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obesity AND GLP-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533020/the-role-of-pyy-in-pancreatic-islet-physiology-and-surgical-control-of-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Guida, Sam Stephen, Romain Guitton, Reshma D Ramracheya
Bariatric surgery in obese individuals leads to rapid and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This phenomenon occurs independently of weight loss possibly via a combination of factors. The incretin hormone GLP-1 has so far been recognised as a critical factor. However, recent data have indicated that elevation in another gut hormone, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), may drive the beneficial effects of surgery. Here we discuss recent findings on PYY-mediated control of glucose homeostasis and its role in diabetes, in the context of what is known for GLP-1...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526416/treatment-strategy-for-type-2-diabetes-with-obesity-focus-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#2
REVIEW
Qiuhe Ji
PURPOSE: The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507313/chronic-intrahypothalamic-rather-than-subcutaneous-liraglutide-treatment-reduces-body-weight-gain-and-stimulates-the-melanocortin-receptor-system
#3
K Kaineder, T Birngruber, G Rauter, B Obermüller, J Eichler, J Münzker, W Al-Zoughbi, S I Mautner, S S Torekov, B Hartmann, P Kotzbeck, T R Pieber
BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis in adipose tissue. However, the precise mechanisms how liraglutide affects in particular chronic weight loss are still under investigation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether chronic hypothalamic or chronic subcutaneous administration of liraglutide induces sustained weight loss through altered adipose tissue function and to what extent hypothalamic neuronal appetite regulators are involved in the liraglutide-induced weight loss in healthy lean rats on a normal diet...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501906/medication-use-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#4
REVIEW
John P H Wilding
Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. Weight loss for obese individuals with diabetes has many health benefits, often leads to improvement in glucose control and sometimes, in type 2 diabetes, near normalisation of abnormal glucose metabolism. Weight loss is difficult to maintain and attempts to lose weight may be undermined by some diabetes treatments such as sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin. Whilst lifestyle support should be the primary approach to aid individuals who wish to lose weight, pharmacological approaches can also be considered...
May 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483802/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-activation-augments-cardiac-output-and-improves-cardiac-efficiency-in-obese-swine-following-myocardial-infarction
#5
Daniel J Sassoon, Johnathan D Tune, Kieren J Mather, Jillian N Noblet, Mackenzie A Eagleson, Abass M Conteh, Joshua T Sturek, Adam G Goodwill
This study tested the hypothesis that glucagon-like peptide-1 therapies improve cardiac contractile function at rest and in response to adrenergic stimulation in obese swine following myocardial infarction. Obese Ossabaw swine were subjected to gradually developing regional coronary occlusion using an ameroid occluder placed around the left anterior descending coronary artery. Animals received subcutaneous injections of saline or liraglutide (0.005-0.015 mg/kg/day) for 30 days following ameroid placement. Cardiac performance was then assessed at rest and in response to sympathomimetic challenge (dobutamine 0...
May 8, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481334/liraglutide-reduces-body-weight-by-upregulation-of-adenylate-cyclase-3
#6
Z Li, Y Liang, N Xia, Y Lai, H Pan, S Zhou, F Jiang, Y He
OBJECTIVE: According to recent studies, adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is associated with obesity. Liraglutide reduces blood glucose levels and body weight (BW). We performed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to study the relationships among AC3, liraglutide and obesity and to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of liraglutide on obesity. METHODS: A high-fat diet was used to induce obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Both the normal and obese mice were treated with liraglutide (1 mg kg(-1)) or saline twice daily for 8 weeks...
May 8, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479494/gastric-mucosal-devitalization-reduces-adiposity-and-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-obese-rats
#7
Andreas Oberbach, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Yvonne Kullnick, Ulf Retschlag, Stefanie Lehman, Mouen A Khashab, Anthony N Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastric mucosa is an endocrine organ that regulates satiation pathways by expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), excludes gastric mucosa and reduces gastric volume. Our study aims to investigate the independent effects of altering gastric mucosa on obesity and its related comorbidities. METHODS: Gastric mucosal devitalization (GMD) of 70% of the stomach was achieved by argon plasma coagulation in a high-fat diet (HFD) rat model and compared with VSG and sham (SH)...
May 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462078/monomeric-glp-1-gip-glucagon-triagonism-corrects-obesity-hepatosteatosis-and-dyslipidemia-in-female-mice
#8
Sigrid Jall, Stephan Sachs, Christoffer Clemmensen, Brian Finan, Frauke Neff, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller, Susanna M Hofmann
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major health threat that affects men and women equally. Despite this fact, weight-loss potential of pharmacotherapies is typically first evaluated in male mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO). To address this disparity we herein determined whether a monomeric peptide with agonism at the receptors for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon is equally efficient in correcting DIO, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism in DIO female mice as it has been previously established for DIO male mice...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456436/centrally-located-glp-1-receptors-modulate-gastric-slow-waves-and-cardiovascular-function-in-ferrets-consistent-with-the-induction-of-nausea
#9
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, but can cause nausea and emesis in some patients. GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in the brain, where they contribute to mechanisms of emesis, reduced appetite and aversion, but it is not known if these centrally located receptors also contribute to a modulation of gastric slow wave activity, which is linked causally to nausea. Our aim was to investigate the potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, administered into the 3rd ventricle to modulate emesis, feeding and gastric slow wave activity...
