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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931214/baicalin-alleviates-radiation-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-primary-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-and-erk-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathways
#1
Jinhua Lu, Yazhen Zhong, Zechen Lin, Xianlei Lin, Zhaohui Chen, Xuping Wu, Nan Wang, Haiqiao Zhang, Siyu Huang, Yuan Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Shengyou Lin
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat thoracic malignancies. However, it may lead to severe lung pneumonitis and ultimately fibrosis. Irradiation has been reported to increase epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), which play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and ERK/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathways are critically involved in radiation-induced EMT. In the present study, we investigated whether baicalin was a novel therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced EMT in type II AEC...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927661/local-control-and-survival-after-image-guided-percutaneous-ablation-of%C3%A2-adrenal%C3%A2-metastases
#2
Nathan E Frenk, Dania Daye, Kemal Tuncali, Ronald S Arellano, Paul B Shyn, Stuart G Silverman, Florian J Fintelmann, Raul N Uppot
PURPOSE: To evaluate local control and survival after image-guided ablation of adrenal gland metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image-guided ablations of adrenal metastases measuring < 5 cm performed at 2 academic medical centers between July 2002 and June 2016 were analyzed. There were 51 procedures performed on 46 tumors (mean diameter 2.8 cm ± 1.1; range, 0.7-4.9 cm) in 38 patients (mean age 66 y; range, 41-80 y) with renal cell carcinoma (n = 17 patients; 45%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10 patients; 26%), and other primary malignancies (n = 11 patients; 29%)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925158/-study-on-chemical-constituents-of-seeds-of-croton-tiglium-and-their-cytotoxicities
#3
Hai-Guo Su, Huai Yang, Chun-Wang Meng, Cheng Peng, Li Guo, Ou Dai
Seven compounds were isolated from the seeds of Croton tiglium by preparative TLC, semi-preparative HPLC, and column chromatography over silica gel, MCI, and Sephadex LH-20, etc. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis as bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) nonanedioate (1), 12-O-(α-methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-decanoate (2), 12-O-tiglylphorbol-13-decanoate (3), (9S,10R,11E,13R)-9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoic acid (4), methyl (9S,10R,11E,13R)-9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoate (5), 4(1H)-quinolinone (6), and 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol (7)...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924829/a-comparison-of-drug-transport-in-pulmonary-absorption-models-isolated-perfused-rat-lungs-respiratory-epithelial-cell-lines-and-primary-cell-culture
#4
Cynthia Bosquillon, Michaela Madlova, Nilesh Patel, Nicola Clear, Ben Forbes
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of human airway epithelial cell layers and a simple rat isolated perfused lung (IPL) model to predict pulmonary drug absorption in rats in vivo. METHOD: The permeability of seven compounds selected to possess a range of lipophilicity was measured in two airway cell lines (Calu-3 and 16HBE14o-), in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and using a simple isolated perfused lungs (IPL) technique. Data from the cell layers and ex vivo lungs were compared to published absorption rates from rat lungs measured in vivo...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924370/kaempferol-inhibits-the-invasion-and-migration-of-renal-cancer-cells-through-the-downregulation-of-akt-and-fak-pathways
#5
Tung-Wei Hung, Pei-Ni Chen, Hsu-Chen Wu, Sheng-Wen Wu, Pao-Yu Tsai, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Horng-Rong Chang
Kaempferol, which is isolated from several natural plants, is a polyphenol belonging to the subgroup of flavonoids. Kaempferol exhibits various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. In this study, kaempferol can significantly inhibit the invasion and migration of 786-O renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without cytotoxicity. We examined the potential mechanisms underlying its anti-invasive activities on 786-O RCC cells. Western blot was performed, and the results showed that kaempferol attenuates the manifestation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) protein and activity...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923867/vancomycin-and-clarithromycin-show-synergy-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-in-vitro
#6
Devika Mukherjee, Mu-Lu Wu, Jeanette W P Teo, Thomas Dick
Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus is increasing and current clarithromycin-based treatment regimens are only moderately effective. Here, we determined the effect of clarithromycin-vancomycin combination against M. abscessus complex isolates in vitro. Synergy was found with an FICI ≤ 0.5 and a 4 to 10-fold decrease of minimum inhibitory concentrations.
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923675/respiratory-infections-due-to-nontuberculous-mycobacterias
#7
REVIEW
Luis Máiz Carro, Esther Barbero Herranz, Rosa Nieto Royo
The most common infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are lung infections. The microorganisms causing these infections most frequently are Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Their incidence has increased in the last three decades. After identifying an NTM in the respiratory tract, clinical and radiological aspects must be considered to determine if isolations are clinically relevant. Predisposing conditions that could contribute to infection must also be investigated...
