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Traumatic Brain Injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641392/alcohol-is-not-protective-against-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jennifer S Albrecht, Majid Afshar, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
Alcohol exposure results in reduced mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models, yet clinical studies reported conflicting results and clinical trials based on proposed mechanisms have been disappointing. Methodological issues common to many of the clinical studies may have contributed to spurious results. Our objective was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and in-hospital mortality following TBI, overcoming methodological problems of prior studies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on individuals treated for isolated TBI at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center between 1997-2012 (n = 1,084)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641124/neural-repair-by-nt3-chitosan-via-enhancement-of-endogenous-neurogenesis-after-adult-focal-aspiration-brain-injury
#2
Peng Hao, Hongmei Duan, Fei Hao, Lan Chen, Min Sun, Kevin S Fan, Yi Eve Sun, David Williams, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
The latent regenerative potential of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain has been postulated as a likely source for neural repair. However, the inflammatory and inhibitory microenvironment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) prohibits NSCs from generating new functional neurons to restore brain function. Here we report a biodegradable material, chitosan, which, when loaded with neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and injected into the lesion site after TBI, effectively engaged endogenous NSCs to proliferate and migrate to the injury area...
April 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640776/early-fever-after-trauma-does-it-matter
#3
Holly E Hinson, Susan Rowell, Cynthia Morris, Amber L Lin, Martin A Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Fever is strongly associated with poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that early fever is a direct result of brain injury and thus would be more common in TBI than in patients without brain injury, and associated with inflammation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with major trauma with and without TBI from a busy level I trauma center ICU. Patients were assigned to one of four groups based on their presenting Head Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale scores (HAIS): Polytrauma: Head AIS score >2, one other region>2, Isolated Head: Head AIS score>2, all other regions <3, Isolated Body: One region >2, excluding Head/Face, Minor Injury: No region with AIS>2...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637141/misconceptions-about-traumatic-brain-injury-among-probation-services
#4
Conall O'Rourke, Mark A Linden, Maria Lohan
PURPOSE: The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among offender populations is significantly higher than among the general population. Despite this, no study has yet assessed the knowledge of members of the probation service surrounding TBI. METHOD: Knowledge was assessed among members of the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI) using a cross-sectional online version of the Common Misconceptions about TBI (CM-TBI) questionnaire. Mean total misconception scores, along with scores on four subdomains (recovery, sequelae, insight, and hidden injury) were calculated...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636132/trpc1-and-trpc3-dependent-ca-2-signaling-in-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-affects-injury-evoked-astrogliosis-in-vivo
#5
Thabet Belkacemi, Alexander Niermann, Laura Hofmann, Ulrich Wissenbach, Lutz Birnbaumer, Petra Leidinger, Christina Backes, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller, Xianshu Bai, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff, Stephan E Philipp, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Andreas Beck
Following brain injury astrocytes change into a reactive state, proliferate and grow into the site of lesion, a process called astrogliosis, initiated and regulated by changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) . Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels may contribute to Ca(2+) influx but their presence and possible function in astrocytes is not known. By RT-PCR and RNA sequencing we identified transcripts of Trpc1, Trpc2, Trpc3, and Trpc4 in FACS-sorted glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-positive cultured mouse cortical astrocytes and subcloned full-length Trpc1 and Trpc3 cDNAs from these cells...
June 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635146/the-effect-of-ct-scanners-in-the-trauma-room-an-observational-study
#6
S Wulffeld, L S Rasmussen, B Højlund Bech, J Steinmetz
BACKGROUND: A CT scanner incorporated in the trauma resuscitation bay may benefit trauma patients by fastening work-up times; however, evidence in the area is still sparse. We assessed if time from admission to first CT scan was lower after incorporation of a CT scanner in the resuscitation bay. METHODS: We included trauma patients admitted in two 1-year periods, before and after a major rebuilding of the trauma room. Beforehand, one CT scanner was located in an adjacent room...
June 20, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635089/comparison-of-fall-related-traumatic-brain-injury-in-residential-aged-care-and-community-dwelling-older-people-a-population-based-study
#7
Lara A Harvey, Rebecca Mitchell, Henry Brodaty, Brian Draper, Jacqueline Ct Close
OBJECTIVE: To compare trends, causes, and outcomes of fall-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) between community-dwelling (CD) individuals and residential aged care facility (RACF) residents. METHODS: Hospitalisation and RACF administrative data for 6635 individuals aged ≥65 years admitted to all NSW hospitals for fall-related TBI from 2008-2009 to 2012-2013 were linked. RESULTS: Of the 6944 hospitalisations, 20.8% were for RACF residents...
June 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634890/ccl11-eotaxin-1-levels-predict-long-term-functional-outcomes-in-patients-following-ischemic-stroke
#8
Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Rodney M Ritzel, Sarah E Conway, Ilene Staff, Gilbert Fortunato, Louise D McCullough
Circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1) are increased in several animal models of neuroinflammation, including traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease. Increased levels of CCL11 have also been linked to decreased neurogenesis in mice. We hypothesized that circulating CCL11 levels would increase following ischemic stroke in mice and humans, and that higher CCL11 levels would correlate with poor long-term recovery in patients. As predicted, circulating levels of CCL11 in both young and aged mice increased significantly 24 h after experimental stroke...
