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Nerve Agent

Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Jaepyeong Cha, Aline Broch, Scott Mudge, Kihoon Kim, Jung-Man Namgoong, Eugene Oh, Peter Kim
Accurate, real-time identification and display of critical anatomic structures, such as the nerve and vasculature structures, are critical for reducing complications and improving surgical outcomes. Human vision is frequently limited in clearly distinguishing and contrasting these structures. We present a novel imaging system, which enables noninvasive visualization of critical anatomic structures during surgical dissection. Peripheral nerves are visualized by a snapshot polarimetry that calculates the anisotropic optical properties...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Maha Ahmad
Dental paresthesia is loss of sensation caused by maxillary or mandibular anesthetic administration before dental treatment. This review examines inferior alveolar block paresthesia symptoms, side effect and complications. Understanding the anatomy of the pterygomandibular fossa will help in understanding the nature and causes of the dental paresthesia. In this review, we review the anatomy of the region surrounding inferior alveolar injections, anesthetic agents and also will look also into the histology and injury process of the inferior alveolar nerve...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Pini Koplovitch, Marshall Devor
Ectopic impulse discharge (ectopia) generated in the soma of afferent neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) following nerve injury is thought to be a major contributor to neuropathic pain. The DRG is thus a prime interventional target. The process of electrogenesis (impulse generation) in the DRG is far more sensitive to systemically administered Na channel blockers than the process of impulse propagation along sensory axons. It should therefore be possible to selectively suppress DRG ectopia with local application of membrane stabilizing agents without blocking normal impulse traffic...
March 12, 2018: Pain
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Wenko Smolka, Thomas Knoesel, Ullrich Mueller-Lisse
A case of a 60-year-old man with severe trismus after inferior alveolar nerve block is presented. MRI scans as well as histologic examination revealed muscle fibrosis and degeneration of the medial part of the left temporal muscle due to myotoxicity of a local anesthetic agent.
March 12, 2018: Quintessence International
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional lower gastrointestinal disorders include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, functional fecal incontinence, and functional anorectal pain. These disorders are common and have significant medical and social effects. They also can be challenging to manage. Patients with mild symptoms may benefit from lifestyle modification. IBS is classified into two subtypes: diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant. Depending on the IBS subtype and its likely etiology, patients may benefit from treatment with antispasmodics, antidepressants, guanylate cyclase-C agonists, chloride channel activators, antidiarrheal agents, probiotics, and/or antibiotics...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Harsh Deora, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, V Vikas, Sampath Somanna
Background: Actinomycosis israeli is a gram-positive non-acid-fast bacterium and is the most common causative agent of actinomycosis. It usually presents as a brain abscess via a secondary spread from the cervicofacial region or lungs. However, presentation as an en-plaque lesion with bone involvement out of proportion to brain parenchyma is rare and needs to be acknowledged. Case Description: We report a case of intracranial en-plaque lesion in a 47-year-old female with restriction of mouth opening and right third nerve palsy for 1 year...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Meritxell Llorca-Torralba, Juan A Mico, Esther Berrocoso
The persistent activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate acid receptors (NMDARs) seems to be responsible for a series of changes in neurons associated with neuropathic pain, including the failure of opioids that act through mu-opioid receptors (MORs) to provide efficacious pain relief. As the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) forms part of the endogenous analgesic system, we explored how intra-LC administration of morphine, a MORs agonist, alone or in combination with MK-801, a NMDARs antagonist, affects the sensorial and affective dimension of pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain; chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Reda Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Sunghwa Hong, Seungjo Park, Dahae Lee, Ahyoung Cha, Dongeun Kim, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate ocular structures using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in dogs to assess the feasibility of CEUS for investigating the blood perfusion of canine eyes. ANIMAL STUDIED: Eight purpose-bred beagles were used. PROCEDURES: Blood perfusion and vascularity of the right eye were evaluated using color Doppler, power Doppler, and CEUS with Sonazoid® . Vascular changes were quantitatively evaluated by measuring peak intensity, time to initial upslope, and time to peak from the ciliary body, iris, choroid, retina, and the retrobulbar region by CEUS...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Hanna M Butler-Struben, Samantha M Brophy, Nasira A Johnson, Robyn J Crook
Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Erika A Scholl, Stephanie M Miller-Smith, Steven L Bealer, Mark J Lehmkuhle, Jeffrey J Ekstrand, F Edward Dudek, John H McDonough
Exposure to nerve agents (NAs) and other organophosphates (OPs) can initiate seizures that rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE). While the electrographic and neuropathological sequelae of SE evoked by NAs and OPs have been characterized in adult rodents, they have not been adequately investigated in immature animals. In this study postnatal day (PND) 14, 21 and 28 rat pups, along with PND70 animals as adult controls, were exposed to NAs (sarin, VX) or another OP (diisopropylfluorophosphate, DFP). We then evaluated behavioral and electrographic (EEG) correlates of seizure activity, and performed neuropathology using Fluoro-Jade B...
