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Chest radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779492/pretreatment-chest-x-ray-severity-and-its-relation-to-bacterial-burden-in-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777243/comparison-of-formulae-for-orotracheal-intubation-depth-in-the-paediatric-population
#2
Jen Heng Pek, Elizabeth Mj Tan, Ying Hao, Gene Yk Ong
INTRODUCTION: Multiple formulae have been proposed for calculating orotracheal depth for paediatric intubation. However, literature on the validation of these formulae in the emergency department setting is limited. Three methods described in the local Advanced Paediatric Life Support curriculum include the Broselow tape, endotracheal tube (ETT) size x 3, and the age-based formula of age divided by 2, add 12. We aimed to determine their accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with intubation performed in the Children's Emergency from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 were included in this retrospective observational study...
April 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771962/progression-of-the-radiologic-severity-index-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-parainfluenza-virus-associated-lower-respiratory-infections
#3
Ajay Sheshadri, Dimpy P Shah, Myrna Godoy, Jeremy J Erasmus, Juhee Song, Liang Li, Scott E Evans, Roy F Chemaly, Burton F Dickey, David E Ost
BACKGROUND: Radiologic severity may predict adverse outcomes after lower respiratory tract infection (LRI). However, few studies have quantified radiologic severity of LRIs. We sought to evaluate whether a semi-quantitative scoring tool, the Radiologic Severity Index (RSI), predicted mortality after parainfluenza virus (PIV)-associated LRI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of consecutively-enrolled adult patients with hematologic malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with PIV detected in nasal wash who subsequently developed radiologically-confirmed LRI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769093/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-17-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-pakistan
#4
Omar Irfan, Haris Khan, Zarrar Khan, Alina Ashraf, Rimsha Ahmed, Javaid Ahmad Khan, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi
OBJECTIVE: Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune, multi-system, small and medium vessel vasculitis with granulomatous inflammation. Aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological presentations of patients with GPA amongst the Pakistani population. It is a single centre retrospective single observation study. RESULTS: Study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi with records were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2017...
May 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768566/pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis-a-case-report-of-reactivation-in-a-patient-receiving-biological-therapy
#5
Lúcia Carla Polaco Covre, Pâmela Mazzini Hombre, Aloísio Falqueto, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Valéria Valim
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America that is rarely associated with immunosuppression and biological therapy. Herein, we report for the first time a case of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis reactivation after infliximab treatment. A 47-year-old man from Brazil received infliximab to treat psoriatic spondyloarthropathy and presented with cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and fever. Chest computed tomography revealed a pulmonary nodule and biopsy confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis. Treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was initiated for fungal infection and infliximab was reintroduced two months later...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766334/a-new-modified-anthropometric-haller-index-obtained-without-radiological-exposure
#6
Andrea Sonaglioni, Massimo Baravelli, Antonio Vincenti, Roberta Trevisan, Maurizio Zompatori, Gian Luigi Nicolosi, Michele Lombardo, Claudio Anzà
To validate a new modified method for measuring the anthropometric Haller index (HI), obtained without radiological exposure. This new method was based on the use of a rigid ruler and of a 2.5 MHz ultrasound transducer for the assessment of latero-lateral and antero-posterior chest diameters, respectively. We enrolled 100 consecutive patients (mean age 67.9 ± 14.5 years, 55% males), who underwent a two-plane CXR, for any clinical indication, over a four-month period. In all patients, the same radiologist calculated the conventional radiological HI (mean value 1...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766301/randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-laparoscopic-hiatal-hernia-repair-using-sutures-versus-sutures-reinforced-with-non-absorbable-mesh
#7
Jelmer E Oor, David J Roks, Jan H Koetje, Joris A Broeders, Henderik L van Westreenen, Vincent B Nieuwenhuijs, Eric J Hazebroek
BACKGROUND: Current literature is characterized by a discrepancy between reported symptomatic and radiological recurrent hiatal hernia's following primary repair. Crural augmentation using mesh is suggested to reduce recurrence rates. The aim of this trial is to analyze 1-year outcome of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair using sutures versus sutures reinforced with non-absorbable mesh. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2016, 72 patients with an objectified hiatal hernia were randomized for primary repair using non-absorbable sutures and sutures reinforced with non-absorbable mesh...
