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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098594/mediators-of-diabetic-neuropathy-is-hyperglycemia-the-only-culprit
#1
Anna Grisold, Brian C Callaghan, Eva L Feldman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a disabling, highly prevalent complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). Large clinical studies support the concept that, in addition to hyperglycemia, components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may underlie the pathogenesis of DPN, especially in T2DM. This review will present the evidence supporting the MetS and its individual components as potential causal factors for the development of neuropathy...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098353/the-role-of-various-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-ligands-in-clinical-practice
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Derosa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Pamela Maffioli
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in several physiological processes including modulation of cellular differentiation, development, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to examine how different PPAR ligands act, and discuss their use in clinical practice. PPAR ligands have a lot of effects and applications in clinical practice. Some PPAR ligands such as fibrates (PPAR-α ligands) are currently used for the treatment of dyslipidemia, while pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ ligands) are anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing agents...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098067/renal-function-in-type-2-diabetes-following-gastric-bypass
#3
Adrian T Billeter, Stefan Kopf, Martin Zeier, Katharina Scheurlen, Lars Fischer, Thilo M Schulte, Hannes G Kenngott, Barbara Israel, Philipp Knefeli, Markus W Büchler, Peter P Nawroth, Beat P Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Metabolic surgery for obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) yields short- and long-term remission rates of 60-90%. Its effects on diabetesassociated complications such as neuropathy and nephropathy have not been well studied to date. Hardly any data are available on this subject with respect to moderately obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 25-35 kg/m2) with insulin-dependent T2D. Our previous studies suggest that, in such patients, treatment with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves diabetic neuropathy...
December 9, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097815/urinary-bisphenol-a-concentration-and-risk-of-central-obesity-in-chinese-adults-a-prospective-study
#4
Mingli Hao, Lin Ding, Liping Xuan, Tiange Wang, Mian Li, Zhiyun Zhao, Jieli Lu, Yu Xu, Yuhong Chen, Weiqing Wang, Yufang Bi, Min Xu, Guang Ning
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have associated bisphenol A (BPA) exposure with diabetes and related metabolic disorders such as obesity. Study regarding association of urinary BPA concentrations with central obesity risk is limited. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association of urinary BPA with incident central obesity in a Chinese population aged 40 years and above. METHODS: 888 participants who were not central obese at baseline in 2009 were followed for 4 years in Shanghai, China...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097011/a-selective-gpr40-ffar1-agonist-ly2881835-provides-immediate-and-durable-glucose-control-in-rodent-models-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Yanyun Chen, Min Song, Jonathan P Riley, Charlie C Hu, Xianbu Peng, Donalyn Scheuner, Krister Bokvist, Pranab Maiti, Steven D Kahl, Chahrzad Montrose-Rafizadeh, Chafiq Hamdouchi, Anne Reifel Miller
LY2881835 is a selective, potent, and efficacious GPR40 agonist. The objective of the studies described here was to examine the pharmacological properties of LY2881835 in preclinical models of T2D. Significant increases in insulin secretion were detected when LY2881835 was tested in primary islets from WT mice but not in islets from GPR40 KO mice. Furthermore, LY2881835 potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion in normal lean mice. Acute administration of LY2881835 lowered glucose during OGTTs in WT mice but not in GPR40 KO mice...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096640/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-pre-and-post-menopausal-women-a-prospective-study-from-apex-institute-of-north-india
#6
Sandeep Sharma, Neelam Aggarwal, Bharti Joshi, Vanita Suri, Sanjay Badada
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MS) (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities and a complex predisease state that predicts future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal state are considered as a vulnerable period for developing MS, and this increased risk has been attributed to decreasing estrogen levels with an increasing risk of insulin resistance following menopause...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096436/angiotensin-ii-induces-differential-insulin-action-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#7
Juthamard Surapongchai, Mujalin Prasannarong, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan
Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096259/bariatric-surgery-enhances-splanchnic-vascular-responses-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Henri Honka, Jukka Koffert, Saila Kauhanen, Jarmo Teuho, Saija Hurme, Andrea Mari, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Leif Groop, Pirjo Nuutila
Bariatric surgery results in notable weight loss and alleviates hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we aimed to characterize the vascular effects of a mixed-meal and of infusion of exogenous glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the splanchnic region in ten obese patients with T2D before and after bariatric surgery and in ten lean controls. The experiments were carried out on two separate days. Pancreatic and intestinal blood flow (BF) were measured at baseline, 20 and 50 minutes with (15)O-water using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI)...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096201/serum-c-peptide-total-and-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-pancreatic-cancer-do-associations-differ-by-smoking
#9
Leticia M Nogueira, Christina C Newton, Michael N Pollak, Debra T Silverman, Demetrius Albanes, Satu Männistö, Stephanie J Weinstein, Eric J Jacobs, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Studies examining associations between circulating concentrations of C-peptide and total adiponectin, two biomarkers related to obesity and insulin secretion and sensitivity and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) risk have shown inconsistent results and included limited numbers of smokers. METHODS: We examined associations of these biomarkers and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with PDA, overall, and by smoking status. We conducted a pooled nested case-control analysis in 3 cohorts (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Trial, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and Cancer Prevention Study-II), with 758 cases (435 current smokers) and 1052 controls (531 smokers) matched by cohort, age, sex, race, blood draw date and follow-up time...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096180/nutrient-sensing-and-tor-signaling-in-yeast-and-mammals
#10
REVIEW
Asier González, Michael N Hall
Coordinating cell growth with nutrient availability is critical for cell survival. The evolutionarily conserved TOR (target of rapamycin) controls cell growth in response to nutrients, in particular amino acids. As a central controller of cell growth, mTOR (mammalian TOR) is implicated in several disorders, including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Here, we review how nutrient availability is sensed and transduced to TOR in budding yeast and mammals. A better understanding of how nutrient availability is transduced to TOR may allow novel strategies in the treatment for mTOR-related diseases...
January 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096141/the-role-of-the-novel-lipokine-palmitoleic-acid-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
María E Frigolet, Ruth Gutiérrez-Aguilar
The monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleate (palmitoleic acid) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in serum and tissues, particularly adipose tissue and liver. Its endogenous production by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gives rise to its cis isoform, cis-palmitoleate. Although trans-palmitoleate is also synthesized in humans, it is mainly found as an exogenous source in ruminant fat and dairy products. Recently, palmitoleate was considered to be a lipokine based on evidence demonstrating its release from adipose tissue and its metabolic effects on distant organs...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095372/impaired-mitochondrial-respiration-in-large-cerebral-arteries-of-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Ivan Merdzo, Ibolya Rutkai, Venkata N L R Sure, Catherine A McNulty, Prasad V G Katakam, David W Busija
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential underlying cause of pathological conditions associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We have previously shown that mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial protein levels were similar in the large cerebral arteries of insulin-resistant Zucker obese rats and their lean controls. In this study, we extend our investigations into the mitochondrial dynamics of the cerebral vasculature of 14-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty obese (ZDFO) rats with early T2DM...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095137/diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity-in-the-french-caribbean-a-special-vulnerability-for-women
#13
Philippe Carrère, Cédric Fagour, Dan Sportouch, Franciane Gane-Troplent, Jeannie Hélène-Pelage, Thierry Lang, Jocelyn Inamo
The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes and its risk factors among French Caribbean adults. This cross-sectional study included 18-74-year-olds (N = 2252; 56.5% women) who underwent a heath examination in Guadeloupe during July-December 2014. Diabetes was defined as using antidiabetic treatment, or fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/l, and HbA1c ≥6.5%; diabetes control was defined as HbA1c <7%. Multilevel logistic regression was used. Diabetes prevalence was 8...
