keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Heparan sulfate

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098909/biology-and-function-of-glypican-3-as-a-candidate-for-early-cancerous-transformation-of-hepatocytes-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-review
#1
Mauro Montalbano, Jeremias Georgiadis, Ashlyn L Masterson, Joshua T McGuire, Janika Prajapati, Ali Shirafkan, Cristiana Rastellini, Luca Cicalese
Glypican-3 (GPC-3), a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), has recently been investigated as a player in tissue-dependent cellular signaling, specifically as a regulator of growth. Noteworthy, the regulatory protein has been implicated in both stimulatory and inhibitory pathways involving cell growth. Initially, GPC-3 was thought to act as a cell cycle regulator, as a loss-of-function mutation in the gene caused a hyper-proliferative state known as Simpson-Golabi-Behmel (SGB) overgrowth syndrome...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098593/familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-an-underdiagnosed-lipid-disorder
#2
Charlotte Koopal, A David Marais, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; a model disease for remnant metabolism and remnant-associated cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is characterized by remnant accumulation caused by impaired remnant clearance, and premature cardiovascular disease. Most familial dysbetalipoproteinemia patients are homozygous for apolipoprotein ε2, which is associated with decreased binding of apolipoprotein E to the LDL receptor...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089430/high-variability-of-expression-profiles-of-homeologous-genes-for-wnt-hh-notch-and-hippo-signaling-pathways-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Tatsuo Michiue, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Yuuri Yasuoka, Toshiyasu Goto, Takafumi Ikeda, Kei Nagura, Takuya Nakayama, Masanori Taira, Tsutomu Kinoshita
Cell signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch, and Hippo, are essential for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. In this study, we analyzed 415 genes involved in these pathways in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. Most genes are retained in two subgenomes called L and S (193 homeologous gene pairs and 29 singletons). This conservation rate of homeologs is much higher than that of all genes in the X. laevis genome (86.9% vs 60.2%). Among singletons, 24 genes are retained in the L subgenome, a rate similar to the average for all genes (82...
January 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089344/heparan-sulfate-storage-in-the-cardiac-conduction-system-triggers-atrioventricular-block
#4
Rie Kato, Hiroaki Miyahara, Tatsuya Kawano, Atsuko Matsuzuka, Kimiko Noda, Tatsuro Izumi
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the novel biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) by clinic-pathologically studying a patient with paroxysmal atrioventricular (AV) block. PATIENT: A long-surviving male patient with Sanfilippo syndrome type A presented with paroxysmal AV block at age 33years. He then survived another 2.5years after the onset of paroxysmal AV block and pacemaker implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: His cardiac histopathological examination at autopsy showed HS storage in the cardiac conduction system (CCS), especially in the atrioventricular node (AVN)-His bundle branches...
January 12, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078967/the-glycocalyx-regulates-the-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#5
Leonhard Möckl, Stephanie Hirn, Adriano A Torrano, Bernd Uhl, Christoph Bräuchle, Fritz Krombach
AIM: To assess the role of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGCX) for the uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells. METHODS: The expression of the eGCX on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells was determined by immunostaining of heparan sulfate. Enzymatic degradation of the eGCX was achieved by incubating the cells with eGCX-shedding enzymes. The uptake of 50-nm polystyrene nanospheres was quantified by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressed a robust eGCX when cultured for 10 days...
January 12, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068429/functional-requirements-for-heparan-sulfate-biosynthesis-in-morphogenesis-and-nervous-system-development-in-c-elegans
#6
Cassandra R Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y Bénard
The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067452/expanding-the-catalytic-promiscuity-of-heparinase-iii-from-pedobacter-heparinus
#7
Yayun Gu, Meiling Lu, Zongqiang Wang, Xuri Wu, Yijun Chen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) lyases are useful biocatalysts for the preparation of oligosaccharides, but their substrate spectra are limited to the same family. Thus, the degradation activity across-families of GAG lyases is advantageous and desirable for various applications. In this study, residue Lys130 at the substrate entrance of monomeric heparinase III from Pedobacter heparinus ATCC 13125 was replaced by cysteine, and the resulting mutant K130C showed novel catalytic activity of degrading hyaluronic acid without affecting its native activity toward heparin and heparan sulfate...
January 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065440/glycosaminoglycan-levels-in-dried-blood-spots-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses-and-mucolipidoses
#8
Francyne Kubaski, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Roberto Giugliani, Heather J Church, Robert W Mason, Vũ Chí Dũng, Can Thi Bich Ngoc, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Katta M Girisha, Toshiyuki Fukao, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) and mucolipidoses (ML) are groups of lysosomal storage disorders in which lysosomal hydrolases are deficient leading to accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), throughout the body, subsequently resulting in progressive damage to multiple tissues and organs. Assays using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) have been established to measure GAGs in serum or plasma from MPS and ML patients, but few studies were performed to determine whether these assays are sufficiently robust to measure GAG levels in dried blood spots (DBS) of patients with MPS and ML...
