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Gender identity disorder

Geoffrey M Reed, Jack Drescher, Richard B Krueger, Elham Atalla, Susan D Cochran, Michael B First, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Iván Arango-de Montis, Sharon J Parish, Sara Cottler, Peer Briken, Shekhar Saxena
In the World Health Organization's forthcoming eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), substantial changes have been proposed to the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders related to sexuality and gender identity. These concern the following ICD-10 disorder groupings: F52 Sexual dysfunctions, not caused by organic disorder or disease; F64 Gender identity disorders; F65 Disorders of sexual preference; and F66 Psychological and behavioural disorders associated with sexual development and orientation...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, Peggy Cohen Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Angela Ann Joseph, Bindu Kulshreshtha, Iram Shabir, Eunice Marumudi, Tony Sam George, Rajesh Sagar, Manju Mehta, Ariachery C Ammini
Children with disorders of sex development (DSD) manifest at birth with malformed genitalia or later with atypical pubertal development. Those born with malformed genitalia are often diagnosed at birth. However, in resource-poor countries like India, where not all births are supervised by healthcare workers, some of these children remain undiagnosed until puberty or even later. The aim of this study was to assess the gender issues and psychosocial problems of children with DSD. Participants included 205 children with DSD (103 with 46,XX DSD and 102 with 46,XY DSD)...
September 20, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Melanie Bechard, Doug P VanderLaan, Hayley Wood, Lori Wasserman, Kenneth J Zucker
For adolescents with gender dysphoria, it has become common to be offered hormonal treatment to either delay or suppress pubertal development and/or to masculinize or feminize the body. At the same time, it has been our clinical impression that the psychological vulnerability of at least some of these youth has been overlooked. Fifty consecutive referrals of adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) constituted the sample. Information obtained at intake was coded for the presence or absence of 15 psychosocial and psychological vulnerability factors...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Jaclyn M White Hughto, Sari L Reisner
OBJECTIVES: To review evidence from prospective cohort studies of the relationship between hormone therapy and changes in psychological functioning and quality of life in transgender individuals accessing hormone therapy over time. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies from inception to November 2014. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched. RESULTS: Three uncontrolled prospective cohort studies, enrolling 247 transgender adults (180 male-to-female [MTF], 67 female-to-male [FTM]) initiating hormone therapy for the treatment of gender identity disorder (prior diagnostic term for gender dysphoria), were identified...
January 2016: Transgend Health
Nina Callens, Maaike Van Kuyk, Jet H van Kuppenveld, Stenvert L S Drop, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Arianne B Dessens
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population...
August 27, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Barbara Kiesewetter, Julius Lukas, Werner Dolak, Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp, Marius E Mayerhoefer, Markus Raderer
OBJECTIVES: Gender-related aspects have been investigated in a variety of tumor entities including results on sex-specific differences in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, there are no data on gender differences in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. METHODS: We have analyzed 327 patients treated between 1999 and 2015 with a median follow-up time of 55.2 months. RESULTS: There was a female predominance, with 197 female (60.2%) and 130 male patients (39...
August 23, 2016: Oncology
Maureen D Connolly, Marcus J Zervos, Charles J Barone, Christine C Johnson, Christine L M Joseph
This review provides an update on the growing body of research related to the mental health of transgender youth that has emerged since the 2011 publication of the Institute of Medicine report on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. The databases PubMed and Ovid Medline were searched for studies that were published from January 2011 to March 2016 in English. The following search terms were used: transgender, gender nonconforming, gender minority, gender queer, and gender dysphoria. Age limits included the terms youth, child, children, teenager*, and adolescen*...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
A Milner, L Krnjacki, A D LaMontagne
OBJECTIVES: Perceived social support is associated with better mental health. There has been limited attention to how these relationships are modified by age and gender. We assessed this topic using 13 years of cohort data. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: The outcome was the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5), a reliable and valid screening instrument for mood disorders. The main exposure was a social support scale composed of 10 items...
August 12, 2016: Public Health
Allegra R Gordon, S Bryn Austin, Nancy Krieger, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Sari L Reisner
The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income <$10,000; ethnic identity: Multiracial [n = 8], Black [n = 4], Latina [n = 4], White [n = 4], Asian [n = 1])...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shoko Sasaki, Koken Ozaki, Shinji Yamagata, Yusuke Takahashi, Chizuru Shikishima, Tamara Kornacki, Koichi Nonaka, Juko Ando
The present study examined: (1) gender and age differences of mean gender identity disorder (GID) trait scores in Japanese twins; (2) the validity of the prenatal hormone transfer theory, which predicts that, in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, twins with an opposite-gender co-twin more frequently exhibit GID traits than twins with a same-gender co-twin; and (3) the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on GID traits as a function of age and gender. Data from 1450 male twin pairs, 1882 female twin pairs, and 1022 DZ male-female pairs ranging from 3 to 26 years of age were analyzed...
