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obesity AND GLP-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144968/a-synaptic-basis-for-glp-1-action-in-the-brain
#1
Sandrine Lefort, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina García-Cáceres
Unraveling the brain control of metabolism may generate opportunities to discover novel precision medicines for obesity and diabetes. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2017) identify a novel glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor-dependent signaling process that exerts anorexigenic action via the regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition in the hypothalamus.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#2
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137471/serum-levels-of-spexin-and-kisspeptin-negatively-correlate-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-women
#3
P A Kołodziejskii, E Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E Korek, M Sassek, D Szczepankiewicz, P Kaczmarek, L Nogowski, P Maćkowiak, K W Nowak, H Krauss, M Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX) and kisspeptin (KISS) are novel peptides relevant in the context of regulation of metabolism, food intake, puberty and reproduction. Here, we studied changes of serum SPX and KISS levels in female non-obese volunteers (BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese patients (BMI>35 kg/m2). Correlations between SPX or KISS with BMI, McAuley index, QUICKI, HOMA IR, serum levels of insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, obestatin, ghrelin and GLP-1 were assessed. Obese patients had lower SPX and KISS levels as compared to non-obese volunteers (SPX: 4...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128557/the-effect-of-diet-adiposity-and-weight-loss-on-the-secretion-of-incretin-hormones-in-cats
#4
K E McCool, A J Rudinsky, V J Parker, C O Herbert, C Gilor
Degree of adiposity and dietary macronutrient composition affect incretin hormone secretion in humans and mice, but little is known about their effect in cats. In this study, 7 overweight cats were fed a maintenance diet (MD) for at least 2 wk followed by a reduced calorie diet (RCD), which was lower in fat and higher in carbohydrates and fiber. Cats were fed ad libitum initially, and then, food was restricted to achieve 1%-2% loss of body weight weekly (11 wk). When lean, cats were fed MD for 2 wk. A standardized meal test (SMT) using a third diet was performed after at least 7 d on each diet, before and after weight loss (four SMT's total)...
October 20, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128339/rs6923761-gene-variant-in-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-allelic-frequencies-and-influence-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-multicenter-study-of-castilla-leon
#5
D A de Luis, M Ballesteros, A Lopez Guzman, E Ruiz, C Muñoz, M A Penacho, P Iglesias, A Maldonado, V Puigdevall, M Delgado
BACKGROUND: Some GLP-1 receptor studies have identified polymorphisms in the GLP-1 receptor gene that might be related to different cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the allelic distribution of rs6923761 GLP-1 receptor polymorphism in a geographic area of Spain (Community of Castilla y Leon) and to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on obesity anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in the fasted state in obese patients...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115211/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-hormones
#6
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113813/altered-glucose-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-what-s-glp-1-got-to-do-with-it
#7
REVIEW
Eric P Smith, Georgina Polanco, Abid Yaqub, Marzieh Salehi
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. The two widely performed weight-loss procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), alter postprandial glucose pattern and enhance gut hormone secretion immediately after surgery before significant weight loss. This weight-loss independent glycemic effects of GB has been attributed to an accelerated nutrient transit from stomach pouch to the gut and enhanced secretion of insulinotropic gut factors; in particular, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107284/superior-reductions-in-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-with-co-administration-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-and-obeticholic-acid-in-mice
#8
Hani Jouihan, Sarah Will, Silvia Guionaud, Michelle L Boland, Stephanie Oldham, Peter Ravn, Anthony Celeste, James L Trevaskis
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an unmet need associated with metabolic syndrome. There are no approved therapies for NASH; however, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) agonists are promising drug targets. We investigated the therapeutic effects of co-administration of a GLP-1R agonist, IP118, with FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) in mice. METHODS: OCA and IP118 alone and in combination were sub-chronically administered to Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice with diet-induced NASH or diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107282/the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-cardiac-glp-1-receptors-control-heart-rate-in-mice
#9
Laurie L Baggio, John R Ussher, Brent A McLean, Xiemin Cao, M Golam Kabir, Erin E Mulvihill, Alexandra S Mighiu, Hangjun Zhang, Andreas Ludwig, Randy J Seeley, Scott P Heximer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVES: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine cells and exerts a broad number of metabolic actions through activation of a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). The cardiovascular actions of GLP-1 have garnered increasing attention as GLP-1R agonists are used to treat human subjects with diabetes and obesity that may be at increased risk for development of heart disease. Here we studied mechanisms linking GLP-1R activation to control of heart rate (HR) in mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097359/customization-of-bilio-pancreatic-limb-length-to-modulate-and-sustain-anti-diabetic-effect-of-gastric-bypass-surgery
#10
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize Bilio-Pancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the anti-diabetic effect of RYGB. METHODS: Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb, and were compared to control animals...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089613/glp-1-and-igf-i-levels-are-elevated-in-late-infancy-in-low-birthweight-infants-independently-of-glp-1-receptor-polymorphisms-and-neonatal-nutrition
#11
M Díaz, C García-Beltran, A López-Bermejo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
Low birth weight followed by rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with increased risks for obesity and diabetes in adulthood. Modulation of glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion by (epi)genetic mechanisms or nutrition may influence in part this risk. Formula fed infants born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) have higher circulating GLP-1 at age 4 months than breastfed SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Here, we assessed GLP-1 concentrations in healthy AGA (n=149) and SGA (n=107) subjects at age 12 months, and their association with endocrine-metabolic and body composition parameters and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) rs6923761 and rs3765467 polymorphisms...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076038/long-term-effectiveness-of-liraglutide-in-association-with-patients-baseline-characteristics-in-real-life-setting-in-croatia-an-observational-retrospective-multicenter-study
#12
Maja Cigrovski Berkovic, Ines Bilic-Curcic, Davorka Herman Mahecic, Marina Gradiser, Mladen Grgurevic, Tomislav Bozek
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) are recommended therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and liraglutide is the most used worldwide. We assessed the glycemic efficacy and extra-glycemic effects of liraglutide during 36 months' follow-up of individuals with poorly regulated T2DM under routine clinical practice and sought to identify the phenotype of treatment responders. METHODS: A total of 207 individuals were included. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HbA1c < 7...