December 22, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064160/specific-heparanase-inhibition-reverses-glucose-induced-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Valentina Masola, Simona Granata, Gloria Bellin, Giovanni Gambaro, Maurizio Onisto, Carlo Rugiu, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by high glucose (HG) levels is a major biological mechanism leading to myofibroblast accumulation in the omentum of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Heparanase (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate chains, is involved in the EMT of several cell lines, and may have a major role in this pro-fibrotic process potentially responsible for the failure of dialysis. Its specific inhibition may therefore plausibly minimize this pathological condition...
January 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062282/coupling-of-vinculin-to-f-actin-demands-syndecan-4-proteoglycan
#10
R P Cavalheiro, M A Lima, T R Jarrouge-Bouças, G M Viana, C C Lopes, V J Coulson-Thomas, J L Dreyfuss, E A Yates, I L S Tersariol, H B Nader
Syndecans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans characterized as transmembrane receptors that act cooperatively with the cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. Syn4 knockdown was performed in order to address its role in endothelial cells (EC) behavior. Normal EC and shRNA-Syn4-EC cells were studied comparatively using complementary confocal, super-resolution and non-linear microscopic techniques. Confocal and super-resolution microscopy revealed that Syn4 knockdown alters the level and arrangement of essential proteins for focal adhesion, evidenced by the decoupling of vinculin from F-actin filaments...
January 3, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055182/arylsulfatase-k-is-the-lysosomal-2-sulfoglucuronate-sulfatase
#11
Omkar P Dhamale, Roger Lawrence, Elena M Wiegmann, Bhahwal A Shah, Kanar Al-Mafraji, William C Lamanna, Torben Lübke, Thomas Dierks, Geert-Jan Boons, Jeffrey D Esko
The degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) involves a series of exolytic glycosidases and sulfatases that act sequentially on the nonreducing end of the polysaccharide chain. Enzymes have been cloned that catalyze all of the known linkages with the exception of the removal of the 2-O-sulfate group from 2-sulfoglucuronate, which is found in heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Here, we show using synthetic disaccharide substrates that arylsulfatase K is the glucuronate-2-sulfatase. Arylsulfatase K acts selectively on 2-sulfoglucuronate and lacks activity against 2-sulfoiduronate, whereas iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) desulfates synthetic disaccharides containing 2-sulfoiduronate but not 2-sulfoglucuronate...
January 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053142/differences-in-the-secretion-and-transport-of-wnt-proteins
#12
Shinji Takada, Sayumi Fujimori, Takuma Shinozuka, Ritsuko Takada, Yusuke Mii
During the last three decades, our understanding about Wnt signaling has progressed greatly, especially with regards to the molecular mechanism of intracellular transmission of this signaling, as well as its physiological roles. In parallel, the molecular nature of Wnt proteins has gradually but surely been clarified. Wnt proteins are post-translationaly modified with fatty acid and glycosaminoglycans, resulting in constraint of the 3D structure and behavior of the proteins. Specific binding proteins or extracellular vesicles, which appear to shield the lipid moiety from the aquatic environment, enable Wnt proteins to be transported in the extracellular space...
January 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053085/inhibition-of-mammalian-glycoprotein-ykl-40-identification-of-the-physiological-ligand
#13
Abhishek A Kognole, Christina M Payne
YKL-40 is a mammalian glycoprotein associated with progression, severity, and prognosis of chronic inflammatory diseases and a multitude of cancers. Despite this well-documented association, identification of the lectin's physiological ligand, and accordingly, biological function, has proven experimentally difficult. YKL-40 has been shown to bind chito-oligosaccharides; however, the production of chitin by the human body has not yet been documented. Possible alternative ligands include proteoglycans, polysaccharides, and fibers like collagen, all of which makeup the extracellular matrix...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045967/induction-of-multiple-mir-200-182-members-in-the-brains-of-mice-are-associated-with-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-1-encephalitis
#14
Anna Majer, Kyle A Caligiuri, Kamilla K Gale, Yulian Niu, Clark S Phillipson, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth
Important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the host response during viral infection have begun to be defined. However, little is known about the functional roles of miRNAs within an in vivo acute viral encephalitis model. We therefore identified global changes in miRNA expression during acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE) in mice. We found that many of the highly upregulated miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146a and miR-15b) detected in HSV-1 infected brain tissue are known regulators of inflammation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044098/polymyxins-facilitate-entry-into-mammalian-cells
#15
Kristina M Hamill, Lisa S McCoy, Ezequiel Wexselblatt, Jeffrey D Esko, Yitzhak Tor
Polymyxin B is an antibiotic used against multi-resistant gram negative infections, despite observed nephrotoxicity. Here we report the synthesis of functionalized derivatives of polymyxin B and its per-guanidinylated derivative in order to further explore the structural requirements necessary to facilitate uptake of the antibiotic into mammalian cells. We also investigate the possibility of using these novel scaffolds as molecular transporters. At nanomolar concentrations, both are capable of delivering large cargo (>300 kDa) into living cells...
