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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329968/reexamining-unconscious-response-priming-a-liminal-prime-paradigm
#1
Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming...
January 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329371/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-and-later-working-memory-findings-from-a-large-population-based-birth-cohort
#2
Liam Mahedy, Matt Field, Suzanne Gage, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Matt Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers)...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#3
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322820/reevaluation-of-the-critically-ill-patients-with-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-by-using-salzburg-consensus-criteria
#4
Ozlem Gungor Tuncer, Ebru Altindag, Sevda Ozel Yildiz, Mecbure Nalbantoglu, Mehmet Eren Acik, Sedef Tavukcu Ozkan, Betul Baykan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the usefulness of the Salzburg Consensus Criteria (SCC) for determining the prognosis of critically ill patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with unconsciousness followed up in the intensive care unit (ICU). Three clinical neurophysiologists, one of them blinded to clinical and laboratory data, reevaluated all EEG data independently and determined NCSE according to SCC...
January 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318929/the-pharmacogenetics-of-medications-used-in-general-anesthesia
#5
Shangchen Xie, Wenjuan Ma, Qulian Guo, Jie Liu, Wei Li, Howard L McLeod, Yijing He
General anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia and akinesia induced by drugs including opioids, hypnotic-sedative agents, muscle relaxants and antiemetics. Clinical and genetic factors are reported to influence the efficacy and side effects of these agents. Based on the evidence, clinical action is needed to improve clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the latest knowledge with regards to the pharmacogenetics of anesthetics and general anesthesia related complications.
January 10, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316459/a-discrete-particle-model-reproducing-collective-dynamics-of-a-bee-swarm
#6
Sara Bernardi, Annachiara Colombi, Marco Scianna
In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field...
January 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314508/how-the-dual-process-model-of-human-cognition-can-inform-efforts-to-de-implement-ineffective-and-harmful-clinical-practices-a-preliminary-model-of-unlearning-and-substitution
#7
Christian D Helfrich, Adam J Rose, Christine W Hartmann, Leti van Bodegom-Vos, Ian D Graham, Suzanne J Wood, Barbara R Majerczyk, Chester B Good, Leonard M Pogach, Sherry L Ball, David H Au, David C Aron
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: One way to understand medical overuse at the clinician level is in terms of clinical decision-making processes that are normally adaptive but become maladaptive. In psychology, dual process models of cognition propose 2 decision-making processes. Reflective cognition is a conscious process of evaluating options based on some combination of utility, risk, capabilities, and/or social influences. Automatic cognition is a largely unconscious process occurring in response to environmental or emotive cues based on previously learned, ingrained heuristics...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314025/disrupted-narrative-and-narrative-symbol
#8
Georgije Vuletić
In this article a specific type of narrative, which often appears in analytic sessions, is discussed. It is characterized by a seemingly ordinary, everyday topic and by a peculiar disruption of the narrative flow. The threefold structure of this type of narrative is described, along with its main characteristics. One element of this type of narrative is very similar to symbolic content or complex symbolic structures, e.g. dreams, the sort of material that can be used for the purpose of interpretation. The similarities as well as the differences are elaborated in the article...
February 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309915/slow-and-steady-not-fast-and-furious-slow-temporal-modulation-strengthens-continuous-flash-suppression
#9
Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) involves the presentation of a rapidly changing Mondrian sequence to one eye and a static target in the other eye. Targets presented in this manner remain suppressed for several seconds at a time, and this has seen the prevalent use of CFS in studies of unconscious visual processes. However, the mechanisms behind CFS remain unclear, complicating its use and the comprehension of results obtained with the paradigm. For example, some studies report observations indicative of faster, visual masking processes whereas others suggest slower, rivalry processes...
January 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307694/adult-males-buffer-the-cortisol-response-of-young-guinea-pigs-changes-with-age-mediation-by-behavior-and-comparison-with-prefrontal-activity
#10
Michael B Hennessy, W Tang Watanasriyakul, Brittany C Price, Alexander S Bertke, Patricia A Schiml
In the guinea pig, the presence of the mother buffers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses of her young during exposure to a novel environment, and can do so even if she is anesthetized. In contrast, under comparable conditions other conspecifics (siblings, other adult females) are less effective or ineffective in doing so. However, we recently observed that an unfamiliar adult male reduced plasma cortisol elevations and increased Fos in the prefrontal cortex of preweaning pups exposed to a novel enclosure for 120min...
