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Chronic Respiratory Failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140963/when-the-momentum-has-gone-what-will-be-the-role-of-extracorporeal-lung-support-in-the-future
#1
Darryl Abrams, Matthew Bacchetta, Daniel Brodie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been expanding interest in and use of extracorporeal support in respiratory failure concurrent with technological advances and predominantly observational data demonstrating improved outcomes. However, until there is more available data from rigorous, high-quality randomized studies, the future of extracorporeal support remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Outcomes for patients supported with extracorporeal devices continue to show favorable trends...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140240/case-report-strongyloides-stercoralis-hyperinfection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
Richelle Guerrero-Wooley, Ernesto Aranda-Aguirre, Wencheng Li, Aimee Wilkin, Elizabeth Palavecino
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can cause disseminated infection in an immunocompromised host. It is most commonly acquired in developing countries. It was previously a common infection in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Appalachian region, but is rarely identified currently. Here, we describe a patient born and raised in Appalachia, with no history of travel outside the United States, who presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and S. stercoralis hyperinfection characterized by acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139100/-guidelines-for-non-invasive-and-invasive-home-mechanical-ventilation-for-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-failure-update-2017
#3
W Windisch, M Dreher, J Geiseler, K Siemon, J Brambring, D Dellweg, B Grolle, S Hirschfeld, T Köhnlein, U Mellies, S Rosseau, B Schönhofer, B Schucher, A Schütz, H Sitter, S Stieglitz, J Storre, M Winterholler, P Young, S Walterspacher
Today, invasive and non-invasive home mechanical ventilation have become a well-established treatment option. Consequently, in 2010 the German Society of Pneumology and Mechanical Ventilation (DGP) has leadingly published the guidelines on "Non-Invasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Failure". However, continuing technical evolutions, new scientific insights, and health care developments require an extensive revision of the guidelines.For this reason, the updated guidelines are now published...
November 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138863/therapeutic-effect-of-ulinastatin-on-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-downregulation-of-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#4
Dejun Li, Hongsheng Ji, Bao Zhao, Chunyang Xu, Wenjun Xia, Lihui Han, Dongqing Yu, Yuanrong Ju, Changjun Jin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, lethal lung disease characterized by alveolar cell necrosis and dysplasia of interstitial fibrotic tissue, resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, glucocorticoid drugs were used to treat this lung disorder. However, positive responses were recorded in less than half of treated patients and the cytotoxicity caused by high dosage treatment is still a concern. The present study investigated whether ulinastatin, a typical urinary trypsin inhibitor that mitigates numerous inflammatory responses, could be a treatment option for lung fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138047/antibacterial-effect-and-dna-delivery-using-a-combination-of-an-arsonium-containing-lipophosphoramide-with-an-n-heterocyclic-carbene-silver-complex-potential-benefits-for-cystic-fibrosis-lung-gene-therapy
#5
Angélique Mottais, Mathieu Berchel, Yann Sibiril, Véronique Laurent, Deborah Gill, Stephen Hyde, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Tristan Montier, Tony Le Gall
Cystic Fibrosis (CF), the most common chronic genetic disorder among the Caucasian population, is a life-threatening disease mainly due to respiratory failures resulting from chronic infections and inflammation. Although research in the pharmacological field has recently made significant progress, gene therapy still remains a promising strategy to cure CF, especially because it should be applicable to any patient whatever the mutation profile. Until now, little attention has been paid to bacterial lung infections with regard to gene delivery to the airways; yet, this could greatly impact on the success of gene therapy...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135616/intermittent-extracorporeal-co2-removal-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-a-fiction-or-an-option
#6
Francesco Alessandri, Francesco Pugliese, Luciana Mascia, Marco V Ranieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this article is to review evidence recently generated on the application of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation (invasive and non invasive) for hypercapnic respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, the paucity of evidences on ECCO2R to decrease the rate of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure and to wean hypercapnic patients from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) precludes to systematically apply this technology to COPD patients...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132117/an-extrapulmonary-manifestation-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-rare-case-report
#7
L Volkan Tümay, Osman Serhat Güner, Abdullah Zorluoğlu
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and fatal disease which occurs almost exclusively in young women. The disease often affects lungs and most of the patients die from respiratory failure. It is often initially misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most common presentations of pulmonary LAM (P-LAM) include dyspnea and coughing. Chylothorax and spontaneous pneumothorax may be seen in advanced cases. Although rare, it may present with extrapulmonary LAM (E-LAM). Renal angiomyolipomas and abdominal lymphadenopathies (LAPs) are common in E-LAM cases...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131071/highly-selective-endothelin-1-receptor-a-inhibition-prevents-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#8
Nikolaos Manitsopoulos, Ioanna Nikitopoulou, Nikolaos A Maniatis, Christina Magkou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos E Orfanos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease, which progressively leads to respiratory failure and ultimately death. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor secreted by endothelial cells, promotes vasoconstriction by activation of its receptors A and B. OBJECTIVES: We addressed the role of highly selective ET-1 receptor A (ETA) inhibition in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary fibrosis by bleomycin (BLM). METHODS: BLM sulfate (2 U/mL) or saline was intratracheally administered to C57/Bl6 mice (4 groups; n = 5-11/group)...
