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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652853/protection-studies-of-new-bis-quaternary-2-hydroxyimino-n-pyridin-3yl-acetamide-derivatives-hnk-series-oximes-against-acute-poisoning-by-dichlorvos-ddvp-in-swiss-albino-mice
#1
Pravin Kumar, Devyani Swami, Hitendra N Karade, Manindar Singh, Anupma Tiwari, Kshetra Pal Singh
The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI) and AChE reactivation in brain and serum...
December 2016: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648659/enterochromaffin-cells-are-gut-chemosensors-that-couple-to-sensory-neural-pathways
#2
Nicholas W Bellono, James R Bayrer, Duncan B Leitch, Joel Castro, Chuchu Zhang, Tracey A O'Donnell, Stuart M Brierley, Holly A Ingraham, David Julius
Dietary, microbial, and inflammatory factors modulate the gut-brain axis and influence physiological processes ranging from metabolism to cognition. The gut epithelium is a principal site for detecting such agents, but precisely how it communicates with neural elements is poorly understood. Serotonergic enterochromaffin (EC) cells are proposed to fulfill this role by acting as chemosensors, but understanding how these rare and unique cell types transduce chemosensory information to the nervous system has been hampered by their paucity and inaccessibility to single-cell measurements...
June 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646022/nf1-hematopoietic-cells-accelerate-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-development-without-altering-chemotherapy-response
#3
Rebecca D Dodd, Chang-Lung Lee, Tess Overton, Wesley Huang, William C Eward, Lixia Luo, Yan Ma, Davis R Ingram, Keila E Torres, Diana M Cardona, Alexander Lazar, David G Kirsch
Haploinsufficiency in the tumor suppressor NF1 contributes to the pathobiology of type 1 neurofibromatosis, but a related role has not been established in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) where NF1 mutations also occur. Patients with NF1-associated MPNST appear to have worse outcomes than patients with sporadic MPNST, but the mechanism underlying this correlation is not understood. To define the impact of stromal genetics on the biology of this malignancy, we developed unique mouse models that reflect the genetics of patient-associated MPNST...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638429/adalimumab-responsive-refractory-sarcoidosis-following-multiple-eyebrow-tattoos-a-case-report
#4
Alireza Mirzaei, Mohamad Mehdi Joharimoghadam, Mozhdeh Zabihiyeganeh
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that can involve multiple organs including the lungs, eyes, nerves, and skin. Cosmetic tattooing can be a predisposing factor for sarcoidosis, and its incidence is likely to increase along with its popularity. A 47-year-old woman with symptoms of fever and polyarthritis along with erythema nodosum lesions on the legs, swollen eyebrows, and a history of multiple eyebrow tattooing was referred to our center. Since the signs and symptoms were positive for Löfgren's syndrome triad including erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, and polyarthritis, a diagnosis of acute sarcoidosis was made, and treatment was started accordingly...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#5
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627670/intermedin-improves-cardiac-function-and-sympathetic-neural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#6
Bin Xu, Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chunhuan Qin, Yanzhou Zhao, Xiaolin Han, Hongli Li
Emerging evidence has suggested that intermedin (IMD), a novel member of the calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP) family, has a wide range of cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of long‑term administration of IMD on cardiac function and sympathetic neural remodeling in heart failure (HF) rats, and studied potential underlying mechanism. HF was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either saline or IMD (0.6 µg/kg/h) treatment groups for 4 weeks post‑MI...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626522/study-of-para-quinone-methide-precursors-toward-the-realkylation-of-aged-acetylcholinesterase
