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Confined Spaces

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548839/structural-distortions-and-charge-density-waves-in-iodine-chains-encapsulated-inside-carbon-nanotubes
#1
Hannu-Pekka Komsa, Ryosuke Senga, Kazutomo Suenaga, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
Atomic chains are perfect systems for getting fundamental insights into the electron dynamics and coupling between the electronic and ionic degrees of freedom in one dimensional metals. Depending on the band filling, they can exhibit Peierls instabilities (or charge density waves), where equally spaced chain of atoms with partially filled band is inherently unstable, exhibiting spontaneous distortion of the lattice that further leads to metal-insulator transition in the system. Here, using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, we directly image the atomic structures of a chain of iodine atoms confined inside carbon nanotubes...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539141/individual-traits-personal-values-and-conflict-resolution-in-an-isolated-confined-extreme-environment
#2
Jesper G Corneliussen, Gloria R Leon, Anders Kjærgaard, Birgit A Fink, Noah C Venables
BACKGROUND: The study of personality traits, personal values, and the emergence of conflicts within groups performing in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment (ICE) may provide insights helpful for the composition and support of space crews for long duration missions. METHODS: Studied pre/post and over the 2-yr period of the investigation were 10 Danish military personnel deployed to stations in Greenland on a 26-mo staggered rotation. Subjects completed the NEO PI-R, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, and Portrait Values Questionnaire, and participated in structured interviews...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536750/transoral-robotic-excision-of-a-lingual-thyroglossal-duct-cyst
#3
Stephanie Fong, John-Charles Hodge, Andrew Foreman, Suren Krishnan
Lingual thyroglossal duct cysts are a rare and potentially difficult to manage tongue base lesion. We report a case of transoral robotic surgical excision of a lingual thyroglossal duct cyst, in an adult patient. A 68-year-old man presented with a large base of tongue mass, with appearance on ultrasound and computed tomography consistent with a lingual thyroglossal duct cyst. We describe the surgical technique for transoral robotic excision of the cyst. The cyst was completely excised, and the patient had a smooth recovery...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534594/bicyclo-2-2-2-octane-1-4-dicarboxylic-acid-towards-transparent-metal-organic-frameworks
#4
P J Llabres-Campaner, J Pitarch-Jarque, R Ballesteros-Garrido, B Abarca, R Ballesteros, E García-España
The preparation of transparent porous materials can offer a different access towards the study of molecules under solid confined space. Metal-organic frameworks represent a unique opportunity due to their tunable pore size, however aromatic linkers present strong absorption and reduce the transparency. Herein, we report the first example of a MOF with bicyclic organic dicarboxylic linkers and its use as a solid solvent.
May 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533413/confined-catalysis-under-two-dimensional-materials
#5
Haobo Li, Jianping Xiao, Qiang Fu, Xinhe Bao
Confined microenvironments formed in heterogeneous catalysts have recently been recognized as equally important as catalytically active sites. Understanding the fundamentals of confined catalysis has become an important topic in heterogeneous catalysis. Well-defined 2D space between a catalyst surface and a 2D material overlayer provides an ideal microenvironment to explore the confined catalysis experimentally and theoretically. Using density functional theory calculations, we reveal that adsorption of atoms and molecules on a Pt(111) surface always has been weakened under monolayer graphene, which is attributed to the geometric constraint and confinement field in the 2D space between the graphene overlayer and the Pt(111) surface...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532155/recent-advances-in-cantilever-free-scanning-probe-lithography-high-throughput-space-confined-synthesis-of-nanostructures-and-beyond
#6
Qiyuan He, Chaoliang Tan, Hua Zhang
Scalability is the major challenge for scanning probe lithography (SPL). Recently developed cantilever-free scanning probe technologies provide a solution to the issue of scalability by incorporating massive arrays of polymer pens, which fundamentally overcome the low-throughput nature of SPL. The further development of cantilever-free SPL brings up a variety of applications in electronics, biology, and chemical synthesis. In this Perspective, we highlight the space-confined synthesis of complex nanostructures enabled by different types of cantilever-free SPL technologies...
May 23, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525260/three-dimensional-visualization-and-characterization-of-polymeric-self-assemblies-by-transmission-electron-microtomography
#7
Hiroshi Jinnai, Takeshi Higuchi, Xiaodong Zhuge, Akihito Kumamoto, Kees Joost Batenburg, Yuichi Ikuhara
Self-assembling structures and their dynamical processes in polymeric systems have been investigated using three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM). Block copolymers (BCPs) self-assemble into nanoscale periodic structures called microphase-separated structures, a deep understanding of which is important for creating nanomaterials with superior physical properties, such as high-performance membranes with well-defined pore size and high-density data storage media. Because microphase-separated structures have become increasingly complicated with advances in precision polymerization, characterizing these complex morphologies is becoming increasingly difficult...