March 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Amin Salem Milani, Mohammad Froughreyhani, Saeed Rahimi, Vahid Zand, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based answer to the question: "Is 3.6-mL volume of an anesthetic agent more effective than 1.8-mL volume in providing anesthesia for mandibular molars?" Following formulation of research question and keyword selection, a comprehensive search of the following databases was conducted: Cochrane library, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Three-phase eligibility appraisal and quality assessment of the studies were carried out by 2 independent reviewers...
2018: Anesthesia Progress
Hiromi Yamamoto, Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Kazunori Uemura, Masashi Inagaki, Kazuyoshi Kakehi, Yoshitaka Iwanaga, Kanji Fukuda, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Shunichi Miyazaki, Masaru Sugimachi
AIMS: To assess the acute effects of intravenous ivabradine, a selective bradycardic agent, on carotid sinus baroreflex-mediated sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: In anesthetized and vagotomized Wistar-Kyoto rats (n=6), carotid sinus baroreceptor regions were isolated. Changes in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), AP, and HR in response to a step-wise pressure input were examined before and after intravenous ivabradine (2mg/kg)...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
John A Hondred, Joyce Breger, Nathan Alves, Scott A Trammell, Scott A Walper, Igor L Medintz, Jonathan C Claussen
Solution phase printing of graphene-based electrodes has recently become an attractive low-cost, scalable manufacturing technique to create in-field electrochemical biosensors. Here we report a graphene-based electrode developed via Inkjet Maskless Lithography (IML) for the direct and rapid monitoring of triple-O linked phosphonate organophosphates (OPs); these constitute the active compounds found in chemical warfare agents and pesticides that exhibit acute toxicity as well as long-term pollution to soils and waterways...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Razek Georges Coussa, Andre Ali-Ridha, Natalia Vila, Rayan Alshareef, John Chen
Purpose: To describe a case of Crohn disease presenting as occlusive vasculitis resulting in a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in one eye and transient ischemic optic neuropathy in the fellow eye. Observations: An 18-year-old patient recently diagnosed with biopsy-proven Crohn disease presented with CRAO OD after a previous episode of transient visual loss OS. Extensive workup was negative for other autoimmune or infectious etiologies. The patient was started on intravenous methylprednisolone for 72 h followed by maintenance dose of azathioprine and oral prednisone...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Su Jung Hwang, Eun-Young Ahn, Youmie Park, Hyo-Jong Lee
The recent mass emergence of Nomura's jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) has caused much economic and environmental damage. However, there is no innovative strategy to dispose of or utilize these jellyfish. Some reports suggest that the jellyfish may be bioactive resources and a source of important compounds with antibacterial activity. Here, we examined the effect of an aqueous extract of Nomura's jellyfish (AENJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and a zebrafish model of inflammation and analyzed the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sue Y Bae, James M Myslinski, Leslie R McMahon, Jude J Height, Andrew N Bigley, Frank M Raushel, Steven P Harvey
The wild-type OPAA enzyme has relatively high levels of catalytic activity against several organophosphate G-type nerve agents. A series of mutants containing replacement amino acids at the OPAA Y212, V342, and I215 sites showed several fold enhanced catalytic efficiency on sarin, soman, and GP. One mutant, Y212F/V342L, showed enhanced stereospecificity on sarin and that enzyme along with a phosphotriesterase mutant, GWT, which had the opposite stereospecificity, were used to generate enriched preparations of each sarin enantiomer...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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