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obesity AND GLP-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612554/-the-preliminary-investigation-of-glp-1-receptor-agonist-on-liver-steatosis-in-obese-mice
#1
Xia Wang, He He, Li-Bo Liang, Mei Zhang, She-Yu Li, Shuang-Qing Li, Zhen-Mei An, Heng-Jian Huang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exenatide, on liver function and steatosis in obese mice. METHODS: Male c57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) were divided into high-fat-diet group (for obesity model construction) and chow diet group. 12 weeks later, mice of high-fat diet group were randomly divided into high-dose exenatide group [H group, intraperitoneal injection 0.02 μg/ (g·d) , high-fat-diet], low-dose exenatide group [L group, intraperitoneal injection 0...
January 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610922/central-administration-of-glp-1-and-gip-decreases-feeding-in-mice
#2
Cherl NamKoong, Min Sun Kim, Byeong-Tak Jang, Young Hee Lee, Young-Min Cho, Hyung Jin Choi
Glucagon-like peptide-1 amide (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones regulating energy metabolism. GLP-1 and GIP combination is suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, the neuronal mechanisms are not yet investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of central GLP-1 and GIP in regulation of body weight homeostasis. The effect of GLP-1 with GIP on food intake, body weight, locomotor activity were determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GLP-1 and/or GIP in mice...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610906/a-walnut-containing-meal-had-similar-effects-on-early-satiety-cck-and-pyy-but-attenuated-the-postprandial-glp-1-and-insulin-response-compared-to-a-nut-free-control-meal
#3
Cheryl L Rock, Shirley W Flatt, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Bilge Pakiz, Dennis D Heath
Regular nut consumption is associated with lower adiposity and reduced weight gain in adulthood. Walnut feeding studies have observed minimal effect on body weight despite potential additional energy intake. Several mechanisms may explain why consuming nuts promotes weight control, including increased early phase satiety, possibly reflected in postprandial response of gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides hypothesized to affect appetite. The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial insulin, glucagon and gastrointestinal peptide response and satiety following a meal with ∼54% of energy from walnuts or cream cheese, using a within-subject crossover study design in overweight/obese adults (N = 28)...
June 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605280/the-gut-a-key-to-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jens Juul Holst, Jens Pedersen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Filip Krag Knop
In this communication we discuss the role of the gut for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastric emptying rates importantly determine postprandial glucose excursions and regulate postprandial secretion of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It thereby also determines their powerful, amplifying effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion and thus the ability of the body to regulate glucose disposal. Although disturbances in gastric emptying are not consistent findings in type 2 diabetes, the incretin system is seriously impaired, probably associated with insulin resistance and obesity...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601988/surgical-and-advanced-medical-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-class-i-obese-patients-a-short-term-outcome
#5
Mohit Bhandari, Winni Mathur, Ravindra Kumar, Arun Mishra, Mahak Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, incretin-based therapy (glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues), and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have antidiabetic properties in morbidly obese patients. However, their comparative efficacy in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in class I obese patients specifically in Indian has not been studied yet. This study evaluates and compares the efficacy and side effect of surgical and advanced medical management of T2DM in class I obese patients...
June 11, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598027/a-novel-gip-analog-zp4165-enhances-glp-1-induced-body-weight-loss-and-improves-glycemic-control-in-rodents
#6
P K Nørregaard, M A Deryabina, P Tofteng Shelton, J U Fog, J R Daugaard, P Eriksson, L F Larsen, L Jessen
AIM: To investigate the effects of the novel GIP analog, ZP4165, on body weight and glycemic control in rodents. Additionally, to investigate if ZP4165 modulates the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of a GLP-1 agonist (liraglutide). METHODS: The acute insulinotropic effect of ZP4165 was investigated in rats during an oral glucose tolerance test. Long-term effects of ZP4165 on body weight and glycemic control, either alone or in combination with liraglutide, were assessed in diet-induced obese mice and diabetic db/db mice...
