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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432360/functional-ectopic-neuritogenesis-by-retinal-rod-bipolar-cells-is-regulated-by-mir-125b-5p-during-retinal-remodeling-in-rcs-rats
#1
Yan Fu, Baoke Hou, Chuanhuang Weng, Weiping Liu, Jiaman Dai, Congjian Zhao, Zheng Qin Yin
Following retinal degeneration, retinal remodeling can cause neuronal microcircuits to undergo structural alterations, which particularly affect the dendrites of bipolar cells. However, the mechanisms and functional consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here, we used Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats as a model of retinal degeneration, to study structural changes in rod bipolar cells (RBCs) and the underlying mechanisms of these changes. We found that, with retinal degeneration, RBC dendrites extended into the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina, and the ectopic dendrites formed synapses with the remaining photoreceptors...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432112/reduction-of-severe-visual-loss-and-complications-following-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-iac-for-refractory-retinoblastoma
#2
M Ashwin Reddy, Zishan Naeem, Catriona Duncan, Fergus Robertson, Jane Herod, Adam Rennie, Alki Liasis, Dorothy Ann Thompson, Mandeep Sagoo
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma has been documented as causing visual loss and ocular motility problems. A lack of safety data has precluded its acceptance in all centres. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with retinoblastoma from 2013 to 2015 who had a healthy foveola and relapsed following systemic chemotherapy. All required IAC. The correlation of complications with doses of melphalan +/- topotecan used and putative catheterisation complications was assessed...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422363/the-occhiolino-occ-mutant-zebrafish-a-model-for-development-of-the-optical-function-in-the-biological-lens
#3
Masamoto Aose, Tor H Linbo, Owen Lawrence, Tadashi Senoo, David W Raible, John I Clark
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish visual function depends on quality optics. An F3 screen for developmental mutations in the zebrafish nervous system was conducted in wild-type (wt) AB zebrafish exposed to 3 mM of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). RESULTS: Mutant offspring, identified in an F3 screen, were characterized by a small pupil, resulting from retinal hypertrophy or hyperplasia and a small lens. Deficits in visual function made feeding difficult after hatching at approximately 5-6 dpf (days post fertilization)...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421377/vep-and-perg-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-with-and-without-a-history-of-optic-neuritis
#4
M Janáky, Á Jánossy, G Horváth, G Benedek, G Braunitzer
PURPOSE: Visual electrophysiology is routinely used to detect the visual complications of multiple sclerosis, but the analysis mostly focuses on visual evoked potential (VEP) and especially the P100 component. Our goal was to analyze the components and waveform alterations of VEPs and pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with good vision. METHODS: The main VEP and PERG components of 85 patients with MS were analyzed in two groups: 38 patients who had optic neuritis in their history (ON group) and 47 patients who had never had optic neuritis (MS group)...
April 18, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404878/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-delayed-the-retinal-degeneration-of-rd1-mice-through-modulation-of-the-immunological-function-of-glia
#5
Xiao He, Dayu Sun, Siyu Chen, Haiwei Xu
Retinal degeneration (RD), including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), is an inherited eye disease characterized by progressive degeneration of photoreceptors. Recently, immune cells, including microglia, Müller cells and astrocytes, in degenerative retina are demonstrated to play key roles in the development of RD and can be used as potential therapeutic targets. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important immuno-inflammatory response transcription factors that have been reported to be a new potential therapeutic drug target for neurodegenerative diseases...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389912/pigmented-and-albino-rats-differ-in-their-responses-to-moderate-acute-and-reversible-intraocular-pressure-elevation
#6
Akshay Gurdita, Bingyao Tan, Karen M Joos, Kostadinka Bizheva, Vivian Choh
PURPOSE: To compare the electrophysiological and morphological responses to acute, moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rat eyes. METHODS: Eleven-week-old SD (n = 5), LE (n = 5) and BN (n = 5) rats were used. Scotopic threshold responses (STRs), Maxwellian flash electroretinograms (ERGs) or ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) images of the rat retinas were collected from both eyes before, during and after IOP elevation of one eye...
