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Lisa Holper, J John Mann
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring in vivo both hemodynamic and mitochondrial metabolic activities in brain cortical structures. Although the test-retest reliability of the hemodynamic measures, such as reflected by oxygenated (HbO2), deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, and the tissue oxygenation index (TOI), has been previously reported to be good to excellent, the reliability of the metabolic signal indexed by oxidized cytochrome-c-oxidase (oxCCO) has not been reported...
May 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Meng-Yun Wang, Feng-Mei Lu, Zhishan Hu, Juan Zhang, Zhen Yuan
Accumulated neuroimaging evidence shows that the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is activated during emotion anticipation. The aim of this work is to examine the brain connectivity and activation differences in dlPFC between the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses were first assessed for all subjects during the performance of various emotion anticipation tasks. And then small-world analysis was performed, in which the small-world network indicators including the clustering coefficient, average path length, average node degree, and measure of small-world index were calculated for the functional brain networks associated with the positive, neutral and negative emotion anticipation, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
K G Nirea, M Pérez de Nanclares, A Skugor, N K Afseth, T H E Meuwissen, J Ø Hansen, L T Mydland, M Øverland
Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients could be an alternative measure of feed efficiency when breeding for robust animals that are fed fiber-rich diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients requires measuring individual feed intake of a large number of animals which is expensive and complex. Alternatively, ATTD of nutrients and feces chemical composition can be predicted using fecal near-infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS). The objective of this study was to assess if the feces chemical composition and ATTD of nutrients can be predicted using FNIRS that originate from various pig experimental datasets...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Shannon M Burns, Lianne Barnes, Perri L Katzman, Daniel L Ames, Emily B Falk, Matthew D Lieberman
Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i...
May 4, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Alisa Berger, Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
Motor control is associated with synchronized oscillatory activity at alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (12-30 Hz) frequencies in a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network. Previous studies demonstrated that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is capable of entraining ongoing oscillatory activity while also modulating motor control. However, the modulatory effects of tACS on both motor control and its underlying electro- and neurophysiological mechanisms remain ambiguous. Thus, the purpose of this study was to contribute to gathering neurophysiological knowledge regarding tACS effects by investigating the after-effects of 10 Hz tACS and 20 Hz tACS at parietal brain areas on bimanual coordination and its concurrent oscillatory and hemodynamic activity...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mickaël Causse, Zarrin Chua, Vsevolod Peysakhovich, Natalia Del Campo, Nadine Matton
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eliana Vassena, Robin Gerrits, Jelle Demanet, Tom Verguts, Roma Siugzdaite
Preparing for a mentally demanding task calls upon cognitive and motivational resources. The underlying neural implementation of these mechanisms is receiving growing attention because of its implications for professional, social, and medical contexts. While several fMRI studies converge in assigning a crucial role to a cortico-subcortical network including Anterior Cigulate Cortex (ACC) and striatum, the involvement of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) during mental effort anticipation has yet to be replicated...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Muhammad Aqil, Myung Yung Jeong
The robust characterization of real-time brain activity carries potential for many applications. However, the contamination of measured signals by various instrumental, environmental, and physiological sources of noise introduces a substantial amount of signal variance and, consequently, challenges real-time estimation of contributions from underlying neuronal sources. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging imaging modality whose real-time potential is yet to be fully explored. The objectives of the current study are to (i) validate a time-dependent linear model of hemodynamic responses in fNIRS, and (ii) test the robustness of this approach against measurement noise (instrumental and physiological) and mis-specification of the hemodynamic response basis functions (amplitude, latency, and duration)...
April 23, 2018: NeuroImage
Alex M Boldin, Romin Geiger, Lauren L Emberson
Prematurity alters developmental trajectories in preterm infants even in the absence of medical complications. Here, we use fNIRS and learning tasks to probe the nature of the developmental differences between preterm and full-term born infants. Our recent work has found that prematurity disrupts the ability to engage in top-down sensory prediction after learning. We now examine the neural changes during the learning that precede prediction. In full-terms, we found modulation of all cortical regions examined during learning (temporal, frontal, and occipital)...
