test) performance. Their scores were correlated with OHC function as assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and AN function as measured by amplitude, latency, and threshold of the VIIIth cranial nerve Compound Action Potential (CAP) recorded during electrocochleography (ECochG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438658/antioxidants-reduce-neurodegeneration-and-accumulation-of-pathologic-tau-proteins-in-the-auditory-system-after-blast-exposure
#10
Xiaoping Du, Matthew B West, Qunfeng Cai, Weihua Cheng, Donald L Ewert, Wei Li, Robert A Floyd, Richard D Kopke
Cochlear neurodegeneration commonly accompanies hair cell loss resulting from aging, ototoxicity, or exposures to intense noise or blast overpressures. However, the precise pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this degenerative response have not been fully elucidated. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-transgenic rats exposed to blast overpressures exhibited marked somatic accumulation of neurotoxic variants of the microtubule-associated protein, Tau, in the hippocampus. In the present study, we extended these analyses to examine neurodegeneration and pathologic Tau accumulation in the auditory system in response to blast exposure and evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants on short-circuiting this pathological process...
April 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437273/assessing-sensorineural-hearing-loss-using-various-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emission-stimulus-conditions
#11
Daniel B Putterman, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Angela C Garinis, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Garnett P McMillan, M Patrick Feeney
OBJECTIVES: An important clinical application of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is to evaluate cochlear outer hair cell function for the purpose of detecting sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Double-evoked TEOAEs were measured using a chirp stimulus, in which the stimuli had an extended frequency range compared to clinical tests. The present study compared TEOAEs recorded using an unweighted stimulus presented at either ambient pressure or tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) in the ear canal and TEOAEs recorded using a power-weighted stimulus at ambient pressure...
April 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437267/reconstruction-of-pediatric-scalp-avulsion-injuries-after-dog-bites
#12
Zhi Yang Ng, Kyle R Eberlin, Tianyu Lin, Peter T Masiakos, Curtis L Cetrulo
Dog bite injuries are common and the head and neck is most frequently involved in pediatric patients. In severe cases, the combination of crushing, tearing, and puncturing can result in scalp avulsion. Currently, microsurgical replantation of the avulsed scalp remains the gold standard but may not always be possible. The authors present their treatment algorithm with 2 patient examples. In Patient 1, the scalp was deemed unsuitable for replantation due to extensive soft tissue injury; in Patient 2, the scalp was not available on presentation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436246/histopathologic-changes-of-human-vestibular-epithelia-in-intralabyrinthine-hemorrhage
#13
Serdar Kaya, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intralabyrinthine hemorrhage affects vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells in human temporal bones. METHODS: We examined 9 temporal bone specimens from 9 deceased donors with unilateral intralabyrinthine hemorrhage (the hemorrhage group) along with their 9 contralateral temporal bone specimens without hemorrhage (the control group). We estimated the density of type I and type II hair cells in all peripheral sensorial organs (including the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as the maculae of the saccule and utricle)...
June 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436024/hair-diameter-evaluation-in-different-regions-of-the-safe-donor-area-in-asian-populations
#14
Jae H Park, Jae M Park, Na R Kim, Kotchamol Manonukul
BACKGROUND: There is little information about how hair diameter differences within the safe donor area. Thicker or thinner hair may be needed depending on the recipient area, hairline design, and surgical purpose. METHODS: Thirty-eight non-alopecic subjects (19 males and 19 females) were evaluated. The safe donor area was defined as the area contained within 28 cm from the horizontal plane of the upper border of the hair rim to the vertical line of the bilateral external acoustic meatus...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435477/acrodermatitis-enteropathica-in-a-pair-of-twins
#15
Abdullatif Al Rashed, Mohja Al Shehri, Feroze Kaliyadan
BACKGROUND: Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. First described by Brandt in 1936 and was named by Danbolt. A mutation in the SLC39A4 gene on chromosome 8 q24.3 is responsible for this disorder, which encodes zinc transporter Zip4. The diagnosis is made by the clinical presentation and histopathology and laboratory tests. In this case, we reported a twin presented with a typical rash and low zinc level. To our knowledge, very few cases reported as a twin with typical acrodermatitis enteropathica presentation...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434043/early-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-primary-cns-lymphoma-negative-impact-on-quality-of-life-in-the-randomized-g-pcnsl-sg1-trial
#16
Ulrich Herrlinger, Niklas Schäfer, Rolf Fimmers, Frank Griesinger, Michael Rauch, Heinz Kirchen, Patrick Roth, Martin Glas, Michael Bamberg, Peter Martus, Eckhard Thiel, Agnieszka Korfel, Michael Weller
PURPOSE: In the randomized G-PCNSL-SG-1 trial, the addition of whole brain radiotherapy (45 Gy) to high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy (early WBRT arm) did not prolong overall survival (OS) as compared to HD-MTX-based chemotherapy alone (no early WBRT arm) in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. To determine whether WBRT might lead to quality of life (QoL)-relevant late neurotoxicity, this trial prospectively monitored QoL. METHODS: QoL measurements were performed using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and BN20 questionnaires and combined with repeated Mini Mental State Examinations (MMSE)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432872/human-effector-memory-t-helper-cells-engage-with-mouse-macrophages-and-cause-graft-versus-host-like-pathology-in-skin-of-humanized-mice-used-in-a-nonclinical-immunization-study
#17
Bala S Sundarasetty, Valery Volk, Sebastian J Theobald, Susanne Rittinghausen, Dirk Schaudien, Vanessa Neuhaus, Constanca Figueiredo, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Adele Mucci, Thomas Moritz, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Loukia M Spineli, Katherina Sewald, Armin Braun, Henning Weigt, Arnold Ganser, Renata Stripecke
Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and developing functional human T-cell adaptive responses are in critical demand to test human-specific therapeutics. We previously showed that humanized mice immunized with long-lived induced-dendritic cells loaded with the pp65 viral antigen (iDCpp65) exhibited a faster development and maturation of T cells. Herein, we evaluated these effects in a long-term (36 weeks) nonclinical model using two stem cell donors to assess efficacy and safety. Relative to baseline, iDCpp65 immunization boosted the output of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432593/talking-about-breast-cancer-which-symptoms-and-treatment-side-effects-are-important-to-patients-with-advanced-disease
#18
Anna Niklasson, Jean Paty, Anna Rydén
BACKGROUND: Patients' experience of symptoms and associated treatment is an increasingly important consideration in both regulatory and health technology assessments, and can inform treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to gain insight directly from patients with advanced breast cancer about which symptoms and treatment side effects are important to them. METHODS: Women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer were interviewed individually by trained interviewers, using a semi-structured interview guide...
April 21, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432353/severe-hearing-loss-and-outer-hair-cell-death-in-homozygous-foxo3-knockout-mice-after-moderate-noise-exposure
#19
Felicia Gilels, Stephen T Paquette, Holly J Beaulac, Anwen Bullen, Patricia M White
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429999/beneficial-effects-of-oral-supplementation-with-ovoderm-on-human-skin-physiology-two-pilot-studies
#20
Andrés Aguirre, Erena Gil-Quintana, Marisa Fenaux, Sandra Erdozain, Itziar Sarria
Collagens and hyaluronic acid have long been used in pharmaceuticals and food supplements for the improvement of skin elasticity and hydration. These compounds provide the building blocks of the skin. Ovoderm is an oral supplement obtained from eggshells that contains naturally occurring collagen and glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid. We evaluated the efficacy of Ovoderm on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging such as elasticity, hydration, and pigmentation. Two pilot studies were run to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with 300 mg Ovoderm on skin parameters...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
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