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Immune therapy cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106541/cell-membrane-and-intracellular-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-9-tlr9-in-colorectal-cancer-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#3
Shadab Shahriari, Somayeh Rezaeifard, Hamid Reza Moghimi, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Zahra Faghih
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a DNA receptor of innate immune system which plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Recent evidence reveals over-expression and functionality of TLR9 in a wide variety of cancer cells and its contribution to tumor cell proliferation and survival. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the aberrant cell surface expression of TLR9 in cancer using cell-lines model. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell-lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and SKBR3) and five colorectal adenocarcinoma cell-lines (HT29, HT29/219, SW480, SW48 and SW1116) in addition to one primary foreskin isolated fibroblast cell were analyzed for cell surface and intracellular expression of TLR9 by flow cytometry method...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106477/thymosin-alpha-1-and-hiv-1-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#4
Claudia Matteucci, Sandro Grelli, Emanuela Balestrieri, Antonella Minutolo, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Beatrice Macchi, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Mastino, Enrico Garaci
In spite of the consistent benefits for HIV-1 infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, a complete immune reconstitution is usually not achieved. Actually, antiretroviral therapy may be frequently accompanied by immunological unresponsiveness, persistent inflammatory conditions and inefficient cytotoxic T-cell response. Thymosin alpha 1 is a thymic peptide that demonstrates a peculiar ability to restore immune system homeostasis in different physiological and pathological conditions (i.e., infections, cancer, immunodeficiency, vaccination and aging) acting as multitasking protein depending on the host state of inflammation or immune dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106152/cancer-immunotherapy-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-associated-endocrinopathies
#5
REVIEW
David J Byun, Jedd D Wolchok, Lynne M Rosenberg, Monica Girotra
Advances in cancer therapy in the past few years include the development of medications that modulate immune checkpoint proteins. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) are two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on activated T cells against which therapeutic blocking antibodies have reached routine clinical use. Immune checkpoint blockade can induce inflammatory adverse effects, termed immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), which resemble autoimmune disease...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105616/-interpretation-of-the-updates-of-nccn-2017-version-1-0-guideline-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
Gong Chen
The NCCN has recently released its 2017 version 1.0 guideline for colorectal cancer. There are several updates from this new version guideline which are believed to change the current clinical practice. Update one, low-dose aspirin is recommended for patients with colorectal cancer after colectomy for secondary chemoprevention. Update two, biological agents are removed from the neoadjuvant treatment regimen for resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This update is based on lack of evidence to support benefits of biological agents including bevacizumab and cetuximab in the neoadjuvant setting...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#7
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105236/ouabain-induced-alterations-in-abcb1-of-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-and-thymocytes-of-rats-and-mice
#8
Daniel Boff Lima, Raphael Carmo Valente, Marcia Alves Marques Capella
Ouabain is a glycoside with immunomodulating properties, and recent studies have suggested its use in adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment. Ouabain is known to modulate the immune system in vitro, and previous studies have revealed that ouabain can modulate the expression and activity of ABCB1, a protein associated with multidrug resistance present in immune system. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in the expression and activity of ABCB1 in the thymi, peripheral blood monocytes and lymph nodes of Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated acutely or chronically with ouabain...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105218/involvement-of-cancer-derived-igg-in-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-bladder-cancer-cells
#9
Zhengzuo Sheng, Yang Liu, Caipeng Qin, Zhenhua Liu, Yeqing Yuan, Huaqi Yin, Xiaoyan Qiu, Tao Xu
It is widely accepted that immunoglobulin (Ig), the classical immune molecule, is extensively expressed in many cell types other than B-cells (non-B-IgG), including some malignant cells. The expression of Ig in malignant cells has been associated with a poor prognosis. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis detected strong positive staining of IgG in three bladder cancer cell lines, the cancer cells in 77 bladder cancer patient samples and the cells in 3 cystitis glandularis tissue samples, while negative staining was observed in 4 specimens of normal transitional epithelial tissues...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104913/exosome-derived-micrornas-in-cancer-metabolism-possible-implications-in-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Marco Tomasetti, Wan Lee, Lory Santarelli, Jiri Neuzil
Malignant progression is greatly affected by dynamic cross-talk between stromal and cancer cells. Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that have key roles in cell-cell communication by transferring nucleic acids and proteins to target cells and tissues. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRs) and their delivery in exosomes have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Tumor-delivered miRs, interacting with stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, modulate tumor progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune escape...