April 7, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379567/retinal-photoreceptor-functions-are-compromised-in-patients-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-syndrome-rth%C3%AE
#7
Irene Campi, Gabriella Cammarata, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Diletta Santarsiero, Davide Dazzi, Alessandra Bottari de Castello, Elena Giuliana Taroni, Francesco Viola, Caterina Mian, Sara Watuntantrige-Fernando, Carla Pelusi, Marina Muzza, Maria Antonia Maffini, Luca Persani
CONTEXT: In animal models, disruption of thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRβ) reduces the medium-wavelength (L/M) and increases the short-wavelength (S)-cones. The retinal photoreceptors (RPs) functions are unknown in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome with dominant-negative TRβ mutations (RTHβ). OBJECTIVE: to investigate RPs function in RTHβ. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: case-control study involving 27 RTHβ patients and 31 age-gender-matched controls, conducted in two tertiary referral centers in Italy...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378252/intravitreal-dexamethasone-implant-for-recalcitrant-cystoid-macular-edema-secondary-to-retinitis-pigmentosa-a-pilot-study
#8
Aditya Sudhalkar, Laurent Kodjikian, Nishikant Borse
BACKGROUND: To determine the utility of the intravitreal dexamethasone implant as therapy for cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) recalcitrant to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy over 2 years as a pilot study. METHODS: This was a prospective case series. Patients who showed either an incomplete or no response to topical dorzolamide for at least 1 month and oral acetazolamide therapy for at least 15 days were recruited for the study with informed consent...
April 4, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377845/time-dependent-decline-in-multifocal-electroretinogram-requires-faster-recording-procedures-in-anesthetized-pigs
#9
Nina Buus Sørensen, Anders Tolstrup Christiansen, Troels Wesenberg Kjær, Kristian Klemp, Morten la Cour, Jens Folke Kiilgaard
PURPOSE: The time-dependent effect of anesthetics on the retinal function is debated. We hypothesize that in anesthetized animals there is a time-dependent decline that requires optimized multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) recording procedures. METHODS: Conventional and four-frame global-flash mfERG recordings were obtained approximately 15, 60, and 150 minutes after the induction of propofol anesthesia (20 pigs) and isoflurane anesthesia (nine pigs). In six of the propofol-anesthetized pigs, the mfERG recordings were split in 3-minute segments...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368973/effect-of-smoking-on-macular-function-and-structure-in-active-smokers-versus-passive-smokers
#10
Amany Abd El-Fattah El-Shazly, Yousra Ahmed Thabet Farweez, Yasser Abdelmageuid Elzankalony, Lamia Salah Elewa, Botheina Ahmed Thabet Farweez
PURPOSE: The aim is to study the effects of cigarette smoking on the structural and functional alterations of the macula in eyes of healthy young smokers. METHODS: Cross-sectional clinical study included 100 active smokers (Group 1) and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy passive smokers (Group 2). All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic assessment, axial length measurement, central corneal thickness measurement, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and multifocal electroretinogram...
March 30, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367532/the-effect-of-anakinra-on-retinal-function-in-isolated-perfused-vertebrate-retina
#11
Mahdy Ranjbar, Toni Schneider, Carl Brand, Salvatore Grisanti, Julia Lüke, Matthias Lüke
PURPOSE: Blockage of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) signaling pathway has been proposed for treatment of inflammatory disorders like those affecting the retina and its adjacent tissue. Herein, we evaluated one of those inhibitory drugs, anakinra (Kineret(®)), based on its safety profile with emphasis on retinal function from an electrophysiological point of view. METHODS: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with two different concentrations of anakinra (1 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml)...
March 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367269/spermidine-oxidation-mediated-degeneration-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-rats
#12
Koji Ohashi, Masaaki Kageyama, Katsuhiko Shinomiya, Yukie Fujita-Koyama, Shin-Ichiro Hirai, Osamu Katsuta, Masatsugu Nakamura
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is a crucial event in dry age-related macular degeneration and gyrate atrophy. The polyamine spermidine has been shown to induce RPE cell death in vitro. The present study aimed to establish a novel in vivo model of spermidine-induced RPE degeneration and to determine whether spermidine-induced RPE cell death involves oxidative mechanisms. In this study, spermidine caused ARPE-19 cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was prevented by removal of serum from the culture medium or treatment with amine oxidase inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358967/acute-bilateral-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-an-infant-after-vaccination-against-measles-and-rubella
#13
Kazuki Kuniyoshi, Yoshikazu Hatsukawai, Sadami Kimura, Takahiro Fujino, Hiroshi Ohguro, Rie Nakai, Kenta Sunami, So-Ichiro Mishima, Tomoko Sato, Shunji Kusaka, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Yoshikazu Shimomura
Importance: Ocular inflammation is occasionally observed after vaccinations, and most of them resolve without permanent visual disturbances. However, there are some rare cases of severe ocular complications following vaccinations. Objective: To report the findings in an infant boy who developed an acute loss of vision bilaterally after Haemophilus influenzae type b, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination, and measles and rubella vaccination. His vision did not recover...
