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Nerve Agent

F Sakakibara, K Takahama, M Nanri, E Sasaki
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) usually develop lower urinary tract dysfunctions, including detrusor overactivity which is also known to be a risk factor for upper urinary tract dysfunction. Antimuscarinic agents, such as propiverine, have been used clinically for the treatment of detrusor overactivity. Also, propiverine has been known to possess antagonistic activity against L-type Ca(2+) channels and transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), in addition to activity against muscarinic receptors...
September 2016: Drug Research
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Aline Gomes Bittencourt, Natal José Bobato Neto, Silvia Carolina Almeida Beilke, Fabio Tadeu Moura Lorenzetti, Raquel Salomone
Introduction Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the second most common cause of facial palsy. Early and correct treatment should be performed to avoid complications, such as permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Objective The objective of this study is to review the prognosis of the facial palsy on Ramsay Hunt syndrome, considering the different treatments proposed in the literature. Data Synthesis We read the abstract of 78 studies; we selected 31 studies and read them in full. We selected 19 studies for appraisal...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Yahya Baltu, Hakan Uzun, Guzin Yesim Özgenel
BACKGROUND: The postoperative development of epineural and extraneural scar tissue adversely affects peripheral nerve surgery outcomes. Although several surgical methods, pharmacological agents, and chemical materials have been used to prevent epineural scar formation in both clinical and experimental models, the results are still unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) wrapping on epineural scarring in an adult rat model...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert Rosenwasser, Lorraine Iacovitti
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Manuel P Pereira, Sebastian Mühl, Esther M Pogatzki-Zahn, Konstantin Agelopoulos, Sonja Ständer
In recent years, measurement of the intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density has gained relevance in the diagnostics of chronic pruritus. This method allows the objectification and quantification of a small-fiber neuropathy, which may manifest clinically with pruritus, pain or dysesthetic sensory symptoms, such as burning, stinging and tingling sensations or numbness. Upon suspicion of a small-fiber neuropathy as a cause for chronic pruritus, targeted diagnostic procedures are essential for the early detection of the neuroanatomical changes...
October 11, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Rudra Prasad Roy, Kaushik Ghosh, Manas Ghosh, Amitava Acharyya, Ambarish Bhattacharya, Mrinal Pal, Sisir Chakraborty, Nilanjan Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Long-term therapy with metformin was shown to decrease the Vitamin B12 level and manifested as peripheral neuropathy. AIM: The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in early Type 2 diabetic patients (duration ≤5 years or drug treatment ≤3 years) and the relationship among metformin exposure and levels of cobalamin (Cbl), folic acid, and homocysteine (Hcy) with severity of peripheral neuropathy. METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected ninety patients (male 56, female 34) between age groups of 35 and 70 years, comparing those who had received >6 months of metformin (Group A) (n = 35) with those without metformin (Group B) (n = 35) and patients taking metformin with other oral hypoglycemic agent (Group C) (n = 20)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
David Daewhan Kim, Nabil Sibai
INTRODUCTION: Greater occipital nerve blocks (GONB) have been used for headache but their benefit may be short. Ready et al performed intrathecal injections on rabbits and reported neurologic/histologic changes that required concentrations of at least 8%. Our study tests the hypothesis that the neurolytic effects of GONB with 10% lidocaine can prolong relief. METHODS: After an approval from Henry Ford Hospital Institutional Review Board, a chart review was performed for patients who had GONB with 10% lidocaine...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Daniel Horák, Milan Beneš, Zuzana Procházková, Miroslava Trchová, Arsenii Borysov, Artem Pastukhov, Konstantin Paliienko, Tatiana Borisova
Changes in cholesterol concentration in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals nonspecifically modulate glutamate transport and homeostasis in the central nervous system. Reduction of the cholesterol content in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) using cholesterol-depleting agents decreases the glutamate uptake and increases the extracellular level of glutamate in nerve terminals. Extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and its further removal from the synaptosomes by external magnetic field can be achieved by means of magnetic nanoparticles with immobilized cholesterol-depleting agent such as O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD)...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Chang-Cai Liu, Gui-Lan Huang, Hai-Ling Xi, Shi-Lei Liu, Jing-Quan Liu, Hui-Lan Yu, Shi-Kun Zhou, Long-Hui Liang, Ling Yuan
This work describes a novel and sensitive non-isotope dilution method for simultaneous quantification of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) soman (GD) and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), their aged methylphosphonic acid (MeP) adduct and unadducted BChE in plasma exposed to OPNA. OPNA-BChE adducts were isolated with an off-column procainamide-gel separation (PGS) from plasma, and then digested with pepsin into specific adducted FGES(*)AGAAS nonapeptide (NP) biomarkers. The resulting NPs were detected by UHPLC-MS/MS MRM...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
R Dandriyal, S Pachauri, K Y Giri, S Rastogi, N I B Prasad, S Agarwal, H P Singh
Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine with lidocaine as a local anaesthetic agent for inferior alveolar mandibular nerve blocks for dental extraction. We studied 200 patients who required extraction of mandibular teeth and divided them into two groups of 100 each, the first of which was given lidocaine and adrenaline (12.5μg/ml) and the second lidocaine and clonidine (15μg/ml). Cardiovascular vascular variables (blood pressure, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure) were assessed before, during, and after extraction, and postoperative pain was measured on a visual analogue scale...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Nikolina A Travlou, Jeff Secor, Teresa J Bandosz
A unique composite of the copper-based metal-organic framework (Cu-benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTC)) with oxidized graphitic carbon nitride nanospheres is synthesized. For comparison, a hybrid material consisting of g-C3 N4 and Cu-BTC is also obtained. Their surface features are analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, sorption of nitrogen, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results suggest that the formed nanospheres of oxidized g-C3 N4 act as linkers between the copper sites, playing a crucial role in the composite building process...
