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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790383/mass-casualty-decontamination-guidance-and-psychosocial-aspects-of-cbrn-incident-management-a-review-and-synthesis
#1
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt
INTRODUCTION: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents...
September 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710702/state-of-the-art-advances-in-radiation-biodosimetry-for-mass-casualty-events-involving-radiation-exposure
#2
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
November 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610458/medical-countermeasures-for-unwanted-cbrn-exposures-part-ii-radiological-and-nuclear-threats-with-review-of-recent-countermeasure-patents
#3
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Victoria L Newman, Thomas M Seed
The global threat of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) disaster is an important priority for all government agencies involved in domestic security and public health preparedness. Radiological/nuclear (RN) attacks or accidents have become a larger focus of the United States Food and Drug administration (US FDA) over time because of their increased likeliness. Clinical signs and symptoms of a developing acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are grouped into three sub-syndromes named for the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic (H-ARS), gastrointestinal (GI-ARS), and neurovascular systems...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599259/medical-countermeasures-for-unwanted-cbrn-exposures-part-i-chemical-and-biological-threats-with-review-of-recent-countermeasure-patents
#4
Vijay K Singh, Melissa Garcia, Stephen Y Wise, Thomas M Seed
The threat of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) warfare has been addressed as the uppermost risk to national security since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Despite significant scientific advances over the past several decades toward the development of safe, non-toxic and effective countermeasures to combat CBRN threats, relatively few countermeasures have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Therefore, countermeasures capable of protecting the population from the effects of CBRN attack remain a significant unmet medical need...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450598/tourniquet-effectiveness-when-placed-over-the-joint-service-lightweight-integrated-suit-technology
#5
Thomas Peponis, Elie Ramly, Kym A Roth, David R King
BACKGROUND: Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats (CBRNs) are uncommon; however, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are likely at the highest risk for tactical exposure. In the event of exposure, SOF will rely on the Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) for survival. Doctrine dictates that a tourniquet should be applied over the JSLIST after a severe limb injury with hemorrhage. There is no evidence in the literature that the Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T), which is currently the most widely available tourniquet on the battlefield, can effectively occlude arterial blood flow when applied over the JSLIST...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349770/toxicology-of-organophosphorus-compounds-in-view-of-an-increasing-terrorist-threat
#6
REVIEW
Franz Worek, Timo Wille, Marianne Koller, Horst Thiermann
The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published...
September 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058684/hospital-preparedness-and-response-in-cbrn-emergencies-tier-assessment-tool
#7
Carlo Olivieri, Pier L Ingrassia, Francesco Della Corte, Luca Carenzo, Jean-Marc Sapori, Laurent Gabilly, Fredrique Segond, Fiene Grieger, Philippe Arnod-Prin, Xabier Larrucea, Chrisitan Violi, Cédric Lopez, Ahmadreza Djalali
INTRODUCTION: Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies need particular hospital preparedness and resources availability. Also, specific skills and capabilities are required for efficient response to these types of events. The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to evaluate hospital preparedness and response performance with respect to CBRN emergencies. METHODS: An evaluation tool was developed using the Delphi technique...
April 7, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004945/comparison-of-miller-and-airtraq-laryngoscopes-for-orotracheal-intubation-by-physicians-wearing-cbrn-protective-equipment-during-infant-resuscitation-a-randomized-crossover-simulation-study
#8
Pierre-Géraud Claret, Renaud Asencio, Damien Rogier, Claire Roger, Philippe Fournier, Tu-Anh Tran, Mustapha Sebbane, Xavier Bobbia, Jean Emmanuel de La Coussaye
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of orotracheal intubation with the Miller laryngoscope compared with the Airtraq laryngoscope by emergency and pediatric physicians wearing CBRN-PPE type III on infant manikins with conventional airway. We hypothesized that in this situation, the orotracheal intubation with the Airtraq laryngoscope would be faster and more effective than with the Miller laryngoscope. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, crossover, single-center study who recruited emergency department physicians on a voluntary basis...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952002/strengthening-biosecurity-in-iraq-development-of-a-national-biorisk-management-system
#9
REVIEW
Mahdi F H Al Jewari, Gregory D Koblentz
Since 2004, the Republic of Iraq has undertaken a concerted effort to comply with all of its international obligations to prevent the proliferation and the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. A centerpiece of this effort is Iraq's development of a National Biorisk Management System. The Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA), which is responsible for CBRN security and non-proliferation in Iraq, has played a key role in establishing this system. This article provides an overview of Iraq's international non-proliferation commitments, describes the legal and organizational steps it has taken to implement these commitments, and examines current initiatives to strengthen Iraq's biosecurity...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928294/tier-competency-based-training-course-for-the-first-receivers-of-cbrn-casualties-a-european-perspective
#10
Ahmadreza Djalali, Francesco Della Corte, Frederique Segond, Marie-Helene Metzger, Laurent Gabilly, Fiene Grieger, Xabier Larrucea, Christian Violi, Cédric Lopez, Philippe Arnod-Prin, Pier L Ingrassia
INTRODUCTION: Education and training are key elements of health system preparedness vis-à-vis chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies. Medical respondents need sufficient knowledge and skills to manage the human impact of CBRN events. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to determine which competencies are needed by hospital staff when responding to CBRN emergencies, define educational needs to develop these competencies, and implement a suitable delivery method...
