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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087419/cochlear-synaptopathy-in-acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-manifestations-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
M Charles Liberman, Sharon G Kujawa
Common causes of hearing loss in humans - exposure to loud noise or ototoxic drugs and aging - often damage sensory hair cells, reflected as elevated thresholds on the clinical audiogram. Recent studies in animal models suggest, however, that well before this overt hearing loss can be seen, a more insidious, but likely more common, process is taking place that permanently interrupts synaptic communication between sensory inner hair cells and subsets of cochlear nerve fibers. The silencing of affected neurons alters auditory information processing, whether accompanied by threshold elevations or not, and is a likely contributor to a variety of perceptual abnormalities, including speech-in-noise difficulties, tinnitus and hyperacusis...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086997/enamel-renal-syndrome-in-2-patients-with-a-mutation-in-fam20-a-and-atypical-hypertrichosis-and-hearing-loss-phenotypes
#2
Sabina Pena B Pêgo, Ricardo D Coletta, Simona Dumitriu, Daniela Iancu, Saleh Albanyan, Robert Kleta, Maria Teresa Auricchio, Luis Antônio Santos, Breno Rocha, Hercílio Martelli-Júnior
Enamel-renal syndrome (OMIM #204690) is an uncommon disorder characterized by amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis and is caused by mutations in FAM20 A. We report 2 patients with enamel-renal syndrome who exhibited the typical features of this syndrome and a homozygous nonsense mutation in the FAM20 A gene (c.406 C>T), genetically confirming the diagnosis. They also exhibited 2 undescribed clinical features, hypertrichosis and hearing loss. Alterations in genes frequently associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in the Brazilian population, including connexin 26 (GJB2), connexin 30 (GJB6) and mitochondrial 12 S rRNA (m...
February 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078868/minoxidil-dose-response-study-in-female-pattern-hair-loss-patients-determined-to-be-non-responders-to-5-topical-minoxidil
#3
J McCoy, A Goren, M Kovacevic, J Shapiro
Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078214/pharmacology-of-testosterone-replacement-therapy-preparations
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer J Shoskes, Meghan K Wilson, Michael L Spinner
The goal of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is to return serum testosterone levels to within physiologic range and improve symptoms in hypogonadal men. Some of the symptoms aimed to improve upon include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, hot flashes, depressed mood, and loss of muscle mass or hair. Clinical use of testosterone for replacement therapy began approximately 70 years ago. Over the decades, numerous preparations and formulations have been developed primarily focusing on different routes of delivery and thus pharmacokinetics (PKs)...
December 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077706/connexin-mediated-signaling-in-nonsensory-cells-is-crucial-for-the-development-of-sensory-inner-hair-cells-in-the-mouse-cochlea
#5
Stuart L Johnson, Federico Ceriani, Oliver Houston, Roman Polishchuk, Elena Polishchuk, Giulia Crispino, Veronica Zorzi, Fabio Mammano, Walter Marcotti
: Mutations in the genes encoding for gap junction proteins connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) have been linked to syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss in mice and humans. The release of ATP from connexin hemichannels in cochlear nonsensory cells has been proposed to be the main trigger for action potential activity in immature sensory inner hair cells (IHCs), which is crucial for the refinement of the developing auditory circuitry. Using connexin knock-out mice, we show that IHCs fire spontaneous action potentials even in the absence of ATP-dependent intercellular Ca(2+) signaling in the nonsensory cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068659/hearing-loss-after-round-window-surgery-in-mice-is-due-to-middle-ear-effusion
#7
Bovey Z Zhu, Jasmine Saleh, Kevin T Isgrig, Lisa L Cunningham, Wade W Chien
BACKGROUND: Delivery of therapeutic agents directly through the round window (RW) offers promise for treating sensorineural hearing loss. However, hearing loss can result from the surgical approach itself, and the reasons for this are poorly understood. We examined the hearing loss following the 3 major steps involved with the RW approach to access the mouse cochlea: bullostomy, RW puncture, and RW injection. METHODS: Twenty-one adult CBA/J mice underwent bullostomy alone, 10 underwent RW puncture, and 8 underwent RW injection with PBS with 5% glycerol...
