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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448123/enhancing-the-domain-wall-conductivity-in-lithium-niobate-single-crystals
#1
Christian Godau, Thomas Kämpfe, Andreas Thiessen, Lukas M Eng, Alexander Haußmann
Domain walls (DWs) in ferroelectric/ferroic materials have been in the central research focus for the last 50 years; DWs bear a multitude of extraordinary physical parameters within a unit-cell-sized lateral confinement. Especially, one outstanding feature has recently attracted a lot of attention for room-temperature applications, which is the potential to use DWs as 2-dimensional (2D) conducting channels that completely penetrate bulk compounds. Domain wall currents in lithium niobate (LNO) so far lie in the lower $pA$ regime...
April 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447175/present-and-projected-future-mean-radiant-temperature-for-three-european-cities
#2
Sofia Thorsson, David Rayner, Fredrik Lindberg, Ana Monteiro, Lutz Katzschner, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Sabrina Campe, Antje Katzschner, Janina Konarska, Shiho Onomura, Sara Velho, Björn Holmer
Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445765/in-line-monitoring-and-optimization-of-powder-flow-in-a-simulated-continuous-process-using-transmission-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#3
Md Anik Alam, Zhenqi Shi, James K Drennen, Carl A Anderson
In-line monitoring of continuous powder flow is an integral part of the continuous manufacturing process of solid oral dosage forms in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, monitoring downstream from loss-in-weight (LIW) feeders and/or continuous mixers provides important data about the state of the process. Such measurements support control of the process and thereby enhance product quality. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a potential PAT tool to monitor the homogeneity of a continuous powder flow stream in pharmaceutical manufacturing...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443336/mop-mo2c-c-a-new-combination-of-electrocatalysts-for-highly-efficient-hydrogen-evolution-over-all-ph-range
#4
Lu-Nan Zhang, Siheng Li, Hua-Qiao Tan, Shifa Ullah Khan, Yuan-Yuan Ma, Hong-Ying Zang, Yonghui Wang, Yang-Guang Li
During the exploration of highly efficient noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a promising and challenging strategy is to fabricate composite nanocatalysts by finely tuning metal and/or non-metal element components. Herein, we report a new HER electrocatalyst, which is composed of molybdenum phosphide and molybdenum carbide composite nanoparticles (NPs) coated by few-layer N-doped graphitic carbon shells (denoted as MoP/Mo2C@C). Such a new combination mode of electrocatalysts is realized by a one-step annealing route with the mixture of a Mo/P-based polyoxometalate (POM) and dicyandiamide...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439516/engineering-muscle-networks-in-3d-gelatin-methacryloyl-hydrogels-influence-of-mechanical-stiffness-and-geometrical-confinement
#5
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Ersilia Fornetti, Andrea Barbetta, Marcella Trombetta, Stefano Maria Cannata, Cesare Gargioli, Alberto Rainer
In this work, the influence of mechanical stiffness and geometrical confinement on the 3D culture of myoblast-laden gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) photo-crosslinkable hydrogels was evaluated in terms of in vitro myogenesis. We formulated a set of cell-laden GelMA hydrogels with a compressive modulus in the range 1 ÷ 17 kPa, obtained by varying GelMA concentration and degree of cross-linking. C2C12 myoblasts were chosen as the cell model to investigate the supportiveness of different GelMA hydrogels toward myotube formation up to 2 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437897/investigation-of-transmission-performance-in-multi-ifof-based-mobile-fronthaul-with-dispersion-induced-intermixing-noise-mitigation
#6
Minkyu Sung, Seung-Hyun Cho, Hwan Seok Chung, Sun Me Kim, Jong Hyun Lee
We demonstrate the improvement of the transmission performance based on intermixing noise mitigation techniques in a multiple intermediate-frequency-over-fiber (IFoF) based mobile fronthaul. The interaction between fiber chromatic dispersion and frequency chirp of the directly modulated laser generates the second-order distortion that degrades the performance of multi-IFoF transmission system. To avoid second-order distortion, we use intermediate frequency (IF) spacing optimization and octave-confined frequency plan schemes in which intermixing noise would be generated in the out of signal band and would not affect the quality of transmitted signal...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436647/high-performance-hydrogen-storage-nanoparticles-inside-hierarchical-porous-carbon-nanofibers-with-stable-cycling
#7
Guanglin Xia, Xiaowei Chen, Yan Zhao, Xingguo Li, Zaiping Guo, Craig M Jensen, Qinfen Gu, Xuebin Yu
An effective route based on space-confined chemical reaction to synthesize uniform Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles is reported. The hierarchical pores inside the one-dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNFs), induced by the creation of well-dispersed Li3N, serve as intelligent nanoreactors for the reaction of Li3N with Mg-containing precursors, resulting in the formation of uniformly discrete Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles. The nanostructured Li2Mg(NH)2 particles inside the CNFs is capable of complete hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at a temperature as low as 105 oC with the suppression of ammonia release...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427436/a-3d-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-breast-duct-a-method-to-unravel-myoepithelial-luminal-interactions-in-the-progression-of-breast-cancer
#8
Edward P Carter, James A Gopsill, Jennifer J Gomm, J Louise Jones, Richard P Grose
BACKGROUND: 3D modelling fulfils a critical role in research, allowing for complex cell behaviour and interactions to be studied in physiomimetic conditions. With tissue banks becoming established for a number of cancers, researchers now have access to primary patient cells, providing the perfect building blocks to recreate and interrogate intricate cellular systems in the laboratory. The ducts of the human breast are composed of an inner layer of luminal cells supported by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells...