February 26, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554925/respiratory-protection-for-firefighters-evaluation-of-cbrn-canisters-for-use-during-overhaul-ii-in-mask-analyte-sampling-with-integrated-dynamic-breathing-machine
#11
Leaton Jones, Jefferey L Burgess, Heath Evans, Eric A Lutz
According to the National Fire Protection Association there were 487,500 structural fires in the U.S. in 2013. After visible flames are extinguished firefighters begin the overhaul stage where remaining hot spots are identified and further extinguished. During overhaul, a significant amount of potentially hazardous chemicals can remain in the ambient environment. Previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational exposure...
2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26268995/prediction-of-core-body-temperature-from-multiple-variables
#12
Victoria L Richmond, Sarah Davey, Katy Griggs, George Havenith
This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature (T re) from insulated skin temperature (T is) and micro-climate temperature (T mc) previously reported (Richmond et al., Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing. Physiol Meas 2013; 34:1531-43.) using additional physiological and/or environmental variables, under several clothing and climatic conditions. Twelve male (25.8±5.1 years; 73.6±11.5kg; 178±6cm) and nine female (24...
November 2015: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26144831/-treating-accident-or-chemical-attack-casualties-in-hospital
#13
Théophile Bastide, Vanessa Auguet, Stéphanie Dupille, Sébastien Rivière, Anaëlle Wilk, Myriam Chemouny, Antoine Egido, Philippe Boncourt
It is mandatory for all hospitals to be prepared for the occurrence of a chemical biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) event. This preparation requires specific investment on the part of the hospital management, as well as from the nursing teams on the frontline. Teams from Lariboisière hospital in Paris have been working on these risks for several years.
February 2015: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26143829/-nurses-and-prehospital-cbrn-risk
#14
Francis Béguec, Jérôme Pallier, Stéphane Travers, Franck Calamai, Hugues Lefort, Michel Bignand, Jean-Pierre Tourtier
With events presenting a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear risk, treating victims in the field can decrease lethality. In this context, the mismatch between the availability of care and the number of victims adds to the constraints of working in protective clothing. In the prehospital setting, nurses from the Paris fire brigade have a distinct role to play and use specific equipment and antidotes. Theoretical and practical training is essential to be prepared for these situations.
September 2014: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25915603/self-care-decontamination-within-a-chemical-exposure-mass-casualty-incident
#15
Raymond G Monteith, Laurie D R Pearce
Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate...
June 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25868677/recent-advances-in-medical-device-triage-technologies-for-chemical-biological-radiological-and-nuclear-events
#16
Krystal Lansdowne, Christopher G Scully, Loriano Galeotti, Suzanne Schwartz, David Marcozzi, David G Strauss
In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios...
June 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25813978/development-of-drug-approval-regulations-for-medical-countermeasures-against-cbrn-agents-in-japan
#17
Rumiko Shimazawa, Masayuki Ikeda
To develop approval regulations for drugs against chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) agents in Japan, and to help inform arguments about the development of anti-CBRN agents, we analyzed documentation describing approval processes and data for drugs against CBRN agents. Sixteen countermeasure products against 10 CBRN agents have been approved in Japan. Approval schemes were grouped into 3 categories: application for off-label uses, expedited review for antiterrorism measures, and expedited review...
March 2015: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25508268/-nurses-and-prehospital-cbrn-risk
#18
Francis Béguec, Jérôme Pallier, Stéphane Travers, Franck Calamal, Hugues Lefort, Milichel Bignand
With events presenting a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear risk, treating victims in the field can decrease lethality. in this context, the mismatch between the availability of care and the number of victims adds to the constraints of working in protective clothing. In the prehospital setting, nurses from the Paris fire brigade have a distinct role to play and Use specific equipment and antidotes, Theoretical and practical training is essential to be prepared for these situations.
September 2014: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25470464/interfacing-a-biosurveillance-portal-and-an-international-network-of-institutional-analysts-to-detect-biological-threats
#19
Flavia Riccardo, Mika Shigematsu, Catherine Chow, C Jason McKnight, Jens Linge, Brian Doherty, Maria Grazia Dente, Silvia Declich, Mike Barker, Philippe Barboza, Laetitia Vaillant, Alastair Donachie, Abla Mawudeku, Michael Blench, Ray Arthur
The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission...
November 2014: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25464637/-nurses-and-prehospital-cbrn-risk
#20
Francis Béguec, Jérôme Pallier, Stéphane Travers, Franck Calamal, Hugues Lefort, Milichel Bignand
With events presenting a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear risk, treating victims in the field can decrease lethality. in this context, the mismatch between the availability of care and the number of victims adds to the constraints of working in protective clothing. In the prehospital setting, nurses from the Paris fire brigade have a distinct role to play and Use specific equipment and antidotes, Theoretical and practical training is essential to be prepared for these situations.
September 2014: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
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