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Tianwei E Zhou, José C Rivera, Vikrant K Bhosle, Isabelle Lahaie, Zhuo Shao, Houda Tahiri, Tang Zhu, Anna Polosa, Allison Dorfman, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Santiago Costantino, Gregory A Lodygensky, Pierre Lachapelle, Sylvain Chemtob
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the most common cause of blindness in premature infants, has long been associated with inner retinal alterations. However, recent studies reveal outer retinal dysfunctions in patients formerly afflicted with ROP. We have recently demonstrated that choroidal involution occurs early in retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the choroidal involution and its long-term impact on retinal function. An oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used. In vitro and ex vivo assays were applied to evaluate cytotoxic effects of IL-1β on choroidal endothelium...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Goichi Akiyama, Celso Soiti Matsumoto, Kei Shinoda, Gaku Terauchi, Harue Matsumoto, Emiko Watanabe, Takeshi Iwata, Atsushi Mizota, Yozo Miyake
Scleral indentation is widely used to examine the peripheral fundus, however it can increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) to high levels which can then affect retinal function. We evaluated the effects of scleral indentation on the macular function electrophysiologically. Intraoperative focal macular electroretinograms (iFMERGs) were recorded with and without controlling the IOP in 7 eyes. Without IOP control, the IOP increased from 21.7 ± 4.9 to 92.7 ± 20.2 mmHg significantly (P = 0.020) and the amplitudes of the b-wave (from 6...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nobuhiro Nagai, Satoru Iwata, Hirokazu Kaji, Kaori Sampei, Yuki Katsukura, Hideyuki Onami, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Toru Nakazawa, Yukihiko Mashima, Toshiaki Abe
It has been suggested that unoprostone isopropyl (UNO) has potent neuroprotective activity in the retina. The effect of sustained transscleral UNO delivery to the posterior segment of the eye on photoreceptor degeneration was evaluated. UNO was loaded into a device made of poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate by polydimethylsiloxane mold-based UV-curing. The amount of UNO diffusing from these devices was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The polymeric devices that released UNO at 1.8 μg/day were implanted on the sclerae of S334ter rats at postnatal 21 days, and electroretinograms (ERGs) were compared with those of topical application and placebo devices...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Laura Contreras, Laura Ramirez, Jianhai Du, James B Hurley, Jorgina Satrústegui, Pedro de la Villa
PURPOSE: To characterize the vision phenotype of mice lacking Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier mutated in global cerebral hypomyelination (OMIM 612949). METHODS: We tested overnight dark-adapted control and aralar-deficient mice for the standard full electroretinogram (ERG) response. The metabolic stress of dark-adaptation was reduced by 5 min illumination after which the ERG response was monitored in darkness. We used the electrical response to two identical saturating light flashes (paired-flash stimulation) to isolate the inner retina and photoreceptor responses...
2016: Molecular Vision
Yuedong Hu, Liu Ningning, Yanyan Chen
We report a case of tamoxifen associated macular hole with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 53-year-old woman came to our department for gradual decrees of vision acuity in both eyes for 3 months after 30 months low-dosage-tamoxifen treatment as adjuvant treatment for invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Her best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.4 in the right eye and 0.12 in the left eye. Dilated fundus examination showed macular multiple, fine, crystalline deposits and small white points in retina of both eyes...
October 13, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Justine M Turner, Yves Sauvé, Miyoung Suh, Paul W Wales, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates and those with intestinal failure require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) during a critical time of early central nervous system maturation. Conventional lipid emulsions fed to preterm neonates lack n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs; >20 carbon chain in length). Recently, fish oil lipid emulsions have been developed that provide both n-6 (ω-6) and n-3 LC-PUFAs, precursors of very long-chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs; >24 carbon chain in length)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Alice Brandli, Daniel M Johnstone, Jonathan Stone
Purpose: To test whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) is protective to photoreceptors, in a light damage model, and to identify mechanisms involved. Methods: A pressure cuff was used to induce ischemia (2 × 5 minutes) in one hind limb of 4- to 6-month-old albino Sprague-Dawley rats raised in dim, cyclic light (12 hours 5 lux, 12 hours dark). Immediately following the ischemia, rats were exposed to bright continuous light (1000 lux) for 24 hours. After 7-day survival in dim, cyclic light conditions, retinal function was assessed using the flash electroretinogram (ERG) and retinal structure was examined for photoreceptor survival and death, as well as for stress...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Shira Toledano, Huayi Lu, Agustina Palacio, Boaz Kigel, Ofra Kessler, Gilad Allon, Yoreh Barak, Gera Neufeld, Shlomit Schaal
Abnormal subretinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of blindness in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current anti-angiogenic treatments by VEGF sequestering agents have been successful, but a significant proportion of patients do not respond well to these treatments, and the response of others diminishes over time, suggesting that additional anti-angiogenic agents that function by separate mechanisms may be of use to such patients. We have previously found that a point mutated form of semaphorin-3E resistant to cleavage by furin like pro-protein convertases (UNCL-Sema3E) displays potent anti-angiogenic properties...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
M Dattilo, V Biousse, B B Bruce, N J Newman
Nonorganic visual loss (NOVL) is the cause of a large number of referrals to neurologists and ophthalmologists and is a frequent area of overlap between neurologists, ophthalmologists, and psychiatrists. NOVL is the presence of visual impairment without an organic cause for disease despite a thorough and comprehensive investigation. A diagnosis of NOVL requires both the absence of any findings on examination and proof of the integrity and functioning of the visual system. Although sometimes a challenging diagnosis to make, there are a number of techniques and maneuvers which can be utilized fairly easily, either at the bedside or in the clinic, to help determine if a patient has NOVL...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Kenneth Kato, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) in a young male showing structural changes induced by a Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Case report of a 26-year-old oboist with SNIFR, including multimodal imaging. Eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to compare the retinal architecture at rest and during a Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular and peripapillary retinoschisis with no signs of pathologic myopia, optic pit, or vitreoretinal traction...