June 9, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593550/yh18421-a-novel-gpr119-agonist-exerts-sustained-glucose-lowering-and-weight-loss-in-diabetic-mouse-model
#7
Yoo Hoi Park, Hyun Ho Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Soo Yong Chung, Na Yeon Yang, Do Hoon Kim, Mi Kyeong Ju, Tae Dong Han, Su Youn Nam, Kyu-Won Kim
G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) represents a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as it can increase both GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β cells. Due to this dual mechanism of action, the development of small molecule GPR119 agonists has received much interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, we identified a novel small-molecule GPR119 agonist, YH18421 and evaluated its therapeutic potential. YH18421 specifically activated human GPR119 with high potency and potentiated GLP-1 secretion and GSIS in vitro cell based systems...
June 8, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591793/dynamics-of-bile-acid-profiles-glp-1-and-fgf19-after-laparoscopic-gastric-banding
#8
Veronika Thöni, Alexandra Pfister, Andreas Melmer, Barbara Enrich, Karin Salzmann, Susanne Kaser, Claudia Lamina, Christoph F Ebenbichler, Hubert Hackl, Herbert Tilg, Alexander R Moschen
Context: Increase of bile acids (BAs), fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in metabolic improvements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), whereas data are still conflicting regarding their role after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Objective: To assess fasting BA, FGF19 and GLP-1 concentrations in plasma before and after LAGB and to test for correlations with immuno-metabolic parameters...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586439/ramp2-influences-glucagon-receptor-pharmacology-via-trafficking-and-signaling
#9
Jaimini Cegla, Ben J Jones, James V Gardiner, David J Hodson, Thomas Marjot, Emma R McGlone, Tricia M Tan, Stephen R Bloom
Endogenous satiety hormones provide an attractive target for obesity drugs. Glucagon causes weight loss by reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. To further understand the cellular mechanisms by which glucagon and related ligands activate the glucagon receptor (GCGR), we have investigated the interaction of the GCGR with RAMP2, a member of the family of Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins.We have used a combination of competition binding experiments, cell surface ELISA, functional assays assessing the Gαs and Gq pathways and β-arrestin recruitment, and siRNA knockdown to examine the effect of RAMP2 on the GCGR...
June 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586308/an-extract-from-the-atlantic-brown-algae-sacchorhiza-polyschides-counteracts-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-via-a-gut-related-multi-factorial-mechanisms
#10
Patricia Huebbe, Sibylle Nikolai, Anke Schloesser, Diran Herebian, Graeme Campbell, Claus-Christian Glüer, Annette Zeyner, Tobias Demetrowitsch, Karin Schwarz, Cornelia C Metges, Thomas Roeder, Gerhard Schultheiss, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach
In this study we addressed the questions whether an Atlantic brown algae extract (BAE) affects diet induced obesity in mice and which would be the primary targets and underlying key mechanisms.Male C57 BL/6 mice were fed a hypercaloric diet, referred to as high fat diet (HFD), supplemented with a freeze-dried aqueous BAE from Sacchorizia polyschides (5 %) for 8 months. Compared to the control group, dietary BAE supplementation significantly attenuated increase in body weight and fat mass. We observed apparent metabolic improvement including normalization of blood glucose, reduced plasma leptin, reduced fecal bile salt hydrolase activity with lower microbial production of toxic bile acid metabolites in the gut and increased systemic bile acid circulation in BAE-fed mice counteracting adverse effects of long term HFD feeding...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585218/lipotoxicity-in-obesity-benefit-of-olive-oil
#11
Saad Elias, Sbeit Wisam, Arraf Luai, Barhoum Massad, Assy Nimer
The clinical implication of Lipotoxicity in obesity derives primarily from its potential to progress to insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Olive oil rich diet decrease accumulation of triglyceride in the liver, improved postprandial triglyceride levels, improve glucose and GLP-1 response in insulin resistant subjects, and up regulate GLUT-2 expression in the liver. The exact molecular mechanism is unknown but, decreasing NFkB activation, decreasing LDL oxidation and improving insulin resistance by less production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6) and improvement of kinases JNK-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 are the principle mechanisms...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584298/role-of-aquaporin-7-in-ghrelin-and-glp-1-induced-improvement-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-obese-rats
#12