October 6, 2016: Small
Kunihiro Ikuta, Takehiro Ota, Lisheng Zhuo, Hiroshi Urakawa, Eiji Kozawa, Shunsuke Hamada, Koji Kimata, Naoki Ishiguro, Yoshihiro Nishida
Hyaluronan (HA) has been shown to play important roles in the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. Our previous study showing that high HA expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) is predictive of poor patient prognosis, prompted us to speculate that inhibition of HA synthesis in MPNST might suppress the tumorigenicity. The aim of our study was to investigate the antitumor effects of 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), an HA synthesis inhibitor, on human MPNST cells and tissues...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Briana Siracuse, Natasha Gupta, Ashly Sobel Sokol
Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i...
October 5, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Ludmila A Kasatkina
4-aminopyridine is commonly used to stimulate neurotransmitter release resulting from sustained plasma membrane depolarization and Ca(2+)-influx from the extracellular space. This paper elucidated unconventional mechanism of 4-aminopyridine-stimulated glutamate release from neurons and non-neuronal cells which proceeds in the absence of external Ca(2+). In brain nerve terminals, primary neurons and platelets 4-aminopyridine induced the exocytotic release of glutamate that was independent of external Ca(2+) and was triggered by the sequestration of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peng Li, Su-Young Moon, Mark A Guelta, Lu Lin, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Randall Q Snurr, Steven P Harvey, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
We report the synthesis and characterization of a water-stable zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1003, featuring the largest mesoporous aperture known for a zirconium MOF. This material has been used to immobilize the nerve agent hydrolyzing enzyme, organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA). The catalytic efficiency of immobilized OPAA in nanosized NU-1003 is significantly increased compared to that of OPAA immobilized in microsized NU-1003 and even exceeds that of the free OPAA enzyme. This paper highlights a method for rapid and highly efficient hydrolysis of nerve agents using nanosized enzyme carriers...
October 5, 2016: ACS Nano
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
September 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
M Creuzé, P Afchain, A Munck, J Viala, A Bonnard, V Bertrand
Desmoid tumors (DT) are rare and nonmetastasizing fibroblastic neoplasms, characterized by local invasiveness. They occur sporadically or arise in the context of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 5-10% of cases). Most cases develop sporadically in young adults, but some cases also occur in children. We report the case of an adolescent girl with FAP and DT, and we discuss the therapeutic strategies. An adolescent girl with FAP underwent surgery at the age of 14 years with total proctocolectomy. She had a neo-mutation in the APC gene at codon 1068, which is not usually associated with DT...
September 27, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Mohammad Heidari, Dan Wang, Phillip Delekta, Shuhong Sun
Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of Marek's disease (MD) in domestic chickens. MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4(+) T cells. The latently infected CD4(+) T cells carry the virus to visceral organs, peripheral nerves, and feather follicle epithelium (FFE). FFE is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virus particles are produced and disseminated into the environment...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
L Baverel, T Cucurulo, C Lutz, Colombet, J Cournapeau, F Dalmay, N Lefevre, R Letartre, J-F Potel, X Roussignol, L Surdeau, E Servien
INTRODUCTION: More and more anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are being performed as outpatient surgery in France, because of economic considerations. Postoperative pain is the most common reason for delayed discharge that could require hospitalization, and the main reason for unanticipated hospital admission. The purpose of this study was to define the best anesthesia and analgesia methods for ACL reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, comparative study performed between January 2014 and April 2015...
September 26, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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