September 15, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923322/cycloartane-type-triterpene-glycosides-anopanins-a-c-with-monoacyldigalactosylglycerols-from-anodendron-paniculatum
#8
Viet Duc Ho, Thi Nhu Hanh Hoang, Quoc Hung Vo, Van Kiem Phan, Tuan Anh Le, Viet Ty Pham, Minh Hien Nguyen, Takeshi Kodama, Takuya Ito, Hiroyuki Morita, Ain Raal, Thi Hoai Nguyen
Three cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides (anopanins A-C), together with three known monoacyldigalactosylglycerols gingerglycolipids A-C and (2S)-1-O-palmitoyl-3-O-[α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-galactopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol, were isolated from the aerial parts of Anodendron paniculatum collected in Viet Nam. The chemical structures of the present compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopy, and by comparing to the reported data in the literature. These compounds did not show significant growth inhibitory activities (IC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the tested cancer cell lines LU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma), KB (epidermoid carcinoma), Hep-G2 (hepatoma cancer), MKN-7 (stomach cancer), and SW-480 (colon adenocarcinoma)...
September 15, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922806/linezolid-as-treatment-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#9
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Sampling to confirm that the intended linezolid pharmacokinetics had been achieved, and for enumeration of MAC colony-forming units, was performed based on repetitive sampling from each system over the 28 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922731/shikonin-suppresses-pulmonary-fibroblasts-proliferation-and-activation-by-regulating-akt-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways
#10
Yunjuan Nie, Yaoyao Yang, Jian Zhang, Guowei Cai, Yanhua Chang, Gaoshang Chai, Chongyong Guo
Fibroblast is believed to be the primary effector in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive lung disorder characterized by aberrant tissue remodeling and the formation of fibroblastic foci. Due to the complicated etiology and mechanism, there are few effective drugs for this fatal disease. Shikonin (SHI), which is the major ingredient isolated from the plant Lithospermum Erythrorhizon, has long been used as traditional medicine for many diseases including inflammation and cancer. The roles of SHI in attenuating skin scar and renal fibrosis by reducing TGFβ1-stimulated fibroblast activation are also reported...
September 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922614/mexxy-efflux-pump-overexpression-and-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-cystic-fibrosis-isolates-of-i-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-i-from-chronic-infections
#11
Manu Singh, Yvonne Yau, Shirley Wang, Valerie Waters, Ayush Kumar
In this study, we analyzed 15 multidrug resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from chronic lung infections for expression of four different multidrug efflux systems, MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN and MexXY, using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Overexpression of MexXY pump was observed in all of the isolates tested. Analysis of regulatory genes that control the expression of these four efflux pumps revealed a number of previously uncharacterized mutations. Our work shows that MexXY pump overexpression is common in cystic fibrosis isolates and could be contributing to their reduced aminoglycoside susceptibility...
September 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#12
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921504/g%C3%AE-12-facilitates-carbachol-induced-shortening-in-human-airway-smooth-muscle-by-modulating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated-activation-in-a-rhoa-dependent-manner
#13
Edwin J Yoo, Gaoyuan Cao, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Joseph A Jude, James V Michael, Hong Lam, Ivan Pushkarsky, Robert Damoiseaux, Dino Di Carlo, Kwangmi Ahn, Steven S An, Raymond B Penn, Reynold A Panettieri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent activation of Rho kinase (ROCK) is necessary for agonist-induced human airway smooth muscle cell (HASMC) contraction, and inhibition of PI3K promotes bronchodilation of human small airways. The upstream mechanisms driving agonist-mediated PI3K/ROCK axis activation, however, remain unclear. Given the capacity of G12 family proteins to activate ROCK pathways in other cell types (Riobo and Manning, 2005), the role of G12 proteins in modulating M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R)-stimulated PI3K/ROCK activation and HASMC contraction was examined...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920925/expression-of-piwi-protein-miwi2-defines-a-distinct-population-of-multiciliated-cells
#14
Gregory A Wasserman, Aleksander D Szymaniak, Anne C Hinds, Kazuko Yamamoto, Hirofumi Kamata, Nicole Ms Smith, Kristie L Hilliard, Claudia Carrieri, Adam T Labadorf, Lee J Quinton, Xingbin Ai, Xaralabos Varelas, Felicia Chen, Joseph P Mizgerd, Alan Fine, Dónal O'Carroll, Matthew R Jones
