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Confined Spaces

Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Karen Fagg, Olivia Barnard, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximize the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, which can be facilitated through the use of selective contraception. This becomes critical when captive populations are held for several generations, and managers must prevent the confines of housing space and financial support from compromising genetic integrity. For example, the Tasmanian devil insurance population, established in 2006, is strategically managed to equalize founder representation...
November 4, 2017: Theriogenology
Zhen Xie, Sai Duan, Chuan-Kui Wang, Yi Luo
The long-range charge-transfer states in a donor-acceptor system exhibit well separated electron-hole pairs, but are often difficult to achieve by optical means owing to a very small overlap between the wave functions of the donor and acceptor. We have found that the introduction of a spatially confined plasmon can enhance the transition probability to the long-range charge-transfer states as it can effectively break the intrinsic symmetry selection rule imposed on the system. Meanwhile, the intensity borrowed from local excitations could also be selectively promoted, allowing the manipulation of the excited quantum states...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Yusuke Nagasaki, Masafumi Suzuki, Junichi Takahara
An all-dielectric optical antenna supporting Mie resonances enables light confinement below the free-space diffraction limit. The Mie scattering wavelengths of the antenna depend on the structural geometry, which allows the antennas to be used for colored imprint images. However, there is still room for improving the spatial resolution, and new polarization-dependent color functionalities are highly desirable for realizing a wider color tuning range. Here, we show all-dielectric color printing by means of dual-color pixels with a subwavelength-scale resolution...
November 15, 2017: Nano Letters
Kevin G Moore, Carol L Jones
The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Kenya Kani, Victor Malgras, Bo Jiang, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Saad M Alshehri, Tansir Ahamad, Rahul R Salunkhe, Zhenguo Huang, Yusuke Yamauchi
Dendritic Pt nanospheres of 20 nm diameter are synthesized by using highly concentrated surfactant assembly within the large-sized cage-type mesopores of mesoporous silica (LP-FDU-12). After diluting the surfactant solution with ethanol, the lower viscosity lead to an improved penetration inside the mesopores. After Pt deposition followed by template removal, the arrangement of the Pt nanospheres is a replication from that of the mesopores in the original LP-FDU-12 template. Although it is well known that ordered LLCs can form on flat substrates, confined space inside the mesopores hinders surfactant self-organization...
November 14, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Saeed Amirjalayer, Alberto Martinez-Cuezva, Jose Berná, Sander Woutersen, Wybren Jan Buma
Well-defined structural changes of molecular units that can be triggered by light are crucial for the development of photoactive functional materials. Here we report on a novel switch that has azodicarboxamide as its photo triggerable element. Time-resolved UV-pump/IR probe spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations shows that the azodicarboxamide functionality -in contrast to other azo-based chromophores- does not undergo trans-cis photoisomerization. Instead, a photo-induced pedalo-type motion occurs, which due to its volume-conserving properties enables to design functional molecular systems with controllable motion in a confined space...
November 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Christopher J Gaffney, Elena Fomina, Dennis Babich, Vladimir Kitov, Konstantin Uskov, David A Green
BACKGROUND: Isolation and long duration spaceflight are associated with musculoskeletal deconditioning. Mars500 was a unique, high-fidelity analogue of the psychological challenges of a 520-day manned mission to Mars. We aimed to explore the effect of musculoskeletal deconditioning on three outcome measures: (1) if lower limb muscle strength was reduced during the 520-day isolation; (2) if type I or II muscle fibres were differentially affected; and (3) whether any 70-day exercise interventions prevented any isolation-induced loss of strength...
November 13, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
V P Mantripragada, N S Piuzzi, T Zachos, N A Obuchowski, G F Muschler, R J Midura
OBJECTIVE: The two main objectives of the study include (1) Test the hypothesis that the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) in patients with primary OA and varus knees undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be used as a model to better characterize varying histological features of human OA, (2) Correlate characteristic OA features using the established histopathological scoring systems (HHGS and OARSI) to understand potential histopathological patterns of OA initiation. DESIGN: Two osteochondral specimens (4×4×8mm) were collected from fifty patient's LFC at the time of TKA (total 100 specimens), who presented preserved lateral knee compartment with joint space width>2mm...
November 10, 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Alessandro Bertucci, Alessandro Porchetta, Francesco Ricci
One of the most intriguing ways through which Nature achieves regulation of biological pathways encompasses the coordination of non-covalent interactions that bring biomolecules to be co-localized in a designated restricted space. This nano-confinement leads to a drastic increase in the effective local concentration of the species involved, which ultimately triggers reactions that would otherwise not occur at the low concentrations found in cells. Inspired by this mechanism, we have explored the possibility of using antibodies as bivalent biomolecular substrates for the templated assembly of a functional RNA structure...
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Lumeng Liu, Shiliang Johnathan Tan, Toshihide Horikawa, D D Do, D Nicholson, Junjie Liu
Water adsorption on carbonaceous materials has been studied increasingly in the recent years, not only because of its impact on many industrial processes, but also motivated by a desire to understand, at a fundamental level, the distinctive character of directional interactions between water molecules, and between water molecules and other polar groups, such as the functional groups (FGs) at the surfaces of graphene layers. This paper presents an extensive review of recent experimental and theoretical work on water adsorption on various carbonaceous materials, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of how water adsorption in carbonaceous materials relates to the concentration of FGs, their topology (arrangement of the groups) and the structure of the confined space in porous carbons...