January 10, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068302/first-report-linear-incision-for-placement-of-a-magnetically-coupled-bone-anchored-hearing-implant
#8
Jonnae Y Barry, Saranya Reghunathan, Abraham Jacob
OBJECTIVES: Discuss use of a linear incision for placement of a magnetically coupled bone anchored hearing implant. METHODS: Case series. RESULTS: Two patients underwent placement of magnetically coupled bone-anchored hearing implants (BAHI) through linear incisions. The first, a 40-year-old female with congenital single-sided deafness, previously had successful implantation of a percutaneous bone anchored hearing implant through a linear incision; unfortunately, she developed pain and intermittent drainage at her abutment site with time, resulting in a request for removal of her device...
February 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062185/allicin-protects-auditory-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-from-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis
#9
Xianmin Wu, Xiaofei Li, Yongdong Song, He Li, Xiaohui Bai, Wenwen Liu, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Jianfeng Li, Daogong Zhang, Haibo Wang, Zhaomin Fan
Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is commonly used in the clinic. Ototoxicity is one of the major side effects of this drug, which caused irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities in vitro and in vivo studies. We took advantage of C57 mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin alone or with cisplatin and allicin combined, to investigate whether allicin plays a protective role in vivo against cisplatin ototoxicity...
January 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061966/new-treatments-for-hair-loss
#10
S Vañó-Galván, F Camacho
The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy...
January 3, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058271/remodeling-of-the-inner-hair-cell-microtubule-meshwork-in-a-mouse-model-of-auditory-neuropathy-auna1
#11
Clément Surel, Marie Guillet, Marc Lenoir, Jérôme Bourien, Gaston Sendin, Willy Joly, Benjamin Delprat, Marci M Lesperance, Jean-Luc Puel, Régis Nouvian
Auditory neuropathy 1 (AUNA1) is a form of human deafness resulting from a point mutation in the 5' untranslated region of the Diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) gene. Notably, the DIAPH3 mutation leads to the overexpression of the DIAPH3 protein, a formin family member involved in cytoskeleton dynamics. Through study of diap3-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice, we examine in further detail the anatomical, functional, and molecular mechanisms underlying AUNA1. We identify diap3 as a component of the hair cells apical pole in wild-type mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049063/activity-of-pericampylus-glaucus-and-periglaucine-a-in-vitro-against-nasopharangeal-carcinoma-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Fiona Natalia Shipton, Teng-Jin Khoo, Md Shahadat Hossan, Christophe Wiart
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: P. glaucus is a climbing plant found across Asia and used in traditional medicine to treat a number of conditions including splenomegaly, fever, cough, laryngitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, headache, hair loss, snake bite, boar bite, factures, boils, tumours, tetanus, rheumatic pain, itches and eclampsia. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test extracts of P. glaucus in a number of bioassays and determine the legitimacy of its traditional use...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045822/fabrication-of-an-orbital-prosthesis-combined-with-eyebrow-transplantation
#13
Banu Karayazgan-Saracoglu, Azimet Ozdemir
Fabrication of an orbital prosthesis is considered as a challenging procedure as compared to the other facial prosthesis due to the presence of inactive eye movements and the need of artificial hair in order to mimic eyelashes and eyebrows. Generally these structures are sewed or bonded in the silicone. However, deformation or hair loss is observed within time. This deformation is visible especially in the eyebrow. This clinical report represents a patient with an implant supported orbital prosthesis. Patient was not satisfied with the nature of her eyebrow that was sewed in the silicone...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038939/skin-fragility-in-the-wild-derived-inbred-mouse-strain-mus-pahari-eij
#14
C Herbert Pratt, Christopher S Potter, Thomas J Sproule, Raoul V Kuiper, Son Yong Karst, Soheil S Dadras, Derry C Roopenian, John P Sundberg
Mus pahari is a wild-derived, inbred mouse strain. M. pahari colony managers observed fragility of this strain's skin resulting in separation of tail skin from the mouse if handled incorrectly. Tail skin tension testing of M. pahari resulted in significantly lowered force threshold for caudal skin rupture and loss in comparison to closely related inbred mouse species and subspecies and even more than a model for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Histologically, the tail skin separated at the subdermal level with the dermis firmly attached to the epidermis, excluding the epidermolysis bullosa complex of diseases...