December 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075168/postprandial-dyslipidemia-pathophysiology-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment
#13
Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Although the fed state predominates over the course of a day, the fasting lipid profile has traditionally been used to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The nonfasting lipid profile may be more reflective of the daily circulating plasma lipids and simplifies lipid monitoring for patients, laboratories, and clinicians. Nonfasting triglyceride levels are also independently associated with cardiovascular events, leading to several clinical guidelines (e.g. in Denmark, the UK, Europe, and Canada) now recommending nonfasting lipid testing in the primary prevention setting...
October 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074588/glp-1-elicits-an-intrinsic-gut-liver-metabolic-signal-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-vldl-overproduction-and-insulin-resistance
#14
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Chris Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070572/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-prevents-obesity-related-glomerulopathy-by-inhibiting-excessive-autophagy-in-podocytes
#15
HongLei Guo, Bin Wang, HongMei Li, LiLu Ling, Jianying Niu, Yong Gu
AIM: To investigate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 analog (GLP-1) in high fat diet-induced obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG). METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks were treated with GLP-1 (200 μg/kg) or 0.9% saline for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and the expression of podocin, nephrin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter type (Glut4), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) were assayed...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066599/il-6-type-cytokine-signaling-in-adipocytes-induces-intestinal-glp-1-secretion
#16
Stephan Wueest, Céline I Laesser, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Flurin Item, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Marcela Borsigova, Werner Müller, Marc Y Donath, Daniel Konrad
We recently showed that IL-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes induces FFA release from visceral adipocytes thereby promoting obesity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. In addition, IL-6-type cytokines may increase the release of leptin from adipocytes and by that means induce GLP-1 secretion. We thus hypothesized that IL-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes may regulate insulin secretion. To this end, mice with adipocyte-specific knockout of gp130, the signal transducer protein of IL-6, were fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks...
October 24, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056294/enhanced-ampa-receptor-trafficking-mediates-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-endogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-paraventricular-hypothalamus
#17
Ji Liu, Kristie Conde, Peng Zhang, Varoth Lilascharoen, Zihui Xu, Byung Kook Lim, Randy J Seeley, J Julius Zhu, Michael M Scott, Zhiping P Pang
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051554/recombinant-incretin-secreting-microbe-improves-metabolic-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rodents
#18
Paul M Ryan, Elaine Patterson, Robert M Kent, Helena Stack, Paula M O'Connor, Kiera Murphy, Veronica L Peterson, Rupasri Mandal, David S Wishart, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Randy J Seeley, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and its analogues represent a new generation of anti-diabetic drugs, which have also demonstrated propensity to modulate host lipid metabolism. Despite this, drugs of this nature are currently limited to intramuscular administration routes due to intestinal degradation. The aim of this study was to design a recombinant microbial delivery vector for a GLP-1 analogue and assess the efficacy of the therapeutic in improving host glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism in diet induced obese rodents...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045658/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-attenuates-breast-cancer-growth-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#19
Chikayo Iwaya, Takashi Nomiyama, Shiho Komatsu, Takako Kawanami, Yoko Tsutsumi, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Horikawa, Yasuteru Yoshinaga, Shinichi Yamashita, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuichi Terawaki, Makito Tanabe, Kazuki Nabeshima, Akinori Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yanase
Incretin therapies have received significant attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. We previously reported anti-prostate cancer effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer...
October 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044772/rd-lawrence-lecture-2017-incretins-the-intelligent-hormones-in-diabetes
#20
V A Gault
The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due largely to their insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering properties. Indeed, GLP-1-based therapies are now key treatment options for many people with diabetes worldwide. In contrast, GIP-based agents have yet to reach the clinic based primarily on the impaired insulinotropic action of GIP observed in people with diabetes. Nevertheless, GIP is a key physiological regulator of insulin secretion and stable forms of GIP show much promise in rodent models to alleviate diabetes-obesity...
October 16, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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