L Méndez-Giménez, S Becerril, S P Camões, I V da Silva, C Rodrigues, R Moncada, V Valentí, V Catalán, J Gómez-Ambrosi, J P Miranda, G Soveral, G Frühbeck, A Rodriguez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Glycerol is a key metabolite for lipid accumulation in insulin-sensitive tissues as well as for pancreatic insulin secretion. We examined the role of aquaporin-7 (AQP7), the main glycerol channel in β-cells, and AQP12, a aquaporin related to pancreatic damage, in the improvement of pancreatic function and steatosis after sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Male Wistar obese rats (n=125) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary (pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized animals) interventions...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#13
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580018/the-burden-of-obesity-in-the-current-world-and-the-new-treatments-available-focus-on-liraglutide-3-0%C3%A2-mg
#14
REVIEW
Marcio C Mancini, Maria Edna de Melo
The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. Treating obesity and its associated health problems has a significant economic impact on health care systems. The unsatisfactory long-term outcomes observed in the obesity treatment are due to its complex pathophysiology and the inherent difficulties associated with maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Determined by genetic and environmental factors, obesity has been officially recognized as a chronic disease, an action that allowed the recognition of anti-obesity drugs as legitimate therapeutic options to address the growing obesity endemic...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579479/anti-obesogenic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-derived-from-the-saliva-of-the-gila-monster
#15
Patricia Lucio Alves, Fernando Mauricio Francis Abdalla, Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Paulo Flavio Silveira
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (R) agonists are a class of incretin mimetic drugs that have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and also considered strong candidates for the treatment of obesity. The original prototypical drug in this class is the exenatide, a synthetic peptide with the same structure as the native molecule, exendin-4, found in the saliva of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum suspectum lizard). OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the anti-obesogenic, antidyslipidemic and antidiabetogenic effects of agonism in GLP-1R by exenatide on two distinct models of obesity: induced by hypothalamic injury (MSG) or high-calorie diet (DIO)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576430/gastric-bypass-surgery-mimetic-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Brian R Boettcher
Gastric bypass surgery is effectively a polypharmacological approach for treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The gastric bypass mimetic approaches reviewed are fixed-dose combinatorial pharmacological approaches. There are two key concepts incorporated into these gastric bypass surgery mimetic approaches. The first key concept is that the combination of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is essential for success of any gastric bypass surgery mimetic approach...
May 30, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564652/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-improves-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-involving-down-regulation-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-in-obese-rats
#17
Song Mu, Jiayu Liu, Wei Guo, Shuping Zhang, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Zhihong Wang, Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on hepatic glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in obese rats. METHODS: Body weight, glucose, intraperitoneal glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed pre- and postoperatively, and plasma lipid, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured. The mRNA levels of G6Pase, Pepck, Gsk-3β and Gys-2, and the expression levels of PTP1B mRNA, protein, and other components of the insulin signaling pathway were measured by using RT-PCR and western blotting...
June 1, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555111/novel-glp-1-analog-supaglutide-reduces-hfd-induced-obesity-associated-with-increased-ucp-1-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#19
Yun Wan, Xi Bao, Jiabao Huang, Xiangyu Zhang, Wenjuan Liu, Qiaoli Cui, Dongdong Jiang, Zhihong Wang, Rui Liu, Qinghua Wang
GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552096/the-role-of-incretin-hormones-and-glucagon-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#20
Anders Ellekær Junker
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as hepatic steatosis exceeding 5% of hepatocytes with no other reason for hepatic fat accumulation. The association between NAFLD and type 2 diabetes is strong. Accordingly, up to 70% of obese patients with type 2 diabetes have NAFLD. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with variable degrees of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease and is characterised by diffuse fibrosis and nodular regeneration of hepatocytes...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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