#7
Ryan J Yoder, Qinggeng Zhuang, Jeremy M Beck, Andrew Franjesevic, Travis G Blanton, Sydney Sillart, Tyler Secor, Leah Guerra, Jason D Brown, Carolyn Reid, Craig A McElroy, Özlem Doğan Ekici, Christopher S Callam, Christopher M Hadad
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme that can be targeted by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including nerve agents. Following exposure to OPs, AChE becomes phosphylated (inhibited) and undergoes a subsequent aging process where the OP-AChE adduct is dealkylated. The aged AChE is unable to hydrolyze acetylcholine, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and elsewhere. Current therapeutics are only capable of reactivating inhibited AChE. There are no known therapeutic agents to reverse the aging process or treat aged AChE...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621926/mimicking-the-active-sites-of-organophosphorus-hydrolase-on-the-backbone-of-graphene-oxide-to-destroy-nerve-agent-simulants
#8
Xuejuan Ma, Lin Zhang, Mengfan Xia, Shuangqin Li, Xiaohong Zhang, Yaodong Zhang
Recent global military events, such as the conflict in Syria, have emphasized the need to find effective strategies to rapidly destroy organophosphorus-based nerve agents. In this work, we designed active site-engineered graphene oxide (GO) via polymerization (polymer bead-GOs) as organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) mimetic hotspots for the rapid degradation of nerve agents. This hybrid catalyst has a high total turnover frequency value of 0.65 s(-1) and good stability (94.8% activity maintained after 5 cycles)...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615804/the-neurochemistry-of-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#9
Andreea Benga, Fatih Zor, Ahmet Korkmaz, Bogdan Marinescu, Vijay Gorantla
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614082/pharmacology-of-cough-in-palliative-care
#10
Alyn H Morice, Gabriella Shanks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cough is a common and distressing symptom. It has a marked decrement on quality-of-life particularly in the arena of palliative care where coexisting symptoms such as pain may be exacerbated. Whilst local definitive treatment may alleviate coughing it usually requires general measures. The purpose of the review is to assess the current evidence relating to the pharmacological management of cough. RECENT FINDINGS: Key to understanding cough is the realization that most cough is because of a hypersensitivity of the afferent vagus nerve...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612296/kinesin-5-blocker-monastrol-protects-against-bortezomib-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#11
Ilja Bobylev, Dominik Peters, Maulik Vyas, Mohammed Barham, Ines Klein, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Wolfram F Neiss, Helmar C Lehmann
Neurotoxicity is a relevant side effect of bortezomib treatment. Previous reports have shown that the development of peripheral neuropathy caused by anti-neoplastic agents may be a result of reduced axonal transport. Based on evidence from prior studies that the kinesin-5 inhibitor monastrol enhances axonal transport and improves neuronal regeneration, we focused on the neuroprotective role of monastrol during the chemotherapeutic treatment with bortezomib. Prolonged treatment of C57BL/6 mice with bortezomib induced a length-dependent small-fiber neuropathy with axonal atrophy and loss of sensory nerve fibers...
June 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606115/peripheral-neuropathy-in-a-diabetic-child-treated-with-linezolid-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Aravind Swaminathan, Philipp du Cros, James A Seddon, Shamsiya Mirgayosieva, Rajabov Asladdin, Zulfiya Dusmatova
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effective drugs. Linezolid is one of the few drugs that has shown promise in treating these conditions. Long-term linezolid use is associated with toxicities such as peripheral and optic neuropathies. Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially when uncontrolled, can also result in peripheral neuropathy...