May 15, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764749/prognosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#8
Maiko Naito, Yu Kurahara, Shiomi Yoshida, Naoya Ikegami, Takehiko Kobayashi, Shojiro Minomo, Kazunobu Tachibana, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Seiji Hayashi, Katsuhiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (PNTM) is a known risk factor for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). However, few studies have focused on the prognosis of PNTM-associated CPA. In the present investigation, we aimed to elucidate the clinical course and prognostic factors of CPA in patients with PNTM. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 62 patients with CPA and a history of PNTM who were admitted to Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center between 2010 and 2015...
May 11, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764746/appropriateness-and-clinical-outcome-of-chest-computed-tomography-without-intravenous-contrast-a-study-conducted-in-pakistan
#9
Amjad Sattar, Sohail Ahmed Khan, Nauman Al-Qamari, Hatem Adel, Syed Omair Adil, Kashif Shafique
BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT), including high-resolution CT (HRCT), has become an integral part of modern healthcare. It enables the physician to arrive at a diagnosis using a noninvasive approach. Our practice has shown that various chest CT scans without intravenous (IV) contrast, including HRCT, have no proper clinical indication. For the same reason, we have assessed the appropriateness of chest CT without IV contrast based on the evidence-based American College of Radiology (ACR) appropriateness criteria...
March 28, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759664/angiographic-efficacy-of-the-atriclip-left-atrial-appendage-exclusion-device-placed-by-minimally-invasive-thoracoscopic-approach
#10
Christopher R Ellis, Sam G Aznaurov, Neel J Patel, Jennifer R Williams, Kim Lori Sandler, Steven J Hoff, Stephen K Ball, S Patrick Whalen, John Jeffrey Carr
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess long-term left atrial appendage (LAA) closure efficacy of the Atriclip applied via totally thoracoscopic (TT) approach with computed tomographic angiography. BACKGROUND: LAA closure is associated with a low risk for atrial fibrillation-related embolic stroke. The Atriclip exclusion device allows epicardial LAA closure, avoiding the need for post-operative oral anticoagulation. Previous data with Atriclip during open chest procedures show a high efficacy rate of closure >95%...
December 11, 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759424/lung-ultrasound-findings-undetectable-by-chest-radiography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Giulio Iorio, Maria Capasso, Salvatore Prisco, Giuseppe De Luca, Carlo Mancusi, Bruno Laganà, Maria Antonietta Piscopo, Vincenzo Comune
The purpose of our study was to evaluate any differences between lung ultrasonography and chest radiography (CR) images in children with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and, if there are any, to analyze the reasons and possible clinical implications. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2014 to December 2016 and selected only cases discharged with a diagnosis of CAP who had undergone performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and CR within 24 h of each other...
May 11, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758455/deep-neural-networks-for-automatic-detection-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-on-ct-scans
#12
Naofumi Tomita, Yvonne Y Cheung, Saeed Hassanpour
Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are prevalent in older adults and are associated with substantial personal suffering and socio-economic burden. Early diagnosis and treatment of OVFs are critical to prevent further fractures and morbidity. However, OVFs are often under-diagnosed and under-reported in computed tomography (CT) exams as they can be asymptomatic at an early stage. In this paper, we present and evaluate an automatic system that can detect incidental OVFs in chest, abdomen, and pelvis CT examinations at the level of practicing radiologists...
May 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756723/-pleuropulmonary-blastoma-case-report
#13
Jenny C Salazar, Manuel Pardo, Víctor M Mora-Bautista
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma corresponds to a malignant primary lung disorder, exclusive of pediatric age, infrequent and of aggressive characteristics. Age on diagnosis is 1 month-12 years. Rates per sex are equal. It can be found inside pleura or lungs. Respiratory distress associated or not with pneumothorax, chest pain and fever are classical clinical signs. These symptoms could be misdiagnosed as pneumonia. Radiologically, a large mass near the pleura at the base of the right lung without air bronchogram is its most common form...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750674/evaluating-plutonium-intake-and-radiation-dose-following-extensive-chelation-treatment
#14
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A voluntary partial-body donor (U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries Case 0785) was accidentally exposed to Pu via inhalation and wounds. This individual underwent medical treatment including wound excision and extensive chelation treatment with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Approximately 2.2 kBq of Pu was measured in the wound site 44 y after the accident. Major soft tissues and selected bones were collected at autopsy and radiochemically analyzed for Pu, Pu, and Am...