April 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448133/design-of-novel-exendin-based-dual-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-glucagon-receptor-agonists
#10
Andreas Evers, Torsten Haack, Martin Lorenz, Martin Bossart, Ralf Elvert, Bernd Henkel, Siegfried Stengelin, Michael Kurz, Maike Glien, Angela Dudda, Katrin Lorenz, Dieter Kadereit, Michael Wagner
Dual activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptor has the potential to lead to a novel therapy principle for the treatment of diabesity. Here, we report a series of novel peptides with dual activity on these receptors that were discovered by rational design. On the basis of sequence analysis and structure-based design, structural elements of glucagon were engineered into the selective GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4, resulting in hybrid peptides with potent dual GLP-1/glucagon receptor activity...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#11
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439092/timeline-of-changes-in-appetite-during-weight-loss-with-a-ketogenic-diet
#12
S Nymo, S R Coutinho, J Jørgensen, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (BMI: 37±4...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433470/daily-supplementation-of-dietary-protein-improves-the-metabolic-effects-of-glp-1-based-pharmacotherapy-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#14
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Joanna Krawczyk, Tram Pham, Rinzin Lhamo, David J Reiner, Matthew R Hayes
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and reduce feeding. Specific macronutrients, when ingested, may trigger GLP-1 secretion and enhance the effects of systemic sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (an enzyme that rapidly degrades GLP-1). In particular, macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1, and acute preclinical trials show that ingestion of dairy protein may represent a promising adjunct behavioral therapy in combination with sitagliptin...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432082/effect-of-oral-contraceptives-and-or-metformin-on-glp-1-secretion-and-reactive-hypoglycemia-in-pcos
#15
Dorte Glintborg, Hanne Mumm, Jens Juul Holst, Marianne Andersen
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS is undetermined. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12 month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 microgram ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day), or metformin +OCP...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431670/use-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-type-2-diabetes-treatment-intensification-after-basal-insulin-failure
#16
M Joubert, Y Reznik
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are part of the armamentarium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), although recent guidelines have mainly recommended their use on top of oral treatments when a single or combination of two or three oral hypoglycaemic agents has failed to lower HbA1c levels below the individualized target range. In such situations, the decision to use GLP-1RAs is mostly driven by their high level of efficacy, their effect on body weight balance and their safety considerations, such as low hypoglycaemic risk...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428027/fructose-intervention-for-12-weeks-does-not-impair-glycemic-control-or-incretin-hormone-responses-during-oral-glucose-or-mixed-meal-tests-in-obese-men
#17
N Matikainen, S Söderlund, E Björnson, L H Bogl, K H Pietiläinen, A Hakkarainen, N Lundbom, B Eliasson, S M Räsänen, A Rivellese, L Patti, A Prinster, G Riccardi, J-P Després, N Alméras, J J Holst, C F Deacon, J Borén, M-R Taskinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle...
March 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421793/effects-of-a-high-fat-meal-on-postprandial-incretin-responses-appetite-scores-and-ad-libitum-energy-intake-in-women-with-obesity
#18
Fernanda Rodrigues O Penaforte, Camila C Japur, Rosa W Diez-Garcia, Paula G Chiarello
BACKGROUND: Considering the possible role of triglycerides (TG), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the regulation of appetite, this study aimed to compare high fat meal-induced response of GIP and GLP-1, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity, according to postprandial increment in triglyceridemia (∆TG).  Methods: Thirty-three no-diabetic women (BMI = 35.0 ± 3.2 kg.m-2) were divided into two groups: Group with ∆TG ≤ median were called "Low TG change -LTG" and ∆TG > median, "High TG change - HTG"...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414465/topical-intestinal-aminoimidazole-agonists-of-g-protein-coupled-bile-acid-receptor-1-promote-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-and-improve-glucose-tolerance
#19
Manuel Lasalle, Vanessa Hoguet, Nathalie Hennuyer, Florence Leroux, Catherine Piveteau, Loïc Belloy, Sophie Lestavel, Emmanuelle Vallez, Emilie Dorchies, Isabelle Duplan, Emmanuel Sevin, Maxime Culot, Fabien Gosselet, Rajaa Boulahjar, Adrien Herledan, Bart Staels, Benoit Deprez, Anne Tailleux, Julie Charton
The role of the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor TGR5 in various organs, tissues, and cell types, specifically in intestinal endocrine L-cells and brown adipose tissue, has made it a promising therapeutical target in several diseases, especially type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, recent studies have shown deleterious on-target effects of systemic TGR5 agonists. To avoid these systemic effects while stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreting enteroendocrine L-cells, we have designed TGR5 agonists with low intestinal permeability...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398946/high-intensity-interval-training-appetite-and-reward-value-of-food-in-the-obese
#20
Catia Martins, Irina Aschehoug, Marit Ludviksen, Jens Holst, Graham Finlayson, Ulrik Wisloff, Linda Morgan, Neil King, Bård Kulseng
PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT), on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a BMI of 33...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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