May 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524195/enhanced-reactivity-and-selectivity-of-asymmetric-oxa-michael-addition-of-2-hydroxychalcones-in-carbon-confined-spaces
#8
Melad Shaikh, Kiran Kumar Atyam, Mahendra Sahu, Kalluri V S Ranganath
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are employed as nanoscale reaction vessels for the asymmetric oxa-Michael addition of 2'-hydroxychalcones. A systematic comparison of the catalytic activities of chiral phosphoric acid treated ferrite nanoparticles (chiral ferrites) has been studied for the synthesis of flavanones. Higher reactivity and selectivity with switching of enantiomers were observed when these chiral ferrites are inside the CNT channel.
May 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516901/eeg-source-space-analysis-of-the-supervised-factor-analytic-approach-for-the-classification-of-multi-directional-arm-movement
#9
Vikram Shenoy Handiru, A P Vinod, Cuntai Guan
OBJECTIVE: In electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for motor control tasks the conventional practice is to decode motor intentions by using scalp EEG. However, scalp EEG only reveals certain limited information about the complex tasks of movement with a higher degree of freedom. Therefore, our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of source-space EEG in extracting relevant features that discriminate arm movement in multiple directions. APPROACH: We have proposed a novel feature extraction algorithm based on supervised factor analysis that models the data from source-space EEG...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513581/tailoring-spin-defects-in-diamond-by-lattice-charging
#10
Felipe Fávaro de Oliveira, Denis Antonov, Ya Wang, Philipp Neumann, Seyed Ali Momenzadeh, Timo Häußermann, Alberto Pasquarelli, Andrej Denisenko, Jörg Wrachtrup
Atomic-size spin defects in solids are unique quantum systems. Most applications require nanometre positioning accuracy, which is typically achieved by low-energy ion implantation. A drawback of this technique is the significant residual lattice damage, which degrades the performance of spins in quantum applications. Here we show that the charge state of implantation-induced defects drastically influences the formation of lattice defects during thermal annealing. Charging of vacancies at, for example, nitrogen implantation sites suppresses the formation of vacancy complexes, resulting in tenfold-improved spin coherence times and twofold-improved formation yield of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505749/highly-pressurized-partially-miscible-liquid-liquid-flow-in-a-micro-t-junction-ii-theoretical-justifications-and-modeling
#11
Ning Qin, John Z Wen, Carolyn L Ren
This is the second part of a two-part study on a partially miscible liquid-liquid flow (carbon dioxide and deionized water) that is highly pressurized and confined in a microfluidic T-junction. In the first part of this study, we reported experimental observations of the development of flow regimes under various flow conditions and the quantitative characteristics of the drop flow including the drop length, after-generation drop speed, and periodic spacing development between an emerging drop and the newly produced one...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505748/highly-pressurized-partially-miscible-liquid-liquid-flow-in-a-micro-t-junction-i-experimental-observations
#12
Ning Qin, John Z Wen, Carolyn L Ren
This is the first part of a two-part study on a partially miscible liquid-liquid flow (liquid carbon dioxide and deionized water) which is highly pressurized and confined in a microfluidic T-junction. Our main focuses are to understand the flow regimes as a result of varying flow conditions and investigate the characteristics of drop flow distinct from coflow, with a capillary number, Ca_{c}, that is calculated based on the continuous liquid, ranging from 10^{-3} to 10^{-2} (10^{-4} for coflow). Here in part I, we present our experimental observation of drop formation cycle by tracking drop length, spacing, frequency, and after-generation speed using high-speed video and image analysis...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505712/sugar-export-limits-size-of-conifer-needles
#13
Hanna Rademaker, Maciej A Zwieniecki, Tomas Bohr, Kaare H Jensen
Plant leaf size varies by more than three orders of magnitude, from a few millimeters to over one meter. Conifer leaves, however, are relatively short and the majority of needles are no longer than 6 cm. The reason for the strong confinement of the trait-space is unknown. We show that sugars produced near the tip of long needles cannot be exported efficiently, because the pressure required to drive vascular flow would exceed the greatest available pressure (the osmotic pressure). This basic constraint leads to the formation of an inactive region of stagnant fluid near the needle tip, which does not contribute to sugar flow...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502789/supported-lipid-bilayer-platforms-to-probe-cell-mechanobiology
#14
REVIEW
Roxanne Glazier, Khalid Salaita
Mammalian and bacterial cells sense and exert mechanical forces through the process of mechanotransduction, which interconverts biochemical and physical signals. This is especially important in contact-dependent signaling, where ligand-receptor binding occurs at cell-cell or cell-ECM junctions. By virtue of occurring within these specialized junctions, receptors engaged in contact-dependent signaling undergo oligomerization and coupling with the cytoskeleton as part of their signaling mechanisms. While our ability to measure and map biochemical signaling within cell junctions has advanced over the past decades, physical cues remain difficult to map in space and time...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497786/tunable-and-low-loss-correlated-plasmons-in-mott-like-insulating-oxides