January 17, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095040/consensus-statement-by-the-american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-on-the-comprehensive-type-2-diabetes-management-algorithm-2017-executive-summary
#14
Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This algorithm for the comprehensive management of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was developed to provide clinicians with a practical guide that considers the whole patient, their spectrum of risks and complications, and evidence-based approaches to treatment. It is now clear that the progressive pancreatic beta-cell defect that drives the deterioration of metabolic control over time begins early and may be present before the diagnosis of diabetes (1). In addition to advocating glycemic control to reduce microvascular complications, this document highlights obesity and prediabetes as underlying risk factors for the development of T2D and associated macrovascular complications...
January 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094192/risk-factors-for-revision-surgery-following-isolated-ulnar-nerve-release-at-the-cubital-tunnel-a-study-of-25-977-cases
#15
Christopher L Camp, Claire B Ryan, Ryan M Degen, Joshua S Dines, David W Altchek, Brian C Werner
BACKGROUND: The literature investigating risk factors for failure after decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow (cubital tunnel release [CuTR]) is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for failure of isolated CuTR, defined as progression to subsequent ipsilateral revision surgery. METHODS: The 100% Medicare Standard Analytic Files from 2005 to 2012 were queried for patients undergoing CuTR. Patients undergoing any concomitant procedures were excluded...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094135/diabetes-prevention-program-translation-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#16
Tannaz Moin, Laura J Damschroder, Mona AuYoung, Matthew L Maciejewski, Santanu K Datta, Jane E Weinreb, Nanette I Steinle, Charles Billington, Maria Hughes, Fatima Makki, Robert G Holleman, H Myra Kim, Amy S Jeffreys, Linda S Kinsinger, Jennifer A Burns, Caroline R Richardson
INTRODUCTION: This clinical demonstration trial compared the effectiveness of the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Prevention Program (VA-DPP) with an evidence-based usual care weight management program (MOVE!(®)) in the Veterans Health Administration health system. DESIGN: Prospective, pragmatic, non-randomized comparative effectiveness study of two behavioral weight management interventions. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Obese/overweight Veterans with prediabetes were recruited from three geographically diverse VA sites between 2012 and 2014...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093994/viral-infection-and-obesity-current-status-and-future-prospective
#17
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Richard L Atkinson, Maha M Alawi, Esam I Azhar
The association of pathogenic viruses with obesity has now been well-known in both human and animals. Globally, human obesity has become a serious problem leading to the emergence of multiple life-threatening diseases. Adenoviruses contribute a significant role in the induction of obesity by affecting various pathways. Due to impaired immunity, obese individuals are more prone to nosocomial infections leading to complications of obesity. In contrast, several other important factors contributing to human obesity are known...
January 16, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#18
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093849/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-are-associated-with-elevated-pcsk9-levels-in-young-women
#19
Amy E Levenson, Amy S Shah, Philip R Khoury, Thomas R Kimball, Elaine M Urbina, Sarah D de Ferranti, David M Maahs, Lawrence M Dolan, R Paul Wadwa, Sudha B Biddinger
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk, and is an emerging therapeutic target. OBJECTIVE: We compared serum PCSK9 levels in young adults, with and without type 2 diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a cohort, aged 15 to 26 years, in Cincinnati, OH, from 2005 to 2010. Serum PCSK9 levels were measured in 94 youth with type 2 diabetes, 93 obese control subjects, and 99 lean control subjects...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093432/adiposity-physical-activity-and-risk-of-diabetes-mellitus-prospective-data-from-the-population-based-hunt-study-norway
#20
Kirsti Vik Hjerkind, Jo S Stenehjem, Tom I L Nilsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may counteract the adverse effects of adiposity on cardiovascular mortality; however, the evidence of a similar effect on diabetes is sparse. This study examines whether physical activity may compensate for the adverse effect of adiposity on diabetes risk. METHODS: The study population consisted of 38 231 individuals aged 20 years or more who participated in two consecutive waves of the prospective longitudinal Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway: in 1984-1986 and in 1995-1997...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
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