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Osteoporosis and falls

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137199/epidemiology-of-bone-fracture-in-female-trauma-patients-based-on-risks-of-osteoporosis-assessed-using-the-osteoporosis-self-assessment-tool-for-asians-score
#1
Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Shao-Chun Wu, Pao-Jen Kuo, Yi-Chun Chen, Peng-Chen Chien, Hsiao-Yun Hsieh, Ching-Hua Hsieh
Background: Osteoporotic fractures are defined as low-impact fractures resulting from low-level trauma. However, the exclusion of high-level trauma fractures may result in underestimation of the contribution of osteoporosis to fractures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the fracture patterns of female trauma patients with various risks of osteoporosis based on the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) score. Methods: According to the data retrieved from the Trauma Registry System of a Level I trauma center between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015, a total of 6707 patients aged ≥40 years and hospitalized for the treatment of traumatic bone fracture were categorized as high-risk (OSTA < -4, n = 1585), medium-risk (-1 ≥ OSTA ≥ -4, n = 1985), and low-risk (OSTA > -1, n = 3137) patients...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135297/-vitamin-d-and-calcium-supplementation-in-elderly-patients-with-hip-fracture
#2
Antal Salamon, Erzsébet Toldy, Csaba Biró, Ákos Mátrai, Tibor Balassa, Zoltán Lőcsei
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining calcium and bone metabolism, a risk factor of osteoporosis, fall and fracture in old age. Reduction in D-vitamin levels associated with compensatory increased level of parathyroid hormone causes significant loss of bone matrix, so substitutions of vitamin D and calcium are very important. Many authors publish their recommended doses used for prevention of hip fracture during the last years. Some authors are satisfied only with vitamin D supplementation while others have better experiences with vitamin D and calcium substitution...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129217/screening-for-geriatric-syndromes-falls-urinary-fecal-incontinence-and-osteoporosis
#3
REVIEW
Erin M Smith, Amit A Shah
The geriatric syndromes of falls, incontinence, and osteoporosis are concerns in older adults because of their potential impact on quality of life. Asking about history of falls or a fear of falling should prompt a multifactorial assessment of fall risk and targeted interventions to reduce falls. Urinary and fecal incontinence should be screened because they are common conditions that are underreported due to embarrassment and general perception that incontinence is a normal part of aging. Women over age 65, men over age 70, and younger patients with high-risk characteristics should be screened with bone mineral density testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
February 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122636/clinical-outcomes-and-history-of-fall-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-treated-with-oral-anticoagulation-insights-from-the-aristotle-trial
#4
Meena P Rao, Dragos Vinereanu, Daniel M Wojdyla, John H Alexander, Dan Atar, Elaine M Hylek, Michael Hanna, Lars Wallentin, Renato D Lopes, Bernard J Gersh, Christopher B Granger
PURPOSE: We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban versus warfarin are consistent in this population. METHODS: Of the 18,201 patients in ARISTOTLE, 16,491 had information about history of falling - 753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107439/effects-of-exercise-improves-muscle-strength-and-fat-mass-in-patients-with-high-fracture-risk-a-randomized-control-trial
#5
Ding-Cheng Chan, Chirn-Bin Chang, Der-Sheng Han, Cian-Hui Hong, Jawl-Shan Hwang, Keh-Sung Tsai, Rong-Sen Yang
BACKGROUND: The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC) model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE) in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®))) ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point) or fall (≧2 falls in previous year)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101922/osteosarcopenia-a-new-geriatric-syndrome
#6
Ebrahim Bani Hassan, Gustavo Duque
BACKGROUND: Longevity, the increase in the ageing population and a lifestyle of minimal physical activity come with a hefty price. Consequently, two diseases are increasingly becoming a concern for the welfare of patients and the health industry: osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These conditions are usually interrelated through several mechanisms and metabolic pathways, and comprise a syndrome called osteosarcopenia. OBJECTIVE: As patients with osteosarcopenia represent an important subset of frail individuals at higher risk of institutionalisation, falls and fractures, the aim of this review is to further familiarise general practitioners with osteosarcopenia as a new geriatric syndrome that requires early diagnosis and effective therapeutic interventions...
November 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091930/self-administered-vitamin-d-status-predictor-older-adults-are-able-to-use-a-self-questionnaire-for-evaluating-their-vitamin-d-status
#7
Cedric Annweiler, Anastasiia Kabeshova, Alix