August 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038446/heparanase-augments-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-breast-carcinoma
#16
Rachel Goldberg, Amir Sonnenblick, Esther Hermano, Tamar Hamburger, Amichay Meirovitz, Tamar Peretz, Michael Elkin
Recently, growing interest in the potential link between metabolic disorders (i.e., diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome) and breast cancer has mounted, including studies which indicate that diabetic/hyperinsulinemic women have a significantly higher risk of bearing breast tumors that are more aggressive and associated with higher death rates. Insulin signaling is regarded as a major contributor to this phenomenon; much less is known about the role of heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme heparanase in the link between metabolic disorders and cancer...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035357/identification-of-a-novel-mutation-in-the-ext1-gene-from-a-patient-with-multiple-osteochondromas-by-exome-sequencing
#17
Guolin Hong, Xiaoyan Guo, Wei Yan, Qianqian Li, Hailing Zhao, Ping Ma, Xiao Hu
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal skeletal disease with an elusive molecular mechanism. To further elucidate the genetic mechanism of the disease a three‑generation Chinese family with MO was observed and researched, and a novel frameshift mutation (c.335_336insA) in the exotosin 1 (EXT1) gene of one patient with MO was observed through exome sequencing. This was further validated by Sanger sequencing and comparison with 200 unrelated healthy controls. Immunohistochemistry and multiple sequence alignment were performed to determine the pathogenicity of the candidate mutation...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031461/heparan-sulfate-domains-required-for-fibroblast-growth-factor-1-and-2-signaling-through-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1c
#18
Victor Schultz, Mathew Suflita, Xinyue Liu, Xing Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Lingyun Li, Dixy E Green, Yongmei Xu, Fuming Zhang, Paul L DeAngelis, Jian Liu, Robert J Linhardt
A small library, of well-defined heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides, was chemoenzymatically synthesized and used for a detailed structure-activity study of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)1 and FGF2 signaling through FGF receptor (FGFR)1c. The HS polysaccharide tested contained both undersulfated (NA) domains and highly sulfated (NS) domains as well as very well defined non-reducing termini. This study examines differences in the HS selectivity of the positive canyons of the FGF12-FGFR1c2 and FGF22-FGFR1c2 HS-binding sites of the symmetric FGF2-FGFR2HS2 signal transduction complex...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031321/inflammatory-hypoxia-induces-syndecan-2-expression-through-il-1%C3%AE-mediated-foxo3a-activation-in-colonic-epithelia
#19
Sojoong Choi, Heesung Chung, Heejeong Hong, So Yeon Kim, Seong-Eun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Chang Mo Moon, Eun Gyeong Yang, Eok-Soo Oh
Chronic inflammation is known to be a key causative factor in tumor progression, but we do not yet fully understand the molecular mechanism through which inflammation leads to cancer. Here, we report that the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of chronic colitis is associated with increases in the serum level of IL-1β and the colonic epithelial expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-2. We further show that IL-1β stimulated the transcription of syndecan-2 via NF-κB-dependent FOXO3a activation in normal colonic epithelial cells (CCD841CoN cells) and early-stage colon cancer cells (HT29 cells)...
December 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025251/non-reducing-end-labeling-of-heparan-sulfate-via-click-chemistry-and-a-high-throughput-elisa-assay-for-heparanase
#20
Zhengliang L Wu, Xinyi Huang, Cheryl Ethen, Timothy Tatge, Marta Pasek, Joseph Zaia
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell membrane. It plays numerous roles in cellular events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation through binding to various growth factors, cytokines and other ECM proteins. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that cleaves HS in the ECM and cell membrane. By degrading HS, HPSE not only alters the integrity of the ECM but also releases growth factors and angiogenic factors bound to HS chains, therefore, changes various cellular activities, including cell mobility that is critical for cancer metastasis...
December 26, 2016: Glycobiology
keyword
keyword
25066
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"