April 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424626/a-rat-immobilization-model-based-on-cage-volume-reduction-a-physiological-model-for-bed-rest
#9
Enrica Marmonti, Sílvia Busquets, Míriam Toledo, Marina Ricci, Marc Beltrà, Victòria Gudiño, Francesc Oliva, José M López-Pedrosa, Manuel Manzano, Ricardo Rueda, Francisco J López-Soriano, Josep M Argilés
Bed rest has been an established treatment in the past prescribed for critically illness or convalescing patients, in order to preserve their body metabolic resource, to prevent serious complications and to support their rapid path to recovery. However, it has been reported that prolonged bed rest can have detrimental consequences that may delay or prevent the recovery from clinical illness. In order to study disuse-induced changes in muscle and bone, as observed during prolonged bed rest in humans, an innovative new model of muscle disuse for rodents is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420152/measurement-of-pressure-fluctuations-inside-a-model-thrust-bearing-using-pvdf-sensors
#10
Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Andrew Guzzomi, Jie Pan
Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The "quality" of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space...
April 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419933/planar-polarized-contractile-actomyosin-networks-in-dynamic-tissue-morphogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Daiki Umetsu, Erina Kuranaga
The complex shapes of animal bodies are constructed through a sequence of simple physical interactions of constituent cells. Mechanical forces generated by cellular activities, such as division, death, shape change and rearrangement, drive tissue morphogenesis. By confining assembly or disassembly of actomyosin networks within the three-dimensional space of the cell, cells can localize forces to induce tissue deformation. Tissue-scale morphogenesis emerges from a collective behavior of cells that coordinates the force generation in space and time...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417428/outcomes-of-minimally-invasive-inguinal-hernia-repair-at-the-time-of-robotic-radical-prostatectomy
#12
REVIEW
Francois G Soto-Palou, Ricardo F Sánchez-Ortiz
Abdominal straining associated with voiding dysfunction or constipation has traditionally been associated with the development of abdominal wall hernias. Thus, classic general surgery dictum recommends that any coexistent bladder outlet obstruction should be addressed by the urologist before patients undergo surgical repair of a hernia. While organ-confined prostate cancer is usually not associated with the development of lower urinary tract symptoms, a modest proportion of patients treated with radical prostatectomy may have coexisting benign prostatic hyperplasia with elevated symptom scores and hernias may be incidentally detected at the time of surgery...
June 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415239/motility-of-escherichia-coli-in-a-quasi-two-dimensional-porous-medium
#13
Juan Eduardo Sosa-Hernández, Moisés Santillán, Jesús Santana-Solano
Bacterial migration through confined spaces is critical for several phenomena, such as biofilm formation, bacterial transport in soils, and bacterial therapy against cancer. In the present work, E. coli (strain K12-MG1655 WT) motility was characterized by recording and analyzing individual bacterium trajectories in a simulated quasi-two-dimensional porous medium. The porous medium was simulated by enclosing, between slide and cover slip, a bacterial-culture sample mixed with uniform 2.98-μm-diameter spherical latex particles...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409838/modulation-and-modeling-of-monoclonal-antibody-n-linked-glycosylation-in-mammalian-cell-perfusion-reactors
#14
Daniel J Karst, Ernesto Scibona, Elisa Serra, Jean-Marc Bielser, Jonathan Souquet, Matthieu Stettler, Hervé Broly, Miroslav Soos, Massimo Morbidelli, Thomas K Villiger
Mammalian cell perfusion cultures are gaining renewed interest as an alternative to traditional fed-batch processes for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The steady state operation at high viable cell density allows the continuous delivery of antibody product with increased space-time yield and reduced in-process variability of critical product quality attributes (CQA). In particular, the production of a confined mAb N-linked glycosylation pattern has the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy and bioactivity...