January 20, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104840/tumor-aneuploidy-correlates-with-markers-of-immune-evasion-and-with-reduced-response-to-immunotherapy
#11
Teresa Davoli, Hajime Uno, Eric C Wooten, Stephen J Elledge
Immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockade are highly effective in a subset of patients. An ongoing challenge is the identification of biomarkers that predict which patients will benefit from these therapies. Aneuploidy, also known as somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), is widespread in cancer and is posited to drive tumorigenesis. Analyzing 12 human cancer types, we find that, for most, highly aneuploid tumors show reduced expression of markers of cytotoxic infiltrating immune cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, and increased expression of cell proliferation markers...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104820/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-malignancies-with-mismatch-repair-deficiency-a-review-of-the-state-of-the-current-knowledge
#12
Ali Naboush, Christopher A J Roman, Iuliana Shapira
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat malignant tumors with microsatellite instability is an emerging new modality. This is based on the observations that these tumors may have a high mutation rate-thus a potential source of tumor-specific neoantigens-and harbor infiltrating cytotoxic T cells in response, suggesting that they may be particularly susceptible to immune checkpoint therapy. PUBMED and ASCO library were systematically reviewed to identify all relevant data that involved the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancers with microsatellite instability...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104137/prostate-cancer-metastatic-to-the-renal-allograft-a-case-report
#13
A Alaini, P Singh, R Shah, E Fischer, K Ganta, T Barrett, K Servilla
Malignancy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppression. Cancers associated with viruses such as nonmelanotic skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma occur in allograft recipients at rates that far exceed that in the general population. The increased risk and tumor type may depend not only on degree of immune system modulation but also on the type of organ transplanted. In kidney transplant recipients, the risk of cancers such as prostate and breast does not seem to be increased...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104022/-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
W Hang, Z X Xu, Q Zhang, X Lu, G Liu
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses, improves the life quality of cancer patients and has joined the ranks of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy to become a major choice for cancer therapy. Over the past few years, multiple exciting results have been obtained on checkpoint inhibitor therapy in advanced head and neck cancer. However, questions such as patient selection and biomarkers for assessing the therapy are largely unsolved...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102876/aging-tumour-cells-to-cure-cancer-pro-senescence-therapy-for-cancer
#15
Arianna Calcinotto, Andrea Alimonti
Robust scientific evidence demonstrates that senes-cence induction in cancer works as a potent weapon to eradicate tumorigenesis. Therapies that enhance senescence not only promote a stable cell growth arrest but also work as a strong stimulus for the acti-vation of the antitumour immune response. However, recent advances suggest that if senescent tumour cells are not cleared from the tumours, they may promote tumour progression and metastasis. In this article, we focus on concepts that are relevant to a pro-senescence therapeutic approach, including caveats, and we propose therapeutic strategies that involve the combined use of pro-senescence therapies with im-munotherapies to promote the clearance of senescent tumour cells...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101577/viscumins-functionally-modulate-cell-motility-associated-gene-expression
#16
Sonja Schötterl, Miriam Hübner, Angela Armento, Vivien Veninga, Naita Maren Wirsik, Simon Bernatz, Hans Lentzen, Michel Mittelbronn, Ulrike Naumann
In Europe extracts from Viscum album L., the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Viscumins (mistletoe lectins, ML) have been scrutinized as important active components of mistletoe and exhibit a variety of anticancer effects such as stimulation of the immune system, induction of cytotoxicity, reduction of tumor cell motility as well as changes in the expression of genes associated with cancer development and progression. By microarray expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and RT-PCR based validation of microarray data we demonstrate for the Viscum album extract Iscador Qu and for the lectins Aviscumine and ML-1 that in glioma cells these drugs differentially modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasion, including processes modulating cell architecture and cell adhesion...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101230/effect-of-il-17-in-the-development-of-colon-cancer-in-mice
#17
Lijuan Yang, Hao Liu, Lili Zhang, Jie Hu, Haixia Chen, Lei Wang, Xiaolin Yin, Quanhai Li, Yixin Qi
Cytokine therapy is commonly used for tumor immunotherapy. Although early studies focused directly on the tumor, current investigations are more attentive of the tumor microenvironment. Various immune cells and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment play an important role in the occurrence and development of tumor. Interleukin (IL)-17 is the characteristic cytokine produced by Th17 cells. IL-17 has been associated with various immune responses. The results of previous studies showed that IL-17 can significantly reduce the size of transplanted tumors in tumor-bearing mice, albeit it has no effect on the survival time of mice...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100275/cell-in-cell-structures-are-more-potent-predictors-of-outcome-than-senescence-or-apoptosis-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#18
Hannah Schenker, Maike Büttner-Herold, Rainer Fietkau, Luitpold V Distel
BACKGROUND: This study sheds light on cell inactivating processes with focus on the phenomenon of cell-in-cell (CIC). Cell-in-cell describes a cell process where one cell is being engulfed by another non-professional phagocyte. We determined frequency and prognostic impact of CIC structures (CICs) as well as of senescent and apoptotic cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). METHODS: These different forms of cell inactivation as well as the proportion of proliferating and tumor cells were assessed in 169 pre-radiochemotherapy biopsies and 32 post-therapy tumor resections by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays...
January 18, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100096/targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-by-hyperthermia
#19
A L Oei, L E M Vriend, P M Krawczyk, M R Horsman, N A P Franken, J Crezee
Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumor that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), is considered to be of particular significance for tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. CSCs are considered in particular to be therapy-resistant and may drive disease recurrence, which positions CSCs in the focus of anti-cancer research, but successful CSC-targeting therapies are limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099331/atorvastatin-induced-necrotizing-autoimmune-myositis-an-emerging-dominant-entity-in-patients-with-autoimmune-myositis-presenting-with-a-pure-polymyositis-phenotype
#20
Yves Troyanov, Océane Landon-Cardinal, Marvin J Fritzler, José Ferreira, Ira N Targoff, Eric Rich, Michelle Goulet, Jean-Richard Goulet, Josiane Bourré-Tessier, Yves Robitaille, Julie Drouin, Alexandra Albert, Jean-Luc Senécal
The general aim of this study was to evaluate the disease spectrum in patients presenting with a pure polymyositis (pPM) phenotype. Specific objectives were to characterize clinical features, autoantibodies (aAbs), and membrane attack complex (MAC) in muscle biopsies of patients with treatment-responsive, statin-exposed necrotizing autoimmune myositis (NAM). Patients from the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal autoimmune myositis (AIM) Cohort with a pPM phenotype, response to immunosuppression, and follow-up ≥3 years were included...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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