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Correctional medicine

Michelle McDowell, Mirta Galesic, Gerd Gigerenzer
Patients and doctors often need to make decisions based on the results of medical tests. When these results are presented in the form of conditional probabilities, even doctors find it difficult to interpret them correctly. There is over 20 y of research supporting the finding that people are better able to calculate the correct positive predictive value of a test when given information in natural frequencies, as opposed to conditional probabilities. Natural frequencies are one of a few psychological tools that have made it into evidence-based medicine...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Andrea Giannini, Eleonora Russo, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Tommaso Simoncini
Management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common and challenging task. Nowadays older women are more active than they were in the past, and the development of POP disrupts quality of life and impairs social and personal activities. The menopausal transition is a time of vulnerability, during which many women start experiencing symptoms and signs of POP. The role of hormonal changes or of hormonal therapies in influencing the development or progression of POP has been explored extensively. The management of POP requires considerable clinical skills...
February 6, 2018: Maturitas
Javier Ripollés-Melchor, Francesco Carli, Miquel Coca-Martínez, Macarena Barbero-Mielgo, José M Ramírez-Rodríguez, José A García-Erce
In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These have led to a decrease in postoperative complications and the duration of hospital stays; however, there is still a lack of preoperative care, which could make perioperative medicine more prominent. Elderly patients, malnourished, anaemic and ones with a low physical function before surgery are likely to have sub-optimal recovery from surgery...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Keisei Tate, Reiko Watanabe, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hanako Shimizu, Takashi Uehara, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Shun-Ichi Ikeda, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Tomoyasu Kato
AIM: Uterine adenosarcoma is a rare malignancy with limited cohort data in Asian countries. This study evaluated the clinicopathologic features of Japanese patients with uterine adenosarcoma and their potential treatment challenges. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan from 2000 to 2016. A literature search for Japanese cases of uterine adenosarcoma was conducted using PubMed, Japanese Central Review of Medicine, and the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan...
February 14, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
P Y Santiago, F Becquet, X Zanlonghi, J M Bosc
This study aimed to precisely map current ophthalmologic consultation in France through systematic data collection in one consultation day. Nine ophthalmologic centers participated in the survey, performing 1148 observations of patients aged from 2 to 102 years old, with a mean of 55.12years old and a male/female distribution of 43.8 %/56.2 %. In general, the patients came in either spontaneously (28.8 %) or for follow-up (59.6 %). Emergency consultations comprised 5.7 % of all cases. Comorbidities or major risk factors were found...
February 10, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Jing Chen, Dongming Zheng, Hong Cui, Sishi Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Caixia Liu
Subsequent to the publication of the above paper, the authors have realized that there were errors in Fig. 1 on page 902; essentially, the experimental data described as being 'Preterm' and 'Infected preterm' should have been labelled as 'Full‑term without labor' and 'Preterm', respectively. Note that these errors in Fig. 1 were not reflected in the published figure legend. The corrected version of Fig. 1 is shown here. The authors sincerely apologize for this mistake, and regret any inconvenience this mistake has caused...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Regiane Godoy de Lima, Maria Teresa Barros, Rosangela da Silva Laurentiz
Lignans are a large class of natural products that have been isolated from many plants. They reveal diverse biological activities, especially antiviral and antitumor properties. From Piper cubeba , lignans of several classes can be isolated from the roots, rhizomes, stems, leaves, seeds, and fruits. Among its various chemical constituents, (-)-cubebin and (-)-hinokinin are found in significant quantities. Although they have been known for some time, during the last few decades their biological properties have been studied by several research groups...
February 2018: ChemistryOpen
M A Wu, M Y Wu, S J Wu, J J Zhu, Z Lyu, C L Li, L J Shen
Objective: To analyse the corneal and conjunctival sensitivities of premature babies and to study the relevant influencing factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study. One hundred premature infants born at Women's Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University between May 2015 and September 2015 were enrolled, among which 51 were male (51%) and 49 were female (49%), the mean gestational age was (30.93±1.75)w, the mean corrected gestational age was (33.65±1.53)w, the mean birth weight was (1 592±336)g. The thresholds of cornea and conjunctiva of infants' left or right eyes were measured with Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer at 8-10 o'clock every morning when they naturally woke up, the minimum length of nylon wire that induced three successive times of eye-blink responses was recorded...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Anupam B Kharbanda, Eric W Christensen, Nanette C Dudley, Lalit Bajaj, Michelle D Stevenson, Charles G Macias, Manoj K Mittal, Richard G Bachur, Jonathan E Bennett, Kelly Sinclair, Brianna McMichael, Peter S Dayan
OBJECTIVE: The use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) in patients with acute abdominal pain has substantial variation across pediatric emergency departments (ED). This study compares the cost of diagnosing and treating suspected appendicitis across a multi-center network of children's hospitals. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis using de-identified data of a prospective, observational study of patients with suspected appendicitis at nine pediatric EDs...