June 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603016/rapid-repeatable-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-retinal-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
Ning Fan, Sean M Silverman, Yang Liu, Xizhen Wang, Byung-Jin Kim, Liping Tang, Abbot F Clark, Xuyang Liu, Iok-Hou Pang
Oxidative injuries, such as those related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in various retinal and optic nerve disorders. Many ROS detection methods have been developed. Although widely utilized, many of these methods are useful only in post mortem tissues, or require relatively expensive equipment, or involve intraocular injection. In the present study, we demonstrated and characterized a chemiluminescent probe L-012 as a noninvasive, in vivo ROS detection agent in the mouse retina. Using optic nerve crush (ONC) and retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) as injury models, we show that L-012 produced intensive luminescent signals specifically in the injured eyes...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602048/injected-corticosteroids-for-treating-plantar-heel-pain-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Judy A David, Venkatesan Sankarapandian, Prince Rh Christopher, Ahana Chatterjee, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain, commonly resulting from plantar fasciitis, often results in significant morbidity. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthoses, physical therapy, physical agents (e.g. extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), laser) and invasive procedures including steroid injections. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of injected corticosteroids for treating plantar heel pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, clinical trials registries and conference proceedings...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601937/nerve-perivascular-fat-communication-as-a-potential-influence-on-the-performance-of-blood-vessels-used-as-coronary-artery-bypass-grafts
#15
Andrzej Loesch, Michael R Dashwood
Perivascular fat, the cushion of adipose tissue surrounding blood vessels, possesses dilator, anti-contractile and constrictor actions. The majority of these effects have been demonstrated in vitro and may depend on the vessel and/or the experimental method or species used. In general, the relaxant effect of perivascular adipose tissue is local and may be either endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent. However, nerve stimulation studies show that, in general, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has an anti-contractile vascular effect likely to involve an action of the autonomic vascular nerves...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601555/comparison-of-skin-decontamination-efficacy-of-commercial-decontamination-products-following-exposure-to-vx-on-human-skin
#16
L Thors, M Koch, E Wigenstam, B Koch, L Hägglund, A Bucht
The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e...
June 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601299/possible-effects-of-some-agents-on-the-injured-nerve-in-obese-rats-a%C3%A2-stereological-and-electron-microscopic-study
#17
Mehmet Emin Onger, Süleyman Kaplan, Stefano Geuna, Aysin Pinar Türkmen, Luisa Muratori, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to research new treatments following peripheral nerve injury involving melatonin (Mel), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), and leptin (Lep) using updated unbiased methods at the stereological and electron microscopic levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into nine equal groups; control (Cont), obese control (OG), obese group exposed to sciatic nerve resection (Gap) (OGG), obese group injected intraperitoneally (i...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597710/comparing-treatment-options-for-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies-and-choosing-the-right-treatment-plan
#18
Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Francesca Gallia, Fabrizia Terenghi, Mariangela Bianco
Chronic inflammatory neuropathies are disorders caused by an immune response to peripheral nerve. They include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and neuropathy associated with anti-MAG IgM monoclonal gammopathy and other less frequent neuropathies. Several immune therapies have been proven to be effective in these neuropathies even if the best therapeutic option is still unsettled. Areas covered: The authors reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy and safety of currently used immune therapies in these neuropathies...
June 9, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597402/metastatic-bone-disease-from-breast-cancer-a-review-of-minimally-invasive-techniques-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Dimitrios Filippiadis, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Argyro Mazioti, Konstantinos Palialexis, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Alexis Kelekis
Skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic bone disease include intractable severe pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord and nerve compression, hypercalcemia and bone marrow aplasia. In patients with breast cancer, the skeleton is the most frequent site for metastases. Treatment options for metastatic bone disease in these patients include bisphosphonates, chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, hormonal therapy, minimally invasive/interventional and surgical techniques. Interventional oncology techniques for breast cancer patients with bone metastases include diagnostic (biopsy) and therapeutic (palliative and curative) approaches...
June 8, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592157/correlation-between-nasal-epithelial-injury-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-using-a-series-of-small-molecule-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-investigated-for-reversal-of-leptin-resistance-in-obesity
#20
Alan P Brown, Chandrassegar Saravanan, Patrick Devine, Maria Magnifico, Jiaping Gao, Valerie Beaulieu, Fupeng Ma, Kayo Yasoshima, David Barnes-Seeman, Ken Yamada
This research provides a cautionary example when evaluating changes in behavioral end points with respect to postulated pharmacologic activity. Various small molecule substrate mimetic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors were investigated as pharmacologic agents for decreasing food consumption using intranasal (IN) dosing as a means for direct nose-to-brain delivery along the olfactory/trigeminal nerve pathways. Although food consumption was decreased in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, nasal discharge was observed...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
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