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Pharmacogenomics in Primary Care

Hania K Flaten, Andrew A Monte
Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease in the USA. Hypertensive patients frequently require repeat primary care visits to find an effective drug or drug combination to control their disease. Currently, patients are prescribed drugs for HTN based on race, age, and comorbidities and although the current guidelines are reasonable starting points for prescribing, 50% of hypertensive patients still fail to achieve target blood pressures. Despite numerous strategies to improve compliance, drug effectiveness, and optimization of initial drug choice, effectiveness has remained largely unchanged over the past two decades...
July 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
John Papastergiou, Peter Tolios, Wilson Li, Jane Li
OBJECTIVES: The safety and efficacy of medications can vary significantly between patients as a result of genetic variability. As genomic screening technologies become more widely available, pharmacists are ideally suited to use such tools to optimize medication therapy management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing personalized medication services into community pharmacy practice and to assess the number of drug therapy problems identified as a result of pharmacogenomic screening...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Jason L Vassy, Kurt D Christensen, Erica F Schonman, Carrie L Blout, Jill O Robinson, Joel B Krier, Pamela M Diamond, Matthew Lebo, Kalotina Machini, Danielle R Azzariti, Dmitry Dukhovny, David W Bates, Calum A MacRae, Michael F Murray, Heidi L Rehm, Amy L McGuire, Robert C Green
Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in asymptomatic adults might prevent disease but increase health care use without clinical value. Objective: To describe the effect on clinical care and outcomes of adding WGS to standardized family history assessment in primary care. Design: Pilot randomized trial. ( NCT01736566). Setting: Academic primary care practices. Participants: 9 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 100 generally healthy patients recruited at ages 40 to 65 years...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jason L Vassy, Kurt D Christensen, Erica F Schonman, Carrie L Blout, Jill O Robinson, Joel B Krier, Pamela M Diamond, Matthew Lebo, Kalotina Machini, Danielle R Azzariti, Dmitry Dukhovny, David W Bates, Calum A MacRae, Michael F Murray, Heidi L Rehm, Amy L McGuire, Robert C Green
Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in asymptomatic adults might prevent disease but increase health care use without clinical value. Objective: To describe the effect on clinical care and outcomes of adding WGS to standardized family history assessment in primary care. Design: Pilot randomized trial. ( NCT01736566). Setting: Academic primary care practices. Participants: 9 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 100 generally healthy patients recruited at ages 40 to 65 years...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
P H O'Donnell, N Wadhwa, K Danahey, B A Borden, S M Lee, J P Hall, C Klammer, S Hussain, M Siegler, M J Sorrentino, A M Davis, Y A Sacro, R Nanda, T S Polonsky, J L Koyner, D L Burnet, K Lipstreuer, D T Rubin, C Mulcahy, M E Strek, W Harper, A S Cifu, B Polite, L Patrick-Miller, K-Tj Yeo, Eky Leung, S L Volchenboum, R B Altman, O I Olopade, W M Stadler, D O Meltzer, M J Ratain
Changes in behavior are necessary to apply genomic discoveries to practice. We prospectively studied medication changes made by providers representing eight different medicine specialty clinics whose patients had submitted to preemptive pharmacogenomic genotyping. An institutional clinical decision support (CDS) system provided pharmacogenomic results using traffic light alerts: green = genomically favorable, yellow = genomic caution, red = high risk. The influence of pharmacogenomic alerts on prescribing behaviors was the primary endpoint...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Junfei Zhao, Feixiong Cheng, Zhongming Zhao
Massive somatic mutations discovered by large cancer genome sequencing projects provide unprecedented opportunities in the development of precision oncology. However, deep understanding of functional consequences of somatic mutations and identifying actionable mutations and the related drug responses currently remain formidable challenges. Dysfunction of protein posttranslational modification plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and drug responses. In this study, we proposed a novel computational oncoproteomics approach, named kinome-wide network module for cancer pharmacogenomics (KNMPx), for identifying actionable mutations that rewired signaling networks and further characterized tumorigenesis and anticancer drug responses...
June 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Lisa C Brown, Raymond A Lorenz, James Li, Bryan M Dechairo
PURPOSE: This study was an analysis based on a previously completed prospective study investigating medication costs of patients with mental illness guided by using the GeneSight proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) test. The primary objective of this study was to determine potential cost savings of combinatorial PGx testing over the course of 1 year in patients with mental illness treated by primary care providers (PCPs) and psychiatrists who had switched or added a new psychiatric medication after patients failed to respond to monotherapy...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Jean-Claude Tardif
Cardiovascular (CV) atherosclerotic disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the advances in contemporary therapies. Inflammation is an important process in atherosclerosis, leading to plaque rupture and acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy has substantially reduced CV events in primary and secondary prevention, many treated patients will have recurrent adverse CV events despite the standard of care. Thus, drug development aiming to target inflammatory pathways seems a promising avenue for novel therapies in atherosclerosis...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Cristina Longo, Vasiliki Rahimzadeh, Kieran O'Doherty, Gillian Bartlett
AIM: Primary care physicians will play a central role in the successful implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx); however, important challenges remain. We explored the perspectives of stakeholders on key challenges of the PGx translation process in primary care using deliberative consultations. METHODS: Primary care physicians, patients and policy-makers attended deliberations, where they discussed four ethical questions raised by PGx research and implementation in the primary care context...
November 2016: Pharmacogenomics
K Yadav, M Sharma, K C Ferdinand
AIMS: Our comprehensive review highlights the drug development and pharmacogenomics leading to the recent approval of PCSK9 inhibitors. We also review the anticipated future advances into the uses of PCSK9 inhibition. BACKGROUND: Despite the present advances in pharmacotherapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the primary target for ASCVD risk reduction, showing demonstrable benefits in mortality...