October 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Farnoosh Safavifar, Mehrdad Eftekhar, Kaveh Alavi, Reza Negarandeh, Amir Hossein Jalali, Maryam Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Gender identity disorder and its treatment with sex reassignment surgery is a profound experience, which can affect the mental, interpersonal, social and religious aspects of one's life. METHODS: This was a qualitative content analysis study focusing on the various dimensions of the experiences of seven patients suffering from gender identity disorder in a female-to-male subgroup. This study presents a report concerning the religious aspects of their experience...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Sam Winter, Griet De Cuypere, Jamison Green, Robert Kane, Gail Knudson
ICD-11 (the eleventh edition of the World Health Organization International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) is due for approval in 2018. For transgender health care, the most important proposals for ICD-11 are as follows: (1) the five ICD-10 diagnoses (most notably Transsexualism and Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood) currently in Chapter 5 (Mental and Behavioural Disorders) will be replaced by two Gender Incongruence diagnoses, one of Adolescence and Adulthood and the other of Childhood (GIC), and (2) these two diagnoses will be located in a new chapter provisionally named Conditions Related to Sexual Health...
October 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Sven C Mueller, Lionel Landré, Katrien Wierckx, Guy T'Sjoen
BACKGROUND: To date, research findings are inconsistent about whether neuroanatomy in transgender persons resembles that of their natal sex or their gender identity. Moreover, few studies have examined the effects of long-term, cross-sex hormonal treatment on neuroanatomy in this cohort. The purpose of the present study was to examine neuroanatomical differences in transgender persons after prolonged cross-sex hormone therapy. METHODS: Eighteen transgender men (female-to-male), 17 transgender women (male-to-female), 30 non-transgender men (natal men), and 27 non-transgender women (natal women) completed a high-resolution structural MRI scan at 3Tesla...
August 5, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Fahimeh Kalbasi-Isfahani, Mohsen Deleer
BACKGROUND: The "Sex-Reassignment Surgery" is a solution that besides behavioral therapy has been suggested to people suffering from gender identity disorders in recent years. In Iran, this trend has become more popular over the past years due to the inclination to reach to the goal rapidly with less effort and also the surgery has attracted many patients with the problem. Religious clerics have tried to determine the religious doctrines for this practice and as a result a group of them favor an absolute permission while others choose prohibition and some of them favor a middle path...
July 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
Rebeca Robles, Ana Fresán, Hamid Vega-Ramírez, Jeremy Cruz-Islas, Victor Rodríguez-Pérez, Tecelli Domínguez-Martínez, Geoffrey M Reed
BACKGROUND: The conceptualisation of transgender identity as a mental disorder has contributed to precarious legal status, human rights violations, and barriers to appropriate health care among transgender people. The proposed reconceptualisation of categories related to transgender identity in WHO's forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 removes categories related to transgender identity from the classification of mental disorders, in part based on the idea that these conditions do not satisfy the definitional requirements of mental disorders...
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Albert Espelt, Marc Marí-Dell'Olmo, Eva Penelo, Marina Bosque-Prous
OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C)...
June 14, 2016: Adicciones
D R M A Højgaard, E L Mortensen, T Ivarsson, K Hybel, G Skarphedinsson, J B Nissen, R Valderhaug, K Dahl, B Weidle, N C Torp, M Grados, A B Lewin, K H Melin, E A Storch, L H Wolters, T K Murphy, E J S Sonuga-Barke, P H Thomsen
The underlying structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains to be confirmed in child and adolescent populations. In this paper we report the first factor analytic study of individual OCD items from Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). OCD symptoms were assessed using the CY-BOCS symptom checklist in a sample of 854 patients with OCD (7-18 years of age) recruited from clinics in five countries. Pooled data were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify the optimal factor structure...
July 7, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Arushi Gangaher, Vasundhera Chauhan, Viveka P Jyotsna, Manju Mehta
BACKGROUND: Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may pose a challenge to live as a fully-functioning male or female. In this study, we prospectively assessed eleven 46 XY DSD patients who were being treated at our center over the last 8 months for gender dysphoria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine gender dysphoria, age-appropriate gender identity (GI) questionnaires were used. For patients, 12 years and below, parent report GI questionnaire for children was used and for those above 12 years of age, GI/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults was administered...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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