#15
Teguh Citra Asmara, Dongyang Wan, Yongliang Zhao, Muhammad Aziz Majidi, Christopher T Nelson, Mary C Scott, Yao Cai, Bixing Yan, Daniel Schmidt, Ming Yang, Tao Zhu, Paolo E Trevisanutto, Mallikarjuna R Motapothula, Yuan Ping Feng, Mark B H Breese, Matthew Sherburne, Mark Asta, Andrew Minor, T Venkatesan, Andrivo Rusydi
Plasmonics has attracted tremendous interests for its ability to confine light into subwavelength dimensions, creating novel devices with unprecedented functionalities. New plasmonic materials are actively being searched, especially those with tunable plasmons and low loss in the visible-ultraviolet range. Such plasmons commonly occur in metals, but many metals have high plasmonic loss in the optical range, a main issue in current plasmonic research. Here, we discover an anomalous form of tunable correlated plasmons in a Mott-like insulating oxide from the Sr1-xNb1-yO3+δ family...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487512/rapid-learning-curve-assessment-in-an-ex-vivo-training-system-for-microincisional-glaucoma-surgery
#16
Yalong Dang, Susannah Waxman, Chao Wang, Hardik A Parikh, Igor I Bussel, Ralitsa T Loewen, Xiaobo Xia, Kira L Lathrop, Richard A Bilonick, Nils A Loewen
Increasing prevalence and cost of glaucoma have increased the demand for surgeons well trained in newer, microincisional surgery. These procedures occur in a highly confined space, making them difficult to learn by observation or assistance alone as is currently done. We hypothesized that our ex vivo outflow model is sensitive enough to allow computing individual learning curves to quantify progress and refine techniques. Seven trainees performed nine trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomies in pig eyes (n = 63)...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487042/recurrent-plexiform-schwannoma-involving-the-carotid-canal
#17
Kei Ijichi, Masahiro Muto, Ayako Masaki, Shingo Murakami
Plexiform schwannoma (PS) is a rare variety of benign nerve sheath tumor characterized by a multinodular plexiform growth pattern. PS is usually confined to the head and neck or skin. The pre-operative diagnosis of PS is difficult, and this has lead to a common misdiagnosis as a schwannoma. In addition, studies have indicated that an incomplete resection of PS often results in tumor recurrence. Here we describe a rare case of PS presented in the parapharyngeal space. Our case involved a 36-year-old man with swelling of the pharynx, who presented with a soft cervical mass...
May 6, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486690/rhabdomyolysis-with-acute-tubular-necrosis-following-occupational-inhalation-of-thinners
#18
D Ngajilo, R Ehrlich
Thinners are mixtures of organic solvents commonly containing toluene, xylene, acetone, hexane, benzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. This report describes a case of rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis and renal failure, most likely attributable to toluene, following occupational exposure to thinners while cleaning a steel water tank. These adverse health effects have previously been reported following acute poisoning or intentional inhalation by drug abusers, but rarely in the occupational setting. Poor working conditions, lack of health and safety training and delayed treatment contributed to the onset and severity of the patient's complications...
May 9, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485912/three-dimensional-porous-si-and-sio2-with-in-situ-decorated-carbon-nanotubes-as-anode-materials-for-li-ion-batteries
#19
Junming Su, Jiayue Zhao, Liangyu Li, Congcong Zhang, Chunguang Chen, Tao Huang, Aishui Yu
A high-capacity Si anode is always accompanied by very large volume expansion and structural collapse during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process. To stabilize the structure of the Si anode, magnesium vapor thermal reduction has been used to synthesize porous Si and SiO2 (pSS) particles, followed by in situ growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in pSS pores through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the final product (pSS/CNTs) possesses adequate void space intertwined by uniformly distributed CNTs and inactive silica in particle form...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475846/resistance-exercise-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-systemic-pro-inflammatory-state-and-cachexia-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#20
Camila Souza Padilha, Fernando H Borges, Lilian Eslaine Costa Mendes da Silva, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan Frajacomo, Alceu Afonso Jordao, José Alberto Duarte, Rubens Cecchini, Flávia Alessandra Guarnier, Rafael Deminice
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on oxidative stress, systemic inflammatory markers and muscle wasting in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Male (Wistar) rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary controls (n=9); tumor-bearing (n=9); exercised (n=9); and tumor-bearing exercised (n=10). Exercised and tumor-bearing exercised rats were exposed to resistance exercise of climbing a ladder apparatus with weights tied to their tails during 6-wks. The physical activity of control and tumor-bearing rats was confined to the space of the cage...
May 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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