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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340169/autoimmune-retinopathy-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Aristófanes Mendonça Canamary, Walter Yukihiko Takahashi, Juliana Maria Ferraz Sallum
Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare and still poorly understood immune-mediated disease that may cause inflammation from circulating autoantibodies against the retina. It may be related to history of autoimmune disease in the patient or in a family member or the presence of neoplastic disease in the individual. The disease may be subdivided into paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic AIR. When related to melanoma, it is referred to as MAR, and when related to other cancers, it is called CAR. The exact prevalence of AIR is unknown...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332121/pattern-onset-ergs-and-veps-produced-by-patterns-arising-from-light-increment-and-decrement
#2
Dennis M Fritsch, Jane C Sowden, Dorothy A Thompson
Purpose: Our aim was to elaborate how on and off signals contribute to pattern ERGs and pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) by using pedestal patterns arising from incremental and decremental onset stimulation. Methods: Pattern onset/offset ERGs and VEPs were produced by black and white checks of 60' side length and 88% spatial contrast appearing in a 16° field for 200 ms from white (110 cd/m2), black (7 cd/m2), and gray (48 cd/m2) backgrounds and disappeared for 1000 ms...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329137/macular-and-multifocal-perg-and-fd-oct-in-pre-perimetric-and-hemifield-loss-glaucoma
#3
André Carvalho Kreuz, Carlos Gustavo de Moraes, Marcelo Hatanaka, Maria Kiyoko Oyamada, Mario L R Monteiro
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of macular and multifocal (mf) pattern electroretinogram (PERG) to differentiate pre-perimetric glaucoma (PG) and glaucoma with hemifield loss (GHL) from controls, to compare the discrimination ability of PERG and fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), and to assess the relationship between measurements. METHODS: Standard automated perimetry, [1] steady-state and transient PERG and mfPERG measurements were obtained from PG (n=14, 24 eyes), GHL (n=5, 7 eyes) and controls (n=19, 22 eyes)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309745/alterations-of-ocular-hemodynamics-impair-ophthalmic-vascular-and-neuroretinal-function
#4
Shu-Huai Tsai, Wankun Xie, Min Zhao, Robert H Rosa, Travis W Hein, Lih Kuo
Hypertension is associated with numerous diseases, but its direct impact on the ocular circulation and neuroretinal function remains unclear. Herein, mouse eyes were challenged with different levels of hemodynamic insult via transverse aortic coarctation, which increased blood pressure and flow velocity by 50% and 40%, respectively, in the right common carotid artery, and reduced those parameters by 30% and 40%, respectively, in the left common carotid artery. Blood velocity in the right central retinal artery gradually increased up to 40% at four weeks of transverse aortic coarctation, and the velocity in the left central retinal artery gradually decreased by 20%...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305606/xanthohumol-protects-morphology-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinal-degeneration
#5
Nathaniel F Henneman, Stephanie L Foster, Micah A Chrenek, Jana T Sellers, Charles B Wright, Robin H Schmidt, John M Nickerson, Jeffrey H Boatright
Purpose: To investigate whether treatment with xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated chalconoid from Humulus lupulus (hops), is protective in a mouse model of light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD). Methods: Mice (129S2/SvPasCrl) were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or XN prior to toxic light exposure and every 3 days thereafter. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinograms at 1, 2, and 4 weeks following toxic light exposure. Visual acuity was tested by optokinetic tracking 1 week and 4 weeks after toxic light exposure...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300714/electrophysiology-of-olfactory-and-optic-nerve-in-outpatient-and-intraoperative-settings
#6
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
Evoked potentials are time-locked electrophysiologic potentials recorded in response to standardized stimuli using scalp electrodes. These responses provide good temporal resolution and have been used in various clinical and intraoperative settings. Olfactory evoked potentials (OEPs) may be used as an adjunct tool in identifying patients of Parkinson disease and Alzheimer dementia. In clinical practice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are particularly useful in identifying subclinical cases of optic neuritis and in treatment surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286999/comprehensive-evaluation-of-visual-function-in-patients-with-orbital-fracture-by-visual-electrophysiology-and-visual-field-examination
#7
Shao-Rui Liu, Mao Li, Fang-Lin He, Zheng-Kang Li, Xian-Qun Fan
OBJECTIVE: At present, the effect of the visual electrophysiology and vision field examination in patients with orbital blowout fracture is rarely studied. So, the authors investigate the value of visual electrophysiology and vision field examination in the diagnosis of ocular contusion. METHODS: The position and range of fracture of 81 patients were determined by computed tomography (CT) scanning. Visual evoked potential (VEP), electroretinogram (ERG), and mfERG were vision field examination detected in 81 patients and the results were compared with those of contralateral healthy eyes...
