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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038689/making-connections-exploring-the-centrality-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-covariates-after-a-terrorist-attack
#1
Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Trond Heir
Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are interconnected. Knowledge about which symptoms of posttraumatic stress are more strongly interconnected or central than others may have implications for the targeting of clinical interventions. Exploring whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress may be differentially related to covariates can contribute to our knowledge on how posttraumatic stress symptoms arise and are maintained. Objective: This study aimed to identify the most central symptoms of posttraumatic stress and their interconnections, and to explore how covariates such as exposure, sex, neuroticism, and social support are related to the network of symptoms of posttraumatic stress...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019036/neural-networks-underlying-trait-aggression-depend-on-maoa-gene-alleles
#2
Martin Klasen, Dhana Wolf, Patrick D Eisner, Ute Habel, Jonathan Repple, Ingo Vernaleken, Thorben Schlüter, Thomas Eggermann, Klaus Zerres, Florian D Zepf, Klaus Mathiak
Low expressing alleles of the MAOA gene (MAOA-L) have been associated with an increased risk for developing an aggressive personality. This suggests an MAOA-L-specific neurobiological vulnerability associated with trait aggression. The neural networks underlying this vulnerability are unknown. The present study investigated genotype-specific associations between resting state brain networks and trait aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire) in 82 healthy Caucasian males. Genotype influences on aggression-related networks were studied for intrinsic and seed-based brain connectivity...
October 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932912/behavioral-cognitive-and-emotional-coping-strategies-of-women-with-endometriosis-a-critical-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Zarbo, Agostino Brugnera, Luigi Frigerio, Chiara Malandrino, Massimo Rabboni, Emi Bondi, Angelo Compare
Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#4
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904597/machiavellianism-relationship-satisfaction-and-romantic-relationship-quality
#5
Gayle Brewer, Loren Abell
Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836726/dynamic-causal-modeling-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype-bottom-up-versus-top-down-processing-within-fear-and-emotion-regulation-circuitry
#6
Andrew A Nicholson, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Sherain Harricharan, Margaret C McKinnon, Maria Densmore, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Frank Corrigan, Rakesh Jetly, David Spiegel, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased top-down emotion modulation from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions, a pathophysiology accompanied by hyperarousal and hyperactivation of the amygdala. By contrast, PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) often exhibit increased mPFC top-down modulation and decreased amygdala activation associated with emotional detachment and hypoarousal. Crucially, PTSD and PTSD + DS display distinct functional connectivity within the PFC, amygdala complexes, and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region related to defensive responses/emotional coping...
August 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833272/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-imprisoned-violent-offenders-a-pilot-study
#7
Philipp M Keune, Sarah V Mayer, Aiste Jusyte, Michael Schönenberg
Based on the approach-withdrawal model of hemispheric asymmetry, anger and aggression have been linked to an approach-related pattern, characterized by stronger relative left-hemispheric anterior cortical activity. Recent work suggests that also in individuals with extremely violent tendencies, such as imprisoned offenders, approach-related asymmetry may be associated with self-reported trait anger and aggression. A putative association between alpha asymmetry and further characteristics relevant for aggression, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits, remains to be explored...
August 18, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810970/completion-of-a-veteran-focused-civic-service-program-improves-health-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-with-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Karen A Lawrence, Monica M Matthieu, Emma Robertson-Blackmore
INTRODUCTION: Volunteering as a health promotion intervention is positively related to improved health and well-being in civilians and older adults. Yet, the impacts of participating in a community-based volunteering program on returning military veterans have not been studied, nor have the outcomes for veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, pre-post survey examines health, psychological, and social outcomes from a cohort of post-9/11/01 veterans with (N = 67) and without a reported TBI history (N = 273) who completed a 6-month, 20-hour per week veteran-focused civic service program...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798671/bodily-sensory-inputs-and-anomalous-bodily-experiences-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-evaluation-of-the-potential-effects-of-sound-feedback
#9
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Helen Cohen, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze
Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716549/emotional-labour-and-aboriginal-maternal-infant-care-workers-the-invisible-load
#10
R Kirkham, A Rumbold, E Hoon, D Stuart-Butler, V Moore
BACKGROUND: The term 'emotional labour' has been used to describe the competing demands on midwives to empathize with clients whilst maintaining a level of professional detachment. Previous research indicates that when individuals experience difficulty managing these emotions, burnout may result. Aboriginal health care workers often have roles with large emotional demands, as they are relied upon heavily to engage clients in care. However, the concept of emotional labour has received little attention in relation to this group...