P-element-induced wimpy testes (Piwi) proteins are known for suppressing retrotransposon activation in the mammalian germline. However, whether Piwi protein or Piwi-dependent functions occur in the mammalian soma is unclear. Contrary to germline-restricted expression, we observed that Piwi-like Miwi2 mRNA is indeed expressed in epithelial cells of the lung in adult mice and that it is induced during pneumonia. Further investigation revealed that MIWI2 protein localized to the cytoplasm of a discrete population of multiciliated airway epithelial cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920166/clinical-significance-of-aspergillus-species-isolated-from-respiratory-specimens-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#15
K Furuuchi, A Ito, T Hashimoto, S Kumagai, T Ishida
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is associated with mortality in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). An Aspergillus-positive respiratory specimen often reflects colonization, and thus the clinical significance of Aspergillus isolation in MAC-LD patients is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MAC-LD patients in whom Aspergillus was isolated from respiratory specimens. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 329 MAC-LD patients...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919004/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-patients-with-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonias
#16
Yuichiro Tsurugai, Atsuya Takeda, Naoko Sanuki, Tatsuji Enomoto, Takeshi Kaneko, Yu Hara, Tomikazu Mizuno, Noriyuki Saeki, Yousuke Aoki, Yohei Oku, Takeshi Akiba, Etsuo Kunieda
PURPOSE: To compare toxicity and survival after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) between lung cancer patients with or without idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), and to investigate the potential value of SBRT for the patients. METHODS: Among lung cancer patients receiving SBRT between 2005 and 2016, we evaluated those treated with a total dose of 40-60Gy in five fractions with curative intent who either were staged as cT1-4N0M0 or experienced postoperative isolated local recurrence...
September 14, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918405/renal-cell-carcinoma-with-isolated-metastasis-to-sigmoid-mesentery-a-rare-resectable-combination
#17
Hira Lal, Priyank Yadav, Shashidhar Achar, Uday Pratap Singh
Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-3% of all malignancies in adults. It spreads via direct extension, lymphatic route as well as haematogenous route. Lymph nodes, lungs, bone, liver and brain are the usual sites for its metastatic spread. In the presence of limited metastatic disease with potentially resectable metastases, surgery offers the best chances of cure. In the present case, we describe a case of renal cell carcinoma with a solitary metastasis to the sigmoid mesentery in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917312/first-finding-of-nymphal-stages-of-linguatula-serrata-in-a-south-american-camelid-a-vicu%C3%A3-a-from-peru
#18
Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Joel I Pacheco, José M Angulo-Tisoc, Maria T Lopez-Urbina, Armando E Gonzalez
Linguatula serrata, a pentastomid, was found parasitizing the lungs of a vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Cuzco, Peru. A total of 13 larvae were found encysted in the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. All larvae were identified as nymphal stages of L. serrata by morphological methods Diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis amplifying the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene of three nymphs. Nucleotide sequences from the isolates were compared to previous sequences from GenBank, and it showed high similarity between them (>99%)...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916704/delayed-neutrophil-apoptosis-enhances-net-formation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Robert D Gray, Gareth Hardisty, Kate H Regan, Maeve Smith, Calum T Robb, Rodger Duffin, Annie Mackellar, Jennifer M Felton, Lily Paemka, Brian N McCullagh, Christopher D Lucas, David A Dorward, Edward F McKone, Gordon Cooke, Seamas C Donnelly, Pradeep K Singh, David A Stoltz, Christopher Haslett, Paul B McCray, Moira K B Whyte, Adriano G Rossi, Donald J Davidson
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is defined by large numbers of neutrophils and associated damaging products in the airway. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis is described in CF although it is unclear whether this is a primary neutrophil defect or a response to chronic inflammation. Increased levels of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been measured in CF and we aimed to investigate the causal relationship between these phenomena and their potential to serve as a driver of inflammation...
September 15, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915889/anti-fibrotic-efficacy-of-nintedanib-in-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-inhibition-of-fibrocyte-activity
#20
Seidai Sato, Shintaro Shinohara, Shinya Hayashi, Shun Morizumi, Shuichi Abe, Hiroyasu Okazaki, Yanjuan Chen, Hisatsugu Goto, Yoshinori Aono, Hirohisa Ogawa, Kazuya Koyama, Haruka Nishimura, Hiroshi Kawano, Yuko Toyoda, Hisanori Uehara, Yasuhiko Nishioka
BACKGROUND: Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is specific for platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), has recently been approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that produce growth factors and contribute to fibrogenesis in the lungs. However, the effects of nintedanib on the functions of fibrocytes remain unclear...
September 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
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