January 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285079/effects-of-puerarin-on-the-retina-and-stat3-expression-in-diabetic-rats
#8
Yonghao Cai, Xiaobi Zhang, Xuegu Xu, Yinfei Yu
The effects of puerarin on electroretinogram, oxidative stress and STAT3 expression were determined, in diabetic rat retina and serum. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control (NC), the diabetic model (DM), the low dose (250 mg/kg) puerarin (LP) or the high dose (500 mg/kg) puerarin group (HP). A diabetic rat model was induced by streptozotocin and animals were continuously treated for 4 weeks; fasting blood glucose was measured at 2 and 4 weeks after modeling. An electroretinogram and serum and tissue levels of glucose, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured; real-time PCR and ELISA were used to determine STAT3 mRNA and protein expression, respectively, from the retina...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281965/is-dopamine-transporter-mediated-dopaminergic-signaling-in-the-retina-a-noninvasive-biomarker-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-study-in-a-novel-dopamine-transporter-variant-val559-transgenic-mouse-model
#9
Heng Dai, Chad R Jackson, Gwynne L Davis, Randy D Blakely, Douglas G McMahon
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) is a critical neuromodulator in the retina. Disruption of retinal DA synthesis and signaling significantly attenuates light-adapted, electroretinogram (ERG) responses, as well as contrast sensitivity and acuity. As these measures can be detected noninvasively, they may provide opportunities to detect disease processes linked to perturbed DA signaling. Recently, we identified a rare, functional DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding substitution, Ala559Val, in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), demonstrating that DAT Val559 imparts anomalous DA efflux (ADE) with attendant physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral phenotypes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274300/unconjugated-bilirubin-modulates-neuronal-signaling-only-in-wild-type-mice-but-not-after-ablation-of-the-r-type-cav-2-3-voltage-gated-calcium-channel
#10
Walid Albanna, Felix Neumaier, Jan Niklas Lüke, Konstantin Kotliar, Catharina Conzen, Ute Lindauer, Jürgen Hescheler, Hans Clusmann, Toni Schneider, Gerrit Alexander Schubert
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between blood metabolites and hemoglobin degradation products (BMHDPs) formed in the cerebrospinal fluid and the development of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been the focus of several previous studies, but their molecular and cellular targets remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Because BMHDP-induced changes in Cav 2.3 channel function are thought to contribute to DCI after aSAH, we studied their modulation by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in an organotypical neuronal network from wild-type (WT) and Cav 2...
December 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260108/unilateral-pigmented-paravenous-retinochoroidal-atrophy-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-in-the-contralateral-eye-a-case-report
#11
Shuichiro Aoki, Tatsuya Inoue, Mari Kusakabe, Masaya Fukushima, Kohdai Kitamoto, Asako Ogawa, Motoshi Yamamoto, Ryo Obata
Purpose: We describe a sporadic case of unilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in the contralateral eye. Observations: a 24-year-old female aware of the narrowing of visual field was examined at our hospital. Funduscopic examination revealed left eye showing retinochroidal atrophy along the retinal veins with pigment accumulation while right eye showing peripheral diffuse retinal pigmented epithelium atrophy with bone spicule pigmentation...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260084/metallic-intraocular-foreign-body-as-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-without-complications-a-case-report
#12
Alexander S Platt, Benjamin G Wajda, April D Ingram, Xing-Chang Wei, Anna L Ells
Purpose: To describe a case and present unique images of a metallic intraocular foreign body that was identified in a 12-year-old male patient who underwent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess neurodevelopmental delay. Observations: We present MRI and diagnostic imaging of a metallic intraocular foreign body in a young patient with no known history of trauma or reason for the existence of metal in the eye area. Computed tomography scan was performed to confirm the presence of the intraocular foreign body, followed by optical coherence tomography and electroretinogram to assess visual status...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259539/the-contribution-of-l-type-cav1-3-channels-to-retinal-light-responses
#13
Liheng Shi, Janet Ya-An Chang, Fei Yu, Michael L Ko, Gladys Y-P Ko
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) regulate tonic neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons including retinal photoreceptors. There are three types of LTCCs (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4) expressed in the retina. While Cav1.2 is expressed in all retinal cells including the Müller glia and neurons, Cav1.3 and Cav1.4 are expressed in the retinal neurons with Cav1.4 exclusively expressed in the photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Mutations in the gene encoding Cav1.4 cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259393/the-retina-rpe-proteome-in-chick-myopia-and-hyperopia-models-commonalities-with-inherited-and-age-related-ocular-pathologies