October 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Kathleen McCormick
Nurses are the primary deliverers of patient care and observers of patient side effects to medications. The primary objective of this tutorial is to bring the participants up to date in genomic applications for nursing from birth until death. A secondary objective is to define at least 17 pharmacogenomics evidence guidelines ready for implementation into the Electronic Health Record. The target audience are nurses in practice, implementers of EHRs, nursing in leadership and policy-making positions, those focused on defining new areas for nursing research, and educators who are in need of defining criteria for integrating genomics into nursing education...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jennifer L St Sauver, Suzette J Bielinski, Janet E Olson, Elizabeth J Bell, Michaela E Mc Gree, Debra J Jacobson, Jennifer B McCormick, Pedro J Caraballo, Paul Y Takahashi, Veronique L Roger, Carolyn R Rohrer Vitek
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available regarding primary care clinicians' response to pharmacogenomic clinical decision support (PGx-CDS) alerts integrated in the electronic health record. METHODS: In February 2015, 159 clinicians in the Mayo Clinic primary care practice were sent e-mail surveys to understand their perspectives on the implementation and use of pharmacogenomic testing in their clinical practice. Surveys assessed how the clinicians felt about pharmacogenomics and whether they thought electronic PGx-CDS alerts were useful...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Allison M Cole, Kari A Stephens, Gina A Keppel, Hossein Estiri, Laura-Mae Baldwin
CONTEXT: The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) offers significant opportunities to conduct research with clinical data from patients outside traditional academic research settings. Because EHRs are designed primarily for clinical care and billing, significant challenges are inherent in the use of EHR data for clinical and translational research. Efficient processes are needed for translational researchers to overcome these challenges. The Data QUEST Coordinating Center (DQCC), which oversees Data Query Extraction Standardization Translation (Data QUEST) - a primary-care, EHR data-sharing infrastructure - created processes that guide EHR data extraction for clinical and translational research across these diverse practices...
2016: EGEMS
Christopher D Hart, Francesca Galardi, Marta Pestrin, Francesca De Luca, Emanuela Risi, Angelo Di Leo
In the era of precision medicine in oncology, pharmacogenomic assessment is a vital step in delivering personalized care. Increasing evidence points towards the importance of assessing molecular features of the advanced disease, rather than relying on the primary tumor sample, in order to appreciate the evolution of the tumor and to target relevant features. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a novel method of tumor sampling, as they offer a contemporaneous picture of the current disease state without the need for invasive needle biopsy...
April 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Kurt D Christensen, Dmitry Dukhovny, Uwe Siebert, Robert C Green
Despite dramatic drops in DNA sequencing costs, concerns are great that the integration of genomic sequencing into clinical settings will drastically increase health care expenditures. This commentary presents an overview of what is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of genomic sequencing. We discuss the cost of germline genomic sequencing, addressing factors that have facilitated the decrease in sequencing costs to date and anticipating the factors that will drive sequencing costs in the future. We then address the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic and pharmacogenomic applications of genomic sequencing, with an emphasis on the implications for secondary findings disclosure and the integration of genomic sequencing into general patient care...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Eric Van Cutsem, Takayuki Yoshino, Julia Hocke, Zohra Oum'Hamed, Matus Studeny, Josep Tabernero
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have demonstrated that angiogenesis is critical to colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor growth and metastasis. Nintedanib is a triple angiokinase inhibitor of VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor signaling. Nintedanib, combined with docetaxel, has been approved in the European Union for the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer with adenocarcinoma tumor histologic type after first-line chemotherapy...
March 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Daniel Alicata, Amanda Schroepfer, Tim Unten, Ruby Agoha, Susana Helm, Michael Fukuda, Daniel Ulrich, Stanton Michels
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the University of Hawaii (UH) child and adolescent psychiatry telemental health (TMH) program is to train child and adolescent psychiatry fellows to provide behavioral health services for the children of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands in the cultural context of their rural communities using interactive videoteleconferencing (IVTC). The training experience balances learning objectives with community service. Learning objectives include: Understanding mental health disparities in rural communities, leveraging community resources in ongoing treatment, providing culturally effective care, and improving health care access and delivery through TMH service research and evaluation...
April 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Sean P David, Samuel G Johnson, Adam C Berger, W Gregory Feero, Sharon F Terry, Larry A Green, Robert L Phillips, Geoffrey S Ginsburg
Genomic research has generated much new knowledge into mechanisms of human disease, with the potential to catalyze novel drug discovery and development, prenatal and neonatal screening, clinical pharmacogenomics, more sensitive risk prediction, and enhanced diagnostics. Genomic medicine, however, has been limited by critical evidence gaps, especially those related to clinical utility and applicability to diverse populations. Genomic medicine may have the greatest impact on health care if it is integrated into primary care, where most health care is received and where evidence supports the value of personalized medicine grounded in continuous healing relationships...
July 2015: Annals of Family Medicine
D Y F So, G A Wells, R McPherson, M Labinaz, M R Le May, C Glover, A J Dick, M Froeschl, J-F Marquis, M H Gollob, L Tran, J Bernick, B Hibbert, J D Roberts
Treatment of carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele and ABCB1 TT genotype with clopidogrel is associated with increased ischemic complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to evaluate a pharmacogenomic strategy among patients undergoing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), by performing a randomized trial, enrolling 102 patients. Point-of-care genetic testing for CYP2C19*2, ABCB1 TT and CYP2C19*17 was performed with carriers of either the CYP2C19*2 allele or ABCB1 TT genotype randomly assigned to a strategy of prasugrel 10 mg daily or an augmented dosing strategy of clopidogrel (150 mg daily for 6 days then 75 mg daily)...
February 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
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