February 10, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
M Deidda, C Cadeddu Dessalvi, G Mercuro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Quentin Marcou, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing is promising to lead to new statistical diagnostic tools for medicine and biology. Successful implementations of these methods require a correct characterization, analysis, and interpretation of these data sets. We present IGoR (Inference and Generation Of Repertoires)-a comprehensive tool that takes B or T cell receptor sequence reads and quantitatively characterizes the statistics of receptor generation from both cDNA and gDNA. It probabilistically annotates sequences and its modular structure can be used to investigate models of increasing biological complexity for different organisms...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Reshma Ambulkar, Priya Ranganathan, Vasanth Karthik, Jigeeshu Divatia
Background and Aims: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the use of scientifically proven evidence for delivering best possible health care to patients. Despite growing emphasis on the need for EBM-based practice, acceptability, and perceptions toward EBM might differ among health professionals. The objective of this study was to assess the attitude, knowledge, and current practices of EBM among perioperative care health professionals in India. Material and Methods: This was a single point paper-based questionnaire survey carried out in February 2014 among delegates registered for an EBM conference on "perioperative care" held at a Tertiary referral Cancer Centre in India...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
E Deconinck, C Aouadi, J L Bothy, P Courselle
Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jing-Wen Hao, Nai-Dong Chen, Cun-Wu Chen, Fu-Cheng Zhu, De-Liang Qiao, Yong-Jun Zang, Jun Dai, Xiang-Wen Song, Han Chen
A rapid, green, low cost and nondestructive attenuated total reflection near infrared (ATR NIR) method was developed to quantify the total polysaccharide and the main monosaccharides mannose and glucose in Dendrobium huoshanense. Total 100 D. huoshanense samples from different places were analyzed using ATR NIR method. Potential outlying samples were initially removed from the collected NIR data using the PCA-Mahalanobis distance method. Spectral data preprocessing was studied in the construction of a partial least squares (PLS) model and six different signal pretreatment methods, including multiplicative scattering correction (MSC), standard normal transformation (SNV), first and second derivatives, the combination of MSC with the first derivative, and the combination of SNV with the first derivative, were compared...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Didier Barradas-Bautista, Mireia Rosell, Chiara Pallara, Juan Fernández-Recio
A huge amount of genetic information is available thanks to the recent advances in sequencing technologies and the larger computational capabilities, but the interpretation of such genetic data at phenotypic level remains elusive. One of the reasons is that proteins are not acting alone, but are specifically interacting with other proteins and biomolecules, forming intricate interaction networks that are essential for the majority of cell processes and pathological conditions. Thus, characterizing such interaction networks is an important step in understanding how information flows from gene to phenotype...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Ann Marie Nelson, Martin Hale, Mohenou Isidore Jean-Marie Diomande, Quentin Eichbaum, Yawale Iliyasu, Raphael M Kalengayi, Belson Rugwizangoga, Shahin Sayed
Quality patient care requires correct and timely evidence-based diagnoses. Pathology and laboratory medicine training varies significantly across the continent, but is inadequate to serve the needs of the population. This article summarizes the current state of pathology workforce and training in sub-Saharan Africa; discusses challenges to recruitment and retention; and outlines the necessary elements for training and sustaining a robust workforce in pathology and laboratory medicine. The authors provide several case studies of institutions around the continent that include expansion of existing programs, a de novo program, South-South collaborations, and skill building for the existing workforce...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Erik Alonso, Elisabete Aramendi, Unai Irusta, Mohamud Daya, Carlos Corcuera, Yuanzheng Lu, Ahamed H Idris
AIM: To evaluate the performance of a state-of-the-art cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) artefact suppression method by assessing to what extent the filtered electrocardiogram (ECG) can be correctly diagnosed by emergency medicine doctors. METHODS: A total of 819 ECG segments were used. Each segment contained two consecutive 10s intervals, an artefact free interval and an interval corrupted by CPR artefacts. Each ECG segment was digitally processed to remove CPR artefacts using an adaptive filter...
February 2, 2018: Resuscitation
Maho Omori, Deborah Dempsey
Adopting Kleinman's and Lock's ideas that there are cultural variations in understandings of health care and the medicalisation of ageing bodies, this study compares and contrasts older adults' use of anti-ageing medicine in two cultural settings. Based on 42 interviews conducted in Australia and Japan with adults aged 60 and over, findings revealed distinct pathways to initiating anti-ageing medicine use between the two cohorts which reflect different attitudes to the medicalisation of ageing in the two settings...
February 6, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Risa L Fridy, Sofya Maslyanskaya, Sylvia Lim, Susan M Coupey
OBJECTIVE: A 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Policy Statement identified long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) as first-line choices for adolescents, but pediatricians' current knowledge and practices about intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal contraceptive implants (Implants) is unknown. We aimed to characterize pediatricians' knowledge and practices about LARCs for adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional online survey emailed to a convenience sample of AAP member pediatricians in New York, Utah, Illinois, and Kansas in 2015 & 2016...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
V D Andersen, P Munk, L V de Knegt, M S Jensen, F M Aarestrup, H Vigre
Assessing the relationship between antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires the accurate and precise utilisation of register data. Therefore, validation of register-based data is essential for evaluating the quality and, subsequently, the internal validity of studies based on the data. In this study, different smoothing methods for Veterinary Medicine Statistic Program database (VetStat)-records were validated by comparing these with farm-records. Comparison between measurements included accuracy as; completeness and correctness, and precision as; a relative difference of the error, correlation with Fisher's z transformation and reliability coefficient...
February 7, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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