#14
Nina Riddell, Pierre Faou, Melanie Murphy, Loretta Giummarra, Rachael A Downs, Harinda Rajapaksha, Sheila G Crewther
Purpose: Microarray and RNA sequencing studies in the chick model of early optically induced refractive error have implicated thousands of genes, many of which have also been linked to ocular pathologies in humans, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization, glaucoma, and cataract. These findings highlight the potential relevance of the chick model to understanding both refractive error development and the progression to secondary pathological complications...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259390/effect-of-subretinal-injection-on-retinal-structure-and-function-in-a-rat-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-model
#15
Silke Becker, Haibo Wang, Gregory J Stoddard, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Purpose: Subretinal injections are used to deliver agents in experimental studies of retinal diseases, often through viral vectors. However, few studies have investigated the effects of subretinal injections alone on the structure and function of the healthy or diseased retina, particularly in models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). We report on the effects of subretinal injections in a rat OIR model, which is used to study mechanisms of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Within 6 h of birth, neonatal rat pups were exposed to repeated cycles of oxygen between 50% and 10% O2 every 24 h for 14 days and subsequently moved to room air...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244747/ophthalmic-formulation-containing-nilvadipine-nanoparticles-prevents-retinal-dysfunction-in-rats-injected-with-streptozotocin
#16
Saori Deguchi, Hiroko Otake, Yosuke Nakazawa, Noriko Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
Retinopathy leads to irreparable vision loss via capillary closure and areas of nonperfusion. However, the current instillation systems do not allow a sufficient amount of drug required to treat retinopathy to reach the posterior segment (retina); therefore, a new formulation targeting the posterior segment is expected as therapy for retinopathy. We prepared ophthalmic formulations containing nilvadipine nanoparticles (NILnano), and demonstrated whether the instillation of NILnano can prevent retinal dysfunction in rats injected with excessive streptozotocin (STZ rats) in this study...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242904/platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-lessens-light-induced-rod-photoreceptor-damage-in-mice
#17
Kei Takahashi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hiroshi Izawa, Yuki Inoue, Yoshiki Kuse, Hideaki Hara
Purpose: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is known to have neuroprotective effects against various neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PDGF-BB can be neuroprotective against light-induced photoreceptor damage in mice. Methods: Mice were exposed to 8000-lux luminance for 3 hours to induce phototoxicity. Two hours before light exposure, the experimental mice were injected with PDGF-BB intravitreally, and the control mice were injected with phosphate-buffered saline...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242902/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-the-visual-system-of-monkeys-measured-at-different-stages-of-development
#18
Vanessa Harrar, Laurent Elkrief, Joseph Bouskila, Ryan Kucera, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jean-François Bouchard, Roberta Palmour, Maurice Ptito
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232334/intravitreal-ziv-aflibercept-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-52-week-results
#19
João R de Oliveira Dias, Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Vinicius F Kniggendorf, Eduardo A Novais, Vítor K L Takahashi, André Maia, Carsten Meyer, Sung E S Watanabe, Michel E Farah, Eduardo B Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To evaluate the 52-week safety and efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: All patients received three monthly intravitreal injections of 0.05 mL of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) followed by a pro re nata regimen. The best-corrected visual acuity and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were obtained at baseline and monthly. Full-field and multifocal electroretinograms were obtained at baseline and 4, 13, 26, and 52 weeks...
December 11, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220607/case-of-cone-dystrophy-with-normal-fundus-appearance-associated-with-biallelic-poc1b-variants
#20
Azusa Kominami, Shinji Ueno, Taro Kominami, Ayami Nakanishi, Yasuki Ito, Kaoru Fujinami, Kazushige Tsunoda, Takaaki Hayashi, Sachiko Kikuchi, Shuhei Kameya, Takeshi Iwata, Hiroko Terasaki
BACKGROUND: Biallelic variants of POC1B were recently reported to cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic cone dystrophy. However, the number of studies supporting this is limited, and the clinical phenotypes of cone dystrophy have not been definitively determined. The purpose of this study was to report the phenotype of a case of POC1B-associated cone dystrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical chart of one case diagnosed with cone dystrophy was reviewed. RESULTS: The patient was a 20-year-old Japanese man whose chief complaint was a progressive decrease in his central vision...
December 8, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
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