April 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404786/causes-and-consequences-of-nuclear-gene-positioning
#15
REVIEW
Sigal Shachar, Tom Misteli
The eukaryotic genome is organized in a manner that allows folding of the genetic material in the confined space of the cell nucleus, while at the same time enabling its physiological function. A major principle of spatial genome organization is the non-random position of genomic loci relative to other loci and to nuclear bodies. The mechanisms that determine the spatial position of a locus, and how position affects function, are just beginning to be characterized. Initial results suggest that there are multiple, gene-specific mechanisms and the involvement of a wide range of cellular machineries...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401231/diverse-morphologies-in-thin-film-bijels-by-varying-film-thickness-and-composition
#16
Joseph M Carmack, Paul C Millett
Thin-film bijels have many potential energy and environmental applications. In this work, the metastable bijel morphology space in thin-film confinement is explored with a Cahn-Hilliard/Brownian-Dynamics computational model. The key parameters varied are the bijel liquid phase blend ratio and the bijel film thickness. Simulations reveal a broad spectrum of structurally unique morphologies that have yet to be observed in experiments and which could have interesting applications in membrane science and other domains...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401216/effects-of-vertical-confinement-on-gelation-and-sedimentation-of-colloids
#17
Azaima Razali, Christopher J Fullerton, Francesco Turci, James E Hallett, Robert L Jack, C Patrick Royall
We consider the sedimentation of a colloidal gel under confinement in the direction of gravity. The confinement allows us to compare directly experiments and computer simulations, for the same system size in the vertical direction. The confinement also leads to qualitatively different behaviour compared to bulk systems: in large systems gelation suppresses sedimentation, but for small systems sedimentation is enhanced relative to non-gelling suspensions, although the rate of sedimentation is reduced when the strength of the attraction between the colloids is strong...
April 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399652/facial-presentations-of-primary-headache-disorders
#18
Yair Sharav, Zaza Katsarava, Andrew Charles
Background Many patients with mid-face or lower face craniofacial pain are diagnosed, based on accompanying signs and symptoms and features other than location, as either atypical migraines or atypical TACs. Distinguishing features of headache disorders as a cause of facial pain include the temporal pattern of pain, associated symptoms including light and sound sensitivity and nausea, cranial autonomic symptoms, and the lack of local triggering among others. Results An intraoral neurovascular pain has been observed, and was termed neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP)...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397497/semipermeable-functional-dna-encapsulated-nanocapsules-as-protective-bioreactors-for-biosensing-in-living-cells
#19
Cheng-Yi Hong, Shu-Xian Wu, Shi-Hua Li, Hong Liang, Shan Chen, Juan Li, Huang-Hao Yang, Weihong Tan
The development of functional DNA-based nanosensors in living cells has experienced some design challenges, including, for example, poor cellular uptake, rapid nuclease degradation, and high false positives. Herein, we designed selectively permeable poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) nanocapsules to encapsulate functional DNAs for metal ions and small-molecules sensing in living cells. Since functional DNAs are concentrated in the nanocapsules, an increasing reaction rate is obtained in vitro. During endocytosis, polymeric capsules simultaneously improve cellular uptake of functional DNAs and preserve their structural integrity inside the confined capsule space...
April 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397411/electrokinetic-energy-conversion-in-self-assembled-2d-nanofluidic-channels-with-janus-nanobuilding-blocks
#20
Hongfei Cheng, Yi Zhou, Yaping Feng, Wenxiao Geng, Qinfu Liu, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
Inspired by the microstructure of nacre, material design, and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices step into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics, in which mass and charge transportation are confined in the interstitial space between reconstructed 2D nanomaterials. However, all the existing 2D nanofluidic systems are reconstituted from homogeneous nanobuilding blocks. Herein, this paper reports the bottom-up construction of 2D nanofluidic materials with kaolinite-based Janus nanobuilding blocks, and demonstrates two types of electrokinetic energy conversion through the network of 2D nanochannels...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
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