March 30, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358959/a-bioengineering-approach-to-myopia-control-tested-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#14
Mariana B Garcia, Amit K Jha, Kevin E Healy, Christine F Wildsoet
Purpose: To investigate the biocompatibility of an injectable hydrogel and its ability to control myopia progression in guinea pigs. Methods: The study used a hydrogel synthesized from acrylated hyaluronic acid with a conjugated cell-binding peptide and enzymatically degradable crosslinker. Seven-day-old guinea pigs were first form deprived (FD) with diffusers for 1 week. One group was kept as an FD-only control; two groups received a sub-Tenon's capsule injection of either hydrogel or buffer (sham surgery) at the posterior pole of the eye...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356706/a-mutagenesis-derived-lrp5-mouse-mutant-with-abnormal-retinal-vasculature-and-low-bone-mineral-density
#15
Jeremy R Charette, Sarah E Earp, Brent A Bell, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell, Dana A Godfrey, Sujata Rao, Bela Anand-Apte, Patsy M Nishina, Neal S Peachey
PURPOSE: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is caused by mutations in the genes encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP5) or its interacting partners, namely frizzled class receptor 4 (FZD4) and norrin cystine knot growth factor (NDP). Mouse models for Lrp5, Fzd4, and Ndp have proven to be important for understanding the retinal pathophysiology underlying FEVR and systemic abnormalities related to defective Wnt signaling. Here, we report a new mouse mutant, tvrm111B, which was identified by electroretinogram (ERG) screening of mice generated in the Jackson Laboratory Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) mutagenesis program...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356705/novel-splice-site-mutation-in-ttll5-causes-cone-dystrophy-in-a-consanguineous-family
#16
Miguel de Sousa Dias, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Meunier, Juliette Varin, Steven Blanchard, Fiona Boyard, José-Alain Sahel, Christina Zeitz
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and genetic findings of one family with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy (CD) and to identify the causative mutation. METHODS: An institutional study of three family members from two generations. The clinical examination included best-corrected Snellen visual acuity measurement, fundoscopy, the Farnsworth D-15 color vision test, a full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that incorporated the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards and methodology, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and infrared (IR), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349587/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-extracts-preserve-retinal-function-and-attenuate-inner-retinal-neuronal-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-transient-retinal-ischemia
#17
Di Yang, Kwok-Fai So, Amy C Y Lo
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia is a common feature shared by numerous eye diseases. Ischemic insult leads to retinal dysfunction and neuronal death. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from an anti-aging and anti-oxidation Oriental medicine, are well known for eyesight preservation. We have previously reported the effect of LBP on cell death, blood ocular barrier and oxidative stress within 24 hours in a mouse model of retinal ischemia. This study focuses on retinal function and looks for ultrastructural and cellular correlates after a relatively long period of reperfusion for 7 days...
March 27, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337834/retinal-dystrophy-in-two-boys-with-costello-syndrome-due-to-the-hras-p-gly13cys-mutation
#18
Mary Ella Pierpont, Mary Richards, W Keith Engel, Nancy J Mendelsohn, C Gail Summers
Features of Costello Syndrome, a systemic disorder caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS from the RAS/MAPK pathway, include failure-to-thrive, short stature, coarse facial features, cardiac defects including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, intellectual disability, and predisposition to neoplasia. Two unrelated boys with Costello syndrome and an HRAS mutation (p.Gly13Cys) are presented with their ophthalmologic findings. Both had early symptoms of nystagmus, photophobia, and vision abnormalities...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336492/looking-into-the-brain-through-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-evidences
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Emanuel Bubl, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Psychiatry and neuroscience research need novel approaches to indirectly investigate brain function. As the retina is an anatomical and developmental extension of the central nervous system (CNS), changes in retinal function may reflect neurological dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders. The last and most integrated retinal relay before visual information transfer to the brain is the ganglion cell layer. Here, based on collected arguments, we argue that these cells offer a crucial site for indirectly investigating brain function...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334377/lrit3-differentially-affects-connectivity-and-synaptic-transmission-of-cones-to-on-and-off-bipolar-cells
#20
Marion Neuillé, Yan Cao, Romain Caplette, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Connon Thomas, Naomi Kamasawa, José-Alain Sahel, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Audo, Serge Picaud, Kirill A Martemyanov, Christina Zeitz
Purpose: Mutations in LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). Using a cCSNB mouse model lacking Lrit3 (nob6), we recently have shown that LRIT3 has a role in the correct localization of TRPM1 (transient receptor potential melastatin 1) to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells (BCs), contacting both rod and cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, postsynaptic clustering of other mGluR6 cascade components is selectively eliminated at the dendritic tips of cone ON-BCs...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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