July 14, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715353/learned-expectations-and-uncertainty-facilitate-pain-during-classical-conditioning
#11
Veronique A Taylor, Luke Chang, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Roy
Pain spontaneously activates adaptive and dynamic learning processes affecting the anticipation of, and the responses to, future pain. Computational models of associative learning effectively capture the production and ongoing changes in conditioned anticipatory responses (eg, skin conductance response), but the impact of this dynamic process on unconditional pain responses remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dynamic modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex by fear learning in healthy human adult participants undergoing a classical conditioning procedure involving an acquisition, reversal and extinction phase...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668228/initial-development-of-the-psychopathic-processing-and-personality-assessment-papa-across-populations
#12
Michael Lewis, Jane L Ireland, Janice Abbott, Carol A Ireland
Three studies describe development of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA). Study one outlines a literature review and Expert Delphi (n=32) to develop the initial PAPA. Study two validates the PAPA with 431 participants (121 male prisoners and 310 university students: 154 men, 156 women), also using the Levenson Self Report Psychopathy scale and a measure of cognitive schema and affect. Study three refined the PAPA, employing it with 50 male students and 40 male forensic psychiatric patients using clinical (interview) assessments of psychopathy: the Psychopathy Checklist - Screening Version and the Affect, Cognitive and Lifestyle assessment...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602567/medical-students-reflections-on-emotions-concerning-breaking-bad-news
#13
Asta Kristiina Toivonen, Sari Lindblom-Ylänne, Pekka Louhiala, Eeva Pyörälä
OBJECTIVES: To gain a deeper understanding of fourth year medical students' reflections on emotions in the context of breaking bad news (BBN). METHODS: During the years 2010-2012, students reflected on their emotions concerning BBN in a learning assignment at the end of the communications skills course. The students were asked to write a description of how they felt about a BBN case. The reflections were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: 351 students agreed to participate in the study...
June 3, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597509/child-and-adolescent-risk-factors-that-differentially-predict-violent-versus-nonviolent-crime
#14
Carla B Kalvin, Karen L Bierman
While most research on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior has considered nonviolent and violent crime together, some evidence points to differential risk factors for these separate types of crime. The present study explored differential risk for nonviolent and violent crime by investigating the longitudinal associations between three key child risk factors (aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation) and two key adolescent risk factors (parent detachment and deviant peer affiliation) predicting violent and nonviolent crime outcomes in early adulthood...
November 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595826/-what-happens-behind-the-curtains-an-exploration-of-icu-nurses-experiences-of-post-mortem-care-on-patients-who-have-died-in-intensive-care
#15
Carien de Swardt, Nicola Fouché
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of intensive care nurses performing post mortem care on patients who had died in an intensive care unit at a private hospital in Cape Town. The study further sets out to identify educational needs and to offer recommendations that may address these needs for this sample of nurses. METHODOLOGY AND SETTING: A qualitative research design using a descriptive method was used to explore the experiences of a purposive heterogeneous sample of six nurses who were working in an intensive care unit in a private hospital in Cape Town...
June 5, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559871/abstracting-dance-detaching-ourselves-from-the-habitual-perception-of-the-moving-body
#16
Vered Aviv
This work explores to what extent the notion of abstraction in dance is valid and what it entails. Unlike abstraction in the fine arts that aims for a certain independence from representation of the external world through the use of non-figurative elements, dance is realized by a highly familiar object - the human body. In fact, we are all experts in recognizing the human body. For instance, we can mentally reconstruct its motion from minimal information (e.g., via a "dot display"), predict body trajectory during movement and identify emotional expressions of the body...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509616/depersonalization-adversity-emotionality-and-coping-with-stressful-situations
#17
Paula Thomson, S Victoria Jaque
Depersonalization is defined as persistent or recurrent episodes of feeling detached or estranged from a sense of self and the world. This study addressed the primary question: Do nonclinical individuals who endorse high symptomatic depersonalization have inherently more intense emotional responses, along with more childhood adversity and past trauma? In this IRB approved study, participants who met clinical levels of depersonalization (n = 43, 16.3%) were compared to a group without clinical levels of depersonalization (n = 221, 83...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433876/maternal-responsivity-to-infants-in-the-high-chair-assessment-longitudinal-relations-with-toddler-outcomes-in-a-diverse-low-income-sample
#18
Colleen R O'Neal, Lynsey Weston, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Lisa J Berlin, Ranga Atapattu
Infant-parent interactions occur across many situations, yet most home-based assessments of parenting behaviors are conducted under conditions of low stress, such as free play. In this study, low-income mothers from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were observed at home interacting with their 14-month-olds in the mildly stressful "High Chair" assessment (n=1718 dyads). This methodological study tested whether High Chair maternal responsiveness and detachment predicted later toddler cognitive and emotion outcomes, over and above equivalent maternal predictors during free play...
April 20, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#19
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375715/emotional-alienation-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-perceived-discrimination-and-alcohol-use-among-immigrant-adolescents-in-israel
#20
Sophie D Walsh, Maya Sagis-Krebs, Ashi Gross
Perceived discrimination has been found to be a predictor of immigrant adolescent involvement in alcohol use, yet the psychological mechanism behind this relationship has not been well explored. Drawing on strain theory and the motivational model of alcohol use, the current study aimed to develop and test a concept of emotional alienation. In the proposed model, it is when experiences of discrimination are internalized into painful feelings of detachment, anger, rejection, and failure that the immigrant adolescent may turn to alcohol use...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
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