May 4, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748750/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-associated-with-distinct-radiographic-presentations
#15
Oana G Falup-Pecurariu, Javier Diez-Domingo, Susanna Esposito, Adam Finn, Fernanda Rodrigues, Vana Spoulou, George A Syrogiannopoulos, Vytautas Usonis, David Greenberg
Chest radiographs from children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were categorized into three distinct presentations and each presentation was correlated to clinical and laboratory findings. Children < 59 months with CAP presenting to pediatric emergency rooms during two years were enrolled prospectively in eight centers across Europe. Clinical and laboratory data were documented and radiographs obtained from patients. Of the 1107 enrolled patients, radiographs were characterized as 74.9% alveolar CAP, 8...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748003/frequency-and-distribution-of-incidental-findings-deemed-appropriate-for-s-modifier-designation-on-low-dose-ct-in-a-lung-cancer-screening-program
#16
Michael J Reiter, Allison Nemesure, Ezemonye Madu, Lisa Reagan, April Plank
PURPOSE: To describe the frequency, distribution and reporting patterns of incidental findings receiving the Lung-RADS S modifier on low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) among lung cancer screening participants. METHODS: This retrospective investigation included 581 individuals who received baseline low-dose chest CT for lung cancer screening between October 2013 and June 2017 at a single center. Incidental findings resulting in assignment of Lung-RADS S modifier were recorded as were incidental abnormalities detailed within the body of the radiology report only...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746377/risk-factors-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-hospitalized-with-cap-younger-than-5-years-of-age
#17
Wei Shan, Ting Shi, Kaile Chen, Jian Xue, Yin Wang, Jia Yu, Genming Zhao, Jianmei Tian, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: CAP causes great morbidity and mortality as well as enormous economic burden worldwide. This study intended to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP and explore the risk factors of severe CAP among children in downtown Suzhou, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of childhood hospitalizations in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <5 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743783/dental-technicians-pneumoconiosis-illness-behind-a-healthy-smile-case-series-of-a-reference-center-in-turkey
#18
Nur Şafak Alici, Ayşe Coşkun Beyan, Yücel Demıral, Arif Çimrin
Background: Dental laboratories include many hazards and risks. Dental technicians working in an unfavorable work environment in Turkey and other parts of the world may develop pneumoconiosis as a result of exposure to dust, depending on exposure time. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory findings of dental technicians. Materials and Methods: The study consists of a case series. Between 2013 and 2016, a total of 70 who were working as a dental technician and referred to our clinic with suspicion of occupational disease were evaluated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741664/estimation-of-adult-patient-doses-for-chest-x-ray-examinations-and-comparison-with-diagnostic-reference-levels-drls
#19
H Bas Mor, N Altinsoy, I Söyler
The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses to patient during chest (posterior anterior/and lateral) examinations. The study was performed in three public hospitals of İstanbul province with a total of 300 adult patients. Entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements were conducted on computed radiography, digital radiography and screen film system. ESD was estimated by using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) model and Davies model which are the common indirect models. Results were compared with diagnostic reference levels from the European Commission, IAEA and National Radiological Protection Board...
May 8, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740732/successful-treatment-with-idarucizumab-for-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-induced-by-dabigatran-etexilate-a-case-report
#20
Akihiro Shiroshita, Kei Nakashima, Yu Tanaka, Akiko Tateishi, Masahiro Nemoto, Masahiro Aoshima
We report the case of an 81-year-old man taking dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran) for chronic atrial fibrillation, who presented with acute-onset hemoptysis and hypoxia. Chest high-resolution computed tomography showed bilateral ground grass opacities. After admission, his respiratory failure progressed rapidly and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed immediately, which showed copious amounts of bloody fluid and hemosiderin-laden macrophages with Prussian blue staining. He was diagnosed as having diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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