November 9, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Benoit Hastoy, Anne Clark, Patrik Rorsman, Jochen Lang
Secretory vesicle exocytosis is a fundamental biological event and the process by which hormones (like insulin) are released into the blood. Considerable progress has been made in understanding this precisely orchestrated sequence of events from secretory vesicle docked at the cell membrane, hemifusion, to the opening of a membrane fusion pore. The exact biophysical and physiological regulation of these events implies a close interaction between membrane proteins and lipids in a confined space and constrained geometry to ensure appropriate delivery of cargo...
December 2017: Cell Calcium
Hye-In Yoon, Dong-Kyu Lee, Hyung Bin Bae, Gi-Young Jo, Hee-Suk Chung, Jin-Gyu Kim, Suk-Joong L Kang, Sung-Yoon Chung
Although theoretical studies and experimental investigations have demonstrated the presence of space-charge-induced dopant segregation, most work has been confined largely to the crystal-free surface and some special grain boundaries, and to the best of our knowledge there has been no systematic comparison to understand how the segregation varies at different types of interfaces in polycrystals. Here, through atomic-column resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy in real polycrystalline samples, we directly elucidate the space-charge segregation features at five distinct types of interfaces in an ABO3 perovskite oxide doped with A- and B-site donors...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Gufei Zhang, Tomas Samuely, Hongchu Du, Zheng Xu, Liwang Liu, Oleksandr Onufriienko, Paul W May, Johan Vanacken, Pavol Szabó, Jozef Kačmarčík, Haifeng Yuan, Peter Samuely, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski, Johan Hofkens, Victor V Moshchalkov
In the presence of disorder, superconductivity exhibits short-range characteristics linked to localized Cooper pairs which are responsible for anomalous phase transitions and the emergence of quantum states such as the bosonic insulating state. Complementary to well-studied homogeneously disordered superconductors, superconductor-normal hybrid arrays provide tunable realizations of the degree of granular disorder for studying anomalous quantum phase transitions. Here, we investigate the superconductor-bosonic dirty metal transition in disordered nanodiamond arrays as a function of the dispersion of intergrain spacing, which ranges from angstroms to micrometers...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Kunio Hamanaka, Yuusuke Hirokawa, Tsuyoshi Itoh, Mitsuhiro Fujino, Kenichi Kano, Satoru Beppu, Nozomu Sasahashi, Kei Nishiyama
Case: A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with hypotension after falling from the fifth floor of an apartment building. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed liver injury with extravasation of contrast material from the hepatic artery, and extrahepatic portal venous injury with extravasation and pseudoaneurysm. Intra-abdominal hemorrhage was not observed, and bleeding was confined to the retroperitoneal space. Hepatic arteriography showed extravasation, while portal venography showed pseudoaneurysm but no extravasation...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Alejandro Almarza, Bryan Brown, Boaz Arzi, David Faustino Ângelo, William L Chung, Stephen F Badylak, Michael Scott Detamore
There is a paucity of in vivo studies that investigate the safety and efficacy of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissue regeneration approaches, in part due to the lack of established animal models. Review of disease models for study of the TMJ is presented herein with an attempt to identify relevant preclinical animal models for TMJ tissue engineering, with emphasis on the disc and condyle. Although degenerative joint disease models have been mainly performed on mice, rats, and rabbits, pre-clinical regeneration approaches must employ larger animal species...
November 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Chen Chen, Paul Duru, Pierre Joseph, Sandrine Geoffroy, Marc Prat
Evaporation is a key phenomenon in the natural environment and in many technological systems involving capillary structures. Understanding the evaporation front dynamics enables the evaporation rate from microfluidic devices and porous media to be finely controlled. Of particular interest is the ability to control the position of the front through suitable design of the capillary structure. Here, we show how to design model capillary structures in microfluidic devices so as to control the drying kinetics. This is achieved by acting on the spatial organization of the constrictions that influence the invasion of the structure by the gas phase...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nikoletta Pakalidou, David L Cheung, Andrew J Masters, Carlos Avendaño
The fabrication of chiral structures using achiral building blocks is a fundamental problem that remains a challenge in materials science. In this work we present a molecular dynamics simulation study of nonconvex polygonal platelets, interacting via soft-repulsive interactions, that are confined in two-dimensional space. These particle models are designed to promote, even at moderate densities, a natural offset displacement between the edges of neighbouring particles. In particular we demonstrate that nonconvex platelets exhibit macroscopic chiral symmetry breaking when the symmetry of the particles equals (or is multiple of) the number of nearest neighbours in the condensed crystalline phase, corresponding to the situation of platelets with 4-, 6-, and 12-fold symmetries...
November 8, 2017: Soft Matter
Xiumei Zhang, Haiyan Nan, Shaoqing Xiao, Xi Wan, Zhenhua Ni, Xiaofeng Gu, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently drawn great attention due to its promising applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a scalable method to produce large-area MoS2 monolayers, yet it is challenging to achieve shape-uniform, high-quality monolayer MoS2 grains as random, diverse crystallographic orientations and various shapes are produced in the same CVD process. Here we report the growth of high-quality MoS2 monolayers with uniform trianglular shapes dominating (up to 89%) over other shapes on both SiO2/Si and sapphire substrates...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Claudia Pigliacelli, Daniele Maiolo, Nonappa Nonappa, Johannes S Haataja, Heinz Amenitsch, Claire Michelet, Paola Sánchez Moreno, Ilaria Tirotta, Pierangelo Metrangolo, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli
Fluorophobic-driven assemblies of gold nanomaterials were stabilized into water-dispersible fluorous supraparticles by the film-forming protein hydrophobin HFBII. Our strategy makes use of fluorous nanomaterials of different dimensions to engineer size and inner functionalization of the resulting confined space. The inner fluorous compartments allow efficient encapsulation and transport in water of high loadings of partially fluorinated drug molecules.
November 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy
The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined spaces, as well as in commercial settings...
November 1, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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