April 24, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Xuanyu Li, Zhaojun Zhu, Weina Zhao, Yu Sun, Dong Wen, Yunyan Xie, Xiangyu Liu, Haijing Niu, Ying Han
Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is a novel entropy-based analysis method for quantifying the complexity of dynamic neural signals and physiological systems across multiple temporal scales. This approach may assist in elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using resting-state fNIRS imaging, we recorded spontaneous brain activity from 31 healthy controls (HC), 27 patients with aMCI, and 24 patients with AD. The quantitative analysis of MSE revealed that reduced brain signal complexity in AD patients in several networks, namely, the default, frontoparietal, ventral and dorsal attention networks...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho, Amy M L Quek
Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Maria A Sitnikova, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
In this review, we aim to highlight the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a useful neuroimaging technique for the investigation of cognitive development. We focus on brain activation changes during the development of mathematics and language skills in schoolchildren. We discuss how technical limitations of common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have resulted in our limited understanding of neural changes during development, while fNIRS would be a suitable and child-friendly method to examine cognitive development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chiara Bulgarelli, Anna Blasi, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell, Carina C J M de Klerk, Victoria Southgate, Sabrina Brigadoi, William Penny, Sungho Tak, Antonia Hamilton
Tracking the connectivity of the developing brain from infancy through childhood is an area of increasing research interest, and fNIRS provides an ideal method for studying the infant brain as it is compact, safe and robust to motion. However, data analysis methods for fNIRS are still underdeveloped compared to those available for fMRI. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is an advanced connectivity technique developed for fMRI data, that aims to estimate the coupling between brain regions and how this might be modulated by changes in experimental conditions...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Pablo Cornejo Thumm, Inbal Maidan, Marina Brozgol, Shiran Shustak, Eran Gazit, Shirley Shema Shiratzki, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Yoav Beck, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: Among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), gait is typically disturbed and less automatic. These gait changes are associated with impaired rhythmicity and increased prefrontal activation, presumably in an attempt to compensate for reduced automaticity. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether during treadmill walking, when the pace is determined and fixed, prefrontal activation in patients with PD is lower, as compared to over-ground walking. METHODS: Twenty patients with PD (age: 69...
March 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Joëlle S Witmer, Eva A Aeschlimann, Andreas J Metz, Stefan J Troche, Thomas H Rammsayer
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is increasingly used for investigating cognitive processes. To provide converging evidence for the validity of fNIRS recordings in cognitive neuroscience, we investigated functional activation in the frontal cortex in 43 participants during the processing of a visuospatial working memory (WM) task and a sensory duration discrimination (DD) task functionally unrelated to WM. To distinguish WM-related processes from a general effect of increased task demand, we applied an adaptive approach, which ensured that subjective task demand was virtually identical for all individuals and across both tasks...
April 5, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yujin Zhang, Yi Yang, Juanning Si, Xiaoyu Xia, Jianghong He, Tianzi Jiang
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising treatment for disorders of consciousness (DOC), but the underlying mechanism and most effective procedures remain uncertain. To optimize the protocol, previous studies evaluated the frequency-specific effects of SCS on neurophysiological activities. However, whether and how the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) parameter affects the SCS neuromodulation in DOC remains unknown. We enrolled nine DOC patients who had implanted SCS devices and conducted three different durations of ISIs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jessica Gemignani, Eike Middell, Randall L Barbour, Harry L Graber, Benjamin Blankertz
OBJECTIVE: The statistical analysis of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data based on the General Linear Model (GLM) is often made difficult by serial correlations, high inter-subject variability of the hemodynamic response, and the presence of motion artifacts. In this work we propose to extract information on the pattern of hemodynamic activations without using any a priori model for the data, by classifying the channels as "active" or "not active" with a multivariate classifier based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Congcong Huo, Ming Zhang, Lingguo Bu, Gongcheng Xu, Ying Liu, Zengyong Li, Lingling Sun
This study aims to assess the posture-related changes in frequency-specific effective connectivity (EC) in elderly subjects by coupling function measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The fNIRS signals were continuously recorded from the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), motor cortex (MC), and occipital lobe (OL) in 17 healthy elderly and 19 healthy young subjects during sitting and standing states. EC was calculated based on Dynamic Bayesian inference in one low frequency interval I: 0...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michela Balconi, Chiara Siri, Nicoletta Meucci, Gianni Pezzoli, Laura Angioletti
BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. METHODS: Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kelly A Hawkins, Emily J Fox, Janis J Daly, Dorian K Rose, Evangelos A Christou, Theresa E McGuirk, Dana M Otzel, Katie A Butera, Sudeshna A Chatterjee, David J Clark
BACKGROUND: Control of walking by the central nervous system includes contributions from executive control mechanisms, such as attention and motor planning resources. Executive control of walking can be estimated objectively by recording prefrontal cortical activity using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate group differences in prefrontal/executive control of walking among young adults, older adults, and adults post-stroke...
March 28, 2018: Human Movement Science
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