November 9, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121095/the-pedunculopontine-tegmentum-controls-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-activities-in-nembutal-anesthetized-rats
#9
Anne M Fink, Caron Dean, Mariann R Piano, David W Carley
Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120929/risk-factors-for-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-and-failure-to-rescue-a-review
#10
Kapil Gupta, Arun Prasad, Mahesh Nagappa, Jean Wong, Lusine Abrahamyan, Frances Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary objective of this review is to identify the risk factors for opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) in the postoperative period. RECENT FINDINGS: In the postoperative period, OIRD has often been reported resulting in morbidity and mortality. The risk factors which predispose surgical patients to increased risk of OIRD are not clearly defined. A literature search was performed for adult surgical patients who were prescribed opioids during their hospital stay and any available reports on postoperative respiratory depression/respiratory events...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118858/characteristics-and-predictors-of-mortality-of-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-requiring-invasive-mechanical-ventilation
#11
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Haya Al Orainni, Faten Al Eid, Haytham Tlayjeh, Abedalrahman Itani, Ayman Al Hejazi, Yaseen M Arabi
RATIONALE: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) may complicate the course of hematologic malignancies (HMs). Our objective was to study the characteristics, outcomes and predictors of mortality of patients with HMs who required intubation for ARF. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients with HMs who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City-Riyadh between 2008 and 2013 and required invasive mechanical ventilation...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115094/the-first-successful-lung-transplantation-in-a-korean-child-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Soo Ran Noh, Eun Lee, Jisun Yoon, Sungsu Jung, Song I Yang, Jinho Yu, Soo Jong Hong
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited multisystem disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Respiratory failure remains the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. Lung transplantation is the only option to treat end-stage lung disease. Very few cases of CF occur in Koreans. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with respiratory failure due to CF who underwent lung transplantation. She had been diagnosed with CF 8 years previously after being treated for recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and malnutrition based on sweat chloride concentrations and the CFTR protein gene mutation test...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109879/legionnaires-disease-complicated-with-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-aids-patient
#13
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo, Julio Perez Downes, Pramod Reddy
Objective: To present a case of an uncommon triad of Legionella pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure, with review of the relevant literature. Case: A 51-year-old with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypertension presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath over four days. Chest X-ray showed consolidation in left lower lung field; urine was positive for Legionella antigen and myoglobin; creatine kinase was 51092U/L; creatine was 6...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107404/what-is-the-utility-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-the-management-of-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-associated-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
EDITORIAL
Brit Long, Michael D April
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102950/fibrotic-lung-toxicity-induced-by-hydroxycarbamide
#15
Elena Bargagli, Marco Palazzi, Francesco Perri, Elena Torricelli, Elisabetta Rosi, Alessandra Bindi, Massimo Pistolesi, Luca Voltolini
A patient treated for 4 months with hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was admitted to hospital for recently developed severe dyspnea and acute respiratory failure. The computed tomographic scan of the chest showed diffuse ground glass opacities, some centrilobular low-density nodules (resembling hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like pattern), and minimal interstitial reticulation of the subpleural region. The analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid excluded infection, as did serological examinations...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100503/prognostic-and-diagnostic-significance-of-copeptin-in-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-acute-heart-failure-data-from-the-ace-2-study
#16
Jacob A Winther, Jon Brynildsen, Arne Didrik Høiseth, Heidi Strand, Ivar Følling, Geir Christensen, Ståle Nygård, Helge Røsjø, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: Copeptin is a novel biomarker that predicts mortality in lower respiratory tract infections and heart failure (HF), but the diagnostic value of copeptin in acute dyspnea and the prognostic significance of copeptin in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is not clear. METHOD: We determined copeptin and NT-proBNP concentrations at hospital admission in 314 patients with acute dyspnea who were categorized by diagnosis. Survival was registered after a median follow-up of 816 days, and the prognostic and diagnostic properties of copeptin and NT-proBNP were analyzed in acute HF (n = 143) and AECOPD (n = 84) separately...
November 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098995/two-year-mortality-in-survivors-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-north-indian-study
#17
Parvaiz A Koul, Hilal A Dar, Rafi A Jan, Sanaullah Shah, Umar Hafiz Khan
OBJECTIVES: Data about long-term mortality of Indian patients following acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are scant. We set out to study the 2-year mortality in north Indian patients following discharge after AECOPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one (96 male) patients admitted for AECOPD and discharged were followed for 2 years at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months for mortality. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with mortality...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095246/impact-of-national-ambient-air-quality-standards-nonattainment-designations-on-particulate-pollution-and-health
#18
Corwin M Zigler, Christine Choirat, Francesca Dominici
BACKGROUND: Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. METHODS: We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2...
October 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092656/effect-of-anemia-on-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Shruti K Gadre, Aravdeep Singh Jhand, Sami Abuqayyas, Xiaofeng Wang, Jorge Guzman, Abhijit Duggal
RATIONALE: The effect of anemia on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL) and 90-day and overall mortality in patients with COPD having acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between October 2007 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of any cause...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091081/protective-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-cigarette-smoke-and-influenza-infection
#20
M J Hong, B H Gu, M C Madison, C Landers, H Y Tung, M Kim, X Yuan, R You, A A Machado, B E Gilbert, P Soroosh, M Elloso, L Song, M Chen, D B Corry, G Diehl, F Kheradmand
Airborne pathogens commonly trigger severe respiratory failure or death in smokers with lung disease. Cigarette smoking compromises the effectiveness of innate immunity against infections but the underlying mechanisms responsible for defective acquired immune responses in smokers remains less clear. We found that mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke recovered poorly from primary Influenza A pneumonia with reduced type I and II interferons (IFNs) and viral-specific immunoglobulins, but recruited γδ T cells to the lungs that predominantly expressed interleukin 17A (IL-17A)...
November 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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