December 27, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034618/adenosine-receptors-regulate-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-neural-injury-in-the-mouse-cochlea-and-hearing-loss
#15
Srdjan M Vlajkovic, Kaushi Ambepitiya, Meagan Barclay, Detlev Boison, Gary D Housley, Peter R Thorne
Our previous studies have shown that the stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors in the inner ear can mitigate the loss of sensory hair cells and hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise. Here, we focus on the role of adenosine receptors (AR) in the development of noise-induced neural injury in the cochlea using A1AR and A2AAR null mice (A1AR(-/-) and A2AAR(-/-)). Wildtype (WT) and AR deficient mice were exposed to octave band noise (8-16 kHz, 100 dB SPL) for 2 hours to induce cochlear injury and hearing loss...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034617/cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-after-noise-induced-hearing-loss-does-regeneration-follow-development
#16
REVIEW
Fei Zheng, Jian Zuo
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) affects a large number of military personnel and civilians. Regenerating inner-ear cochlear hair cells (HCs) is a promising strategy to restore hearing after NIHL. In this review, we first summarize recent transcriptome profile analysis of zebrafish lateral lines and chick utricles where spontaneous HC regeneration occurs after HC damage. We then discuss recent studies in other mammalian regenerative systems such as pancreas, heart and central nervous system. Both spontaneous and forced HC regeneration occurs in mammalian cochleae in vivo involving proliferation and direct lineage conversion...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031293/the-roles-of-ush1-proteins-and-pdz-domain-containing-ush-proteins-in-ush2-complex-integrity-in-cochlear-hair-cells
#17
Junhuang Zou, Qian Chen, Ali Almishaal, Pranav Dinesh Mathur, Tihua Zheng, Cong Tian, Qing Y Zheng, Jun Yang
Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of inherited deaf-blindness, manifested as USH1, USH2 and USH3 clinical types. The protein products of USH2 causative and modifier genes, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN and PDZD7, interact to assemble a multiprotein complex at the ankle link region of the mechanosensitive stereociliary bundle in hair cells. Defects in this complex cause stereociliary bundle disorganization and hearing loss. The four USH2 proteins also interact in vitro with USH1 proteins including myosin VIIa, USH1G (SANS), CIB2 and harmonin...
December 28, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030792/genomic-expression-differences-between-cutaneous-cells-from-red-hair-color-individuals-and-black-hair-color-individuals-based-on-bioinformatic-analysis
#18
Joan Anton Puig-Butille, Pol Gimenez-Xavier, Alessia Visconti, Jérémie Nsengimana, Francisco Garcia-García, Gemma Tell-Marti, Maria José Escamez, Julia Newton-Bishop, Veronique Bataille, Marcela Del Río, Joaquín Dopazo, Mario Falchi, Susana Puig
The MC1R gene plays a crucial role in pigmentation synthesis. Loss-of-function MC1R variants, which impair protein function, are associated with red hair color (RHC) phenotype and increased skin cancer risk. Cultured cutaneous cells bearing loss-of-function MC1R variants show a distinct gene expression profile compared to wild-type MC1R cultured cutaneous cells. We analysed the gene signature associated with RHC co-cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes by Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) network analysis to identify genes related with non-functional MC1R variants...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030585/organ-of-corti-and-stria-vascularis-is-there-an-interdependence-for-survival
#19
Huizhan Liu, Yi Li, Lei Chen, Qian Zhang, Ning Pan, David H Nichols, Weiping J Zhang, Bernd Fritzsch, David Z Z He
Cochlear hair cells and the stria vascularis are critical for normal hearing. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, whereas the stria is responsible for generating the endocochlear potential (EP), which is the driving force for hair cell mechanotransduction. We questioned whether hair cells and the stria interdepend for survival by using two mouse models. Atoh1 conditional knockout mice, which lose all hair cells within four weeks after birth, were used to determine whether the absence of hair cells would affect function and survival of stria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029683/alopecia-areata-incognita-in-cronkhite-canada-syndrome
#20
S Ong, C Rodriguez-Garcia, S Grabczynska, J Carton, M Osborn, J Walters, F Kubba, C M Stefanato
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is an acquired inflammatory polyposis syndrome in which alopecia, onychomadesis and hyperpigmentation occur concurrently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The pathophysiology of alopecia in Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome has not been definitively elucidated and we present evidence for alopecia incognita as a possible mechanism of hair loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 28, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
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