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Traumatic Brain Injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471249/post-mortem-biochemistry-of-nse-and-s100b-a-supplemental-tool-for-detecting-a-lethal-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470982/rip3-deficiency-protects-against-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-through-suppressing-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis-dependent-on-ampk-pathway
#2
Zai-Ming Liu, Qian-Xue Chen, Zhi-Biao Chen, Dao-Feng Tian, Ming-Chang Li, Jun-Min Wang, Long Wang, Bao-Hui Liu, Shen-Qi Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Ye, Long Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and mortality in young adults worldwide. The pathophysiology is not fully understood. Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) is a newly identified mechanism of cell death combining features of both apoptosis and necrosis. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) plays an important role in programmed necrosis. However, the effect of RIP3-related pathway in TBI is little to be known. We attempted to explore the significance of RIP3 in regulating TBI in vivo...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470527/value-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-laparoscopy-for-patients-with-blunt-abdominal-trauma-a-10-year-medical-center-experience
#3
Heng-Fu Lin, Ying-Da Chen, Shyr-Chyr Chen
Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis and treatment for hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. This study evaluated whether diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy can be used as effectively in select patients with blunt abdominal trauma. All hemodynamically stable patients undergoing operations for blunt abdominal trauma over a 10-year period (2006-2015) at a tertiary medical center were included. Patients undergoing laparotomy were categorized as group A. Patients who underwent laparoscopy were categorized as group B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469640/detecting-malingering-in-traumatic-brain-injury-combining-response-time-with-performance-validity-test-accuracy
#4
Robert J Kanser, Lisa J Rapport, Jesse R Bashem, Robin A Hanks
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the incremental utility of item-level response time (RT) variables on a traditional performance validity test in distinguishing adults with verified TBI from adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment. METHOD: Participants were 45 adults with moderate to severe TBI, 45 healthy adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment (SIM), and 61 healthy adult comparisons providing full effort (HC). All participants completed a computerized version of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM-C) in the context of a larger test battery...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468595/an-in-vitro-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Ellaine Salvador, Malgorzata Burek, Carola Y Förster
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem causing high mortality globally. Methods to increase possibilities for treatment and prevention of secondary injuries resulting from the initial physical insult are thus much needed. TBI affects the central nervous system (CNS) and the neurovascular unit as a whole in numerous ways but one of the primarily compromised components is the blood-brain barrier (BBB).In this chapter, we present a detailed procedure on how stretch injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) are applied to brain microvascular endothelial cells of the BBB in order to replicate the actual impact they receive during TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468582/a-mouse-controlled-cortical-impact-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-for-studying-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunctions
#6
Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a silently growing epidemic with multifaceted pathogenesis, and current standards of treatments aim to target only the symptoms of the primary injury, while there is a tremendous need to explore interventions that can halt the progression of the secondary injuries. The use of a reliable animal model to study and understand the various aspects the pathobiology of TBI is extremely important in therapeutic drug development against TBI-associated complications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468581/a-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-model-for-studying-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#7
Paige S Katz, Patricia E Molina
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnoses have increased in frequency during the past decade, becoming a silent epidemic. The pathophysiology of TBI involves pathophysiological processes affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces resulting in temporary impairment of neurological function. Preclinical models have been generated to recapitulate the mechanical, neuroinflammatory, and behavioral outcomes observed in the clinical setting. The lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model is the most extensively used and well-characterized model of nonpenetrating and nonischemic TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467361/resveratrol-attenuates-cognitive-deficits-of-traumatic-brain-injury-by-activating-p38-signaling-in-the-brain
#8
Zhenhua Shi, Wusi Qiu, Guomin Xiao, Jun Cheng, Ning Zhang
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by cognitive deficits, which was associated with brain oxidative stress and apoptosis. Resveratrol (RSV) is an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative. This study aimed to investigate neuroprotective effects and involved molecular mechanisms in TBI. MATERIAL AND METHODS RSV and p38 inhibitor were administrated to TBI rats. Cognitive deficits were evaluated by Morris water maze assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were detected in rat brains by fluorescent staining...
February 22, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467028/diurnal-variation-of-nmda-receptor-expression-in-the-rat-cerebral-cortex-is-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury-damage
#9
Francisco Estrada-Rojo, Julio Morales-Gomez, Elvia Coballase-Urrutia, Marina Martinez-Vargas, Luz Navarro
OBJECTIVE: Data from our laboratory suggest that recovery from a traumatic brain injury depends on the time of day at which it occurred. In this study, we examined whether traumatic brain injury -induced damage is related to circadian variation in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in rat cortex. RESULTS: We confirmed that traumatic brain injury recovery depended on the time of day at which the damage occurred. We also found that motor cortex N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 expression exhibited diurnal variation in both control and traumatic brain injury-subjected rats...