June 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634501/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-long-term-stroke-risk-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Nicholas A Morris, Joséphine Cool, Alexander E Merkler, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent ischemic stroke, even years after the initial insult. The mechanisms of the association remain unclear. The presence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) may mediate the effect of TBI on long-term stroke risk, as it has previously been linked to short-term vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Using administrative claims data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of acute care hospitalizations...
July 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634463/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-amide-on-blast-induced-increase-in-intracranial-pressure-in-rats
#10
Usmah Kawoos, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury is associated with acute and possibly chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The outcome after TBI is dependent on the progression of complex processes which are mediated by oxidative stress. So far, no effective pharmacological protection against TBI exists. In this study, rats were exposed to a single or repetitive blast overpressure (BOP) at moderate intensities of 72 or 110 kPa in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The degree and duration of the increase in ICP were proportional to the intensity and frequency of the blast exposure(s)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#11
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634003/spasticity-video-challenge-a-look-at-methods-for-addressing-difficult-cases
#12
Katharine E Alter, Mark Gormley, Atul T Patel
As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://courses.elseviercme.com/spasticity/662e), treatment of patients with spasticity due to upper motor neuron syndromes, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and cerebral palsy, is multifaceted, involving chemodenervation, systemic medications, surgical therapy, rehabilitation efforts, and home care. Optimal care begins with the recognition that each patient's impairments are unique and must be assessed carefully to determine the impact of muscle overactivity, loss of dexterity, and weakness on passive and active function in the context of the patients' goals...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634000/dose-dependent-effects-of-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport%C3%A2-on-spasticity-and-active-movements-in-adults-with-upper-limb-spasticity-secondary-analysis-of-a-phase-3-study
#13
Michael W O'Dell, Allison Brashear, Robert Jech, Thierry Lejeune, Philippe Marque, Djamel Bensmail, Ziyad Ayyoub, David M Simpson, Magali Volteau, Claire Vilain, Philippe Picaut, Jean Michel Gracies
BACKGROUND: AbobotulinumtoxinA has beneficial effects on spasticity and active movements in hemiparetic adults with upper limb spasticity (ULS). However, evidence-based information on optimal dosing for clinical use is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe joint-specific dose effects of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with ULS. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a phase 3 study (NCT01313299). SETTING: Multi-center, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633999/characteristics-of-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample-recruited-using-amazon-s-mechanical-turk
#14
John Bernstein, Matthew Calamia
BACKGROUND: Several barriers exist in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current study is the first to examine whether crowdsourcing, which has been used in other clinical populations, is useful in the recruitment of those with mTBI. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), an online crowdsourcing platform, is a useful tool in the recruitment of individuals with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and to examine the injury and psychological characteristics of individuals who report a history of mTBI...
June 17, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#15
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#16
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632582/the-effect-of-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-partial-aortic-occlusion-and-aggressive-blood-transfusion-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-swine-multiple-injuries-model
#17
M Austin Johnson, Timothy K Williams, Sarah-Ashley E Ferencz, Anders J Davidson, Rachel M Russo, William T O'Brien, Joseph M Galante, J Kevin Grayson, Lucas P Neff
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical reports of poor outcomes, the degree to which resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) exacerbates traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. We hypothesized that combined effects of increased proximal mean arterial pressure (pMAP), carotid blood flow (Qcarotid), and intracranial pressure (ICP) from REBOA would lead to TBI progression compared with partial aortic occlusion (PAO) or no intervention. METHODS: Twenty-one swine underwent a standardized TBI via computer Controlled cortical impact followed by 25% total blood volume rapid hemorrhage...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631870/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-neuropathic-pain-efficacy-at-three-years-follow-up
#18
Vasco Abreu, Rui Vaz, Virgínia Rebelo, Maria José Rosas, Clara Chamadoira, Martin J Gillies, Tipu Z Aziz, Erlick A C Pereira
OBJECT: Chronic neuropathic pain is estimated to affect 3-4.5% of the worldwide population, posing a serious burden to society. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is already established for movement disorders and also used to treat some "off-label" conditions. However, DBS for the treatment of chronic, drug refractory, neuropathic pain, has shown variable outcomes with few studies performed in the last decade. Thus, this procedure has consensus approval in parts of Europe but not the USA. This study prospectively evaluated the efficacy at three years of DBS for neuropathic pain...
June 20, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631089/targeted-temperature-management-in-the-icu-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#20
REVIEW
Alain Cariou, Jean-François Payen, Karim Asehnoune, Gerard Audibert, Astrid Botte, Olivier Brissaud, Guillaume Debaty, Sandrine Deltour, Nicolas Deye, Nicolas Engrand, Gilles Francony, Stéphane Legriel, Bruno Levy, Philippe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Orban, Sylvain Renolleau, Bernard Vigue, Laure De Saint Blanquat, Cyrille Mathien, Lionel Velly
Over the recent period, the use of induced hypothermia has gained an increasing interest for critically ill patients, in particular in brain-injured patients. The term "targeted temperature management" (TTM) has now emerged as the most appropriate when referring to interventions used to reach and maintain a specific level temperature for each individual. TTM may be used to prevent fever, to maintain normothermia, or to lower core temperature. This treatment is widely used in intensive care units, mostly as a primary neuroprotective method...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
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