August 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Dong-Mei Liu, Shu Zhou, Jie-Min Chen, Shu-Ya Peng, Wen-Tao Xia
UNLABELLED: Objective. To explore the potential effects of methanol and its metabolite, formic acid, on rat retina function. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3- and 7-day groups and a control. Experimental groups were given methanol and the control group were provided saline by gavage. Retinal function of each group was assessed by electroretinogram. Concentrations of methanol and formic acid were detected by GC/HS and HPLC, respectively. Results. The a and b amplitudes of methanol treated groups decreased and latent periods delayed in scotopic and photopic ERG recordings...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Davide Barloscio, Elisa Cerri, Luciano Domenici, Renato Longhi, Clelia Dallanoce, Milena Moretti, Antonietta Vilella, Michele Zoli, Cecilia Gotti, Nicola Origlia
Although α6-contaning (α6*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are densely expressed in the visual system, their role is not well known. We have characterized a family of toxins that are antagonists for α6β2* receptors and used one of these [RDP-MII(E11R)] to localize α6* nAChRs and investigate their impact on retinal function in adult Long-Evans rats. The α6*nAChRs in retinal tissue were localized using either a fluorescently tagged [RDP-MII(E11R)] or anti-α6-specific antibodies and found to be predominantly at the level of the ganglion cell layer...
September 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ángel García-García, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Gema Rebolleda
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the wave amplitude of multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) measurements and discomfort from Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrode located on the cornea (cDTL) and on the conjunctival fornix (fDTL) and ERG-jet contact lens electrode (CL). METHODS: Thirty-six patients and 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated with three different methods (cDTL, fDTL and CL). Wave amplitude, number of artifacts, number of electrode dislocations and level of discomfort obtained with each electrode were compared...
October 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Jesse M Smith, Jeffrey L Olson, Christopher D Gelston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Ophthalmology
Margaret Po-Shan Luke, Terry L LeVatte, Urs Rutishauser, François Tremblay, David B Clarke
Purpose: We previously demonstrated that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in supporting the survival of injured retinal ganglion cells. In the current study, we used light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) as a model to investigate whether NCAM plays a functional role in neuroprotection and whether NCAM influences p75NTR signaling in modulating retinal cell survival. Methods: Retinas from wild-type (WT) and NCAM deficient (-/-) mice were tested by electroretinogram before and after LIRD, and changes in the protein expressions of NCAM, polysialic acid (PSA)-NCAM, p75NTR, and active caspase 3 were measured by immunoblot from 0 to 4 days after light induction...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiaochun Yang, Jianbiao Xu, Jun Liu, Ninghua Ni, Yan Mei, Huo Lei, Juanjuan Wang, Ben Niu
AIMS: To investigate the protective effect of acetagastrodin on visual electrophysiology in patients with early-stage diabetes. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was conducted. Subjects who were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group were orally administered acetagastrodin or placebo, respectively, for 6 months. The quantity, mean amplitude and mean latency of oscillatory potentials (OPs) wavelets at baseline and 6 months were measured on electroretinogram (ERG), in all subjects...
September 20, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Maree Flaherty, Katie Geering, Stephanie Crofts, John Grigg
BACKGROUND: Sly syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII) is an autosomal recessive metabolic storage disorder due to mutations in the GUSB gene encoding the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme impairs the body's ability to break down the glycosaminoglycans - dermatan, heparan and chondroitin sulphate. Coarse facial features and macrocephaly are typically seen along with bony and skeletal abnormalities, including joint contractures and short stature. Widespread involvement occurs in many other tissues including cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems...
September 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
Agustina Noailles, Victoria Maneu, Laura Campello, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Pedro Lax, Nicolás Cuenca
Microglia act as the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, including the retina. In response to damaging stimuli microglia adopt an activated state, which can progress into a phagocytic phenotype and play a potentially harmful role by eliciting the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to assess longitudinal changes in microglia during retinal degeneration in the homozygous P23H rat, a model of dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Microglial phenotypes, morphology and density were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cytokine antibody array...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pukhraj Rishi, Neha Raka, Ekta Rishi
BACKGROUND: To study potential ischemic effects of intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) on unaffected retina in treatment-naive eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and contralateral eyes secondary to systemic absorption. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Prospective, interventional series included 27 treatment-naive eyes with BRVO and macular edema. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Eyes with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, vasculitides, papilledema or systemic neurologic condition...
2016: PloS One
John Maguire, Neil R A Parry, Jan Kremers, Deepika Kommanapalli, Ian J Murray, Declan J McKeefry
PURPOSE: To demonstrate that silent substitution stimuli can be used to generate electroretinograms (ERGs) that effectively isolate rod photoreceptor function in humans without the need for dark adaptation, and that this approach constitutes a viable alternative to current clinical standard testing protocols. METHODS: Rod-isolating and non-isolating sinusoidal flicker stimuli were generated on a 4 primary light-emitting diode (LED) Ganzfeld stimulator to elicit ERGs from participants with normal and compromised rod function who had not undergone dark-adaptation...
August 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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