February 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466920/trajectory-of-functional-independent-measurements-during-first-5-years-following-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Juan Lu, Cecilie Roe, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic, Marit Vindal Forslund
A better understanding of long-term functional recovery process for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) facilitates effective rehabilitations. The objective of this study was to classify and characterize patients with moderate-to-severe TBI based on their functional trajectories up to 5-years following injury. The study included 121 patients with moderate-to-severe TBIs (ICD-10: S06.0-S06.9), aged 16-55 years and admitted at Trauma Referral Hospital within 24-hours of injury between 2005 and 2007. Demographics and injury characteristics were documented at the admission, and functional status was recorded at 3 months, 1 and 5 years post injury using Functional Independence Measure motor (FIM-M) and cognitive (FIM-C) subscales...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466698/erk1-2-mtor-stat3-pathway-mediated-autophagy-alleviates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-acute-lung-injury
#11
Xiupeng Xu, Tongle Zhi, Zhongyuan Bao, Kuan Jiang, Yinlong Liu, Honglu Chao, Liang Fan, Dong Wang, Zheng Li, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of several complications in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autophagy is a primary homeostatic process that promotes cell survival under stress. Accumulating evidence implicates autophagy in the pathogenesis of ALI under various conditions. However, the role of autophagy in TBI-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to adjust autophagy with pharmacological agents to determine its functional significance in TBI-induced ALI. Rats were preconditioned with autophagy promoter rapamycin or inhibitor 3-methyladenine before they were challenged with TBI...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466474/early-measurement-of-interleukin-10-predicts-the-absence-of-ct-scan-lesions-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Linnéa Lagerstedt, Juan José Egea-Guerrero, Ana Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro Bustamante, Joan Montaner, Amir El Rahal, Elisabeth Andereggen, Lara Rinaldi, Asita Sarrafzadeh, Karl Schaller, Jean-Charles Sanchez
Traumatic brain injury is a common event where 70%-90% will be classified as mild TBI (mTBI). Among these, only 10% will have a brain lesion visible via CT scan. A triage biomarker would help clinicians to identify patients with mTBI who are at risk of developing a brain lesion and require a CT scan. The brain cells damaged by the shearing, tearing and stretching of a TBI event set off inflammation cascades. These cause altered concentrations of a high number of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory proteins...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465433/emerging-targets-for-reprograming-the-immune-response-to-promote-repair-and-recovery-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Faith H Brennan, Phillip G Popovich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In adult mammals, a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a chronic unregulated neuroinflammatory response accompanied by seemingly paradoxical suppression of systemic immunity. These SCI-induced changes in immune function contribute to poor neurological outcomes and enhanced morbidity or mortality. Nonspecific anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory therapies are ineffective and can even worsen outcomes. Therefore, recent experimental SCI research has advanced the understanding of how neuroimmune cross-talk contributes to spinal cord and systemic pathology...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465327/improving-the-translational-potential-of-rodent-models-to-study-the-behavioral-and-pathophysiological-effects-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Megan Elizabeth Huibregtse
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is thought to be caused by repetitive head impacts. Consequently, there is a need to develop rodent models to better understand the behavioral and pathophysiological changes of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) and to determine the link between rmTBI and CTE. This Neuro Forum article reviews recent rodent rmTBI models, comparing the impact methods and outcome measures in terms of translational potential.
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465307/sensory-sensitivity-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-blast-exposed-veterans-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Megan L Callahan, Daniel Storzbach
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on sensory sensitivity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in an Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veteran sample. We hypothesized that the effect of PTSD on noise and light sensitivity following mTBI would be largely driven by PTSD-related hyperarousal symptoms. We compared the relationships between PTSD, noise sensitivity, and light sensitivity of 49 OEF/OIF Veterans with mTBI to that of 23 OEF/OIF Veterans without mTBI...
February 21, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464691/a-pilot-study-of-hyperoxemia-on-neurological-injury-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#16
M Lång, M B Skrifvars, J Siironen, P Tanskanen, M Ala-Peijari, T Koivisto, S Djafarzadeh, S Bendel
BACKGROUND: Normobaric hyperoxia is used to alleviate secondary brain ischaemia in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but clinical evidence is limited and hyperoxia may cause adverse events. METHODS: An open label, randomised controlled pilot study comparing blood concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between two different fractions of inspired oxygen in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation...
February 20, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#17
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463291/hypertonic-saline-infusion-for-treating-intracranial-hypertension-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
EDITORIAL
Halinder S Mangat
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of mortality and disability. Post-traumatic intracranial hypertension (ICH) further complicates the care of patients. Hyperosmolar agents are recommended for the treatment of ICH, but no consensus or high-level data exist on the use of any particular agent or the route of administration. The two agents used commonly are hypertonic saline (HTS) and mannitol given as bolus therapy. Smaller studies suggest that HTS may be a superior agent in reducing the ICH burden, but neither agent has been shown to improve mortality or functional outcome...
February 20, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463176/neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-is-enhanced-in-activating-transcription-factor-3-atf3-mutant-mice
#19
Philip Foerstner, Rida Rehman, Sofia Anastasiadou, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Daniela Sinske, Anita Ignatius, Francesco Roselli, Bernd Knoell
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a neuroinflammatory response resulting in astrocyte and microglia activation at the lesion site. This involves up-regulation of neuroinflammatory genes including chemokines and interleukins. However, so far there is lack of knowledge on transcription factors (TFs) modulating this TBI associated gene expression response. Herein we analyzed activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a TF encoding a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) predominantly studied in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463164/apolipoprotein-e-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-is-associated-with-elevated-psychiatric-distress-in-veterans-with-a-history-of-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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