January 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305729/identifying-and-assessing-environmental-awareness-of-hotel-and-restaurant-employees-attitudes-in-the-amasra-district-of-bartin
#11
Cengiz Yucedag, Latif Gurkan Kaya, Mehmet Cetin
Environmental damage occurring on individual, institutional, and societal levels is one of the major problems in the world and results from mostly unconscious human behavior. This damage poses serious threats to human health and other habitats. The aim of this study is to determine the level of environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees in the Amasra District of Bartin, Turkey. For this purpose, a descriptive survey method is used to measure 16 items with a 5-point Likert scale. Data are obtained from 200 employees in the hotels and restaurants as of 2015...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294871/beyond-the-force-substance-dichotomy-examining-the-experience-of-combined-and-incapacitated-type-rapes-and-their-relation-to-ptsd-symptoms
#12
Amy A McConnell, Terri L Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz, David DiLillo
Prior research has examined how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are influenced by the experience of different types of rape, defined according to the method of coercion used. This work, which classifies rape experiences as either forcible or substance-involved, has yielded mixed findings regarding differences in PTSD symptoms as a function of rape type. Based on recent evidence indicating significant heterogeneity within substance-involved rapes, the present study utilized a novel four-group conceptualization of rape type to examine differences in PTSD symptom severity and associated factors across rape type...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294785/-but-he-s-a-star-football-player-how-social-status-influences-mock-jurors-perceptions-in-a-sexual-assault-case
#13
Emily Pica, Chelsea Sheahan, Joanna Pozzulo
There have been several recent, high-profile cases in the media that have shed light on the perceived leniency in sentencing defendants in sexual assault cases. In a number of these cases, the defendant was well known within their community (e.g., Brock Turner; People v. Turner) or nationally (e.g., Ghomeshi; R v. Ghomeshi). The purpose of this study was to examine how the social status of the defendant (low vs. high), victim social status (low vs. high), victim gender (male vs. female), and the reason the victim was unconscious during the assault (consuming alcohol vs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284489/the-ethical-relevance-of-the-unconscious
#14
REVIEW
Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers
BACKGROUND: Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research. METHODS: A conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions...
December 29, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283750/evidence-for-implicit-but-not-unconscious-processing-of-object-scene-relations
#15
Natalie Biderman, Liad Mudrik
Is consciousness necessary for integration? Findings of seemingly high-level object-scene integration in the absence of awareness have challenged major theories in the field and attracted considerable scientific interest. Lately, one of these findings has been questioned because of a failure to replicate, yet the other finding was still uncontested. Here, we show that this latter finding-slowed-down performance on a visible target following a masked prime scene that includes an incongruent object-is also not reproducible...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283625/the-implicit-revolution-reconceiving-the-relation-between-conscious-and-unconscious
#16
Anthony G Greenwald, Mahzarin R Banaji
In the 1970s, memory researchers converged on interesting phenomena observed in Korsakoff-syndrome amnesic patients. These patients' performances on difficult tasks were reliably improved by practice sessions from which they could recall nothing. Related findings of indirect memory effects in college students triggered wide attention to phenomena that, in 1985, were first identified as implicit memory. Within a decade, the indirect measurement methods of implicit memory research had spread to social psychologists' studies of attitudes and stereotypes...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283153/bilateral-medial-rectus-palsy-due-to-midbrain-infarction-following-concussion-head-injury
#17
Hansa H Thakkar, Apeksha Agrawal, Stuti Trivedi, Kartikey Singh
Here, we report a rare case of bilateral medial rectus palsy following closed head injury. An adult male had an accidental fall which rendered him unconscious. This was followed by diplopia and restricted ocular motility. He received supportive medical therapy. He was examined for systemic medical and ophthalmic findings. Routine laboratory tests and imaging techniques were employed as per the symptoms. Diffusion-weighted imaging on magnetic resonance imaging proved it to be a rare presentation of small bilateral midbrain infarct...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282340/-from-involuntary-movements-to-movement-disorders
#18
Toshio Fukutake
Apart from the term 'involuntary movements', the term 'movement disorders' encompasses not only classical hyperkinesias but also hypokinesias including catalepsy or apraxia. It enables us to understand abnormal movements by their phenomena instead of by their localization. To advance the grasping of movement disorders, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiological features of abnormal movements in catatonia/catalepsy, anti-NMDAR encephalitis, paroxysmal dyskinesias, stiff person/leg syndrome, corticobasal degeneration/syndrome, and hysteria...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275522/intraoperative-total-spinal-anesthesia-as-a-complication-of-posterior-percutaneous-endoscopic-cervical-discectomy
#19
Wenkai Wu, Zhengjian Yan
PURPOSE: Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) is an emerging surgical treatment for cervical disc herniation in recent years, but the complications of PECD are rarely reported. In this case report, we aimed to report two cases of total spinal anesthesia, an unusual complication of PECD. METHODS AND RESULTS: One patient became unconscious with unstable vital signs and another patient appeared with numbness of both arms and legs during PECD operation...
December 23, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274102/effect-of-age-on-narcotrend-index-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-children-below-2%C3%A2-years-of-age
#20
Nils Dennhardt, Stefanie Arndt, Christiane Beck, Dietmar Boethig, Sebastian Heiderich, Barbara Schultz, Frank Weber, Robert Sümpelmann
BACKGROUND: In older children, different electroencephalogram-based algorithms for measuring depth of anesthesia displayed a similar performance as in adults, but in infants they have not displayed the same reliability so far. According to the individual developmental state, the Narcotrend distinguishes "differentiated" electroencephalograms, which can be classified using the full Narcotrend Index scale, from "undifferentiated" electroencephalograms, which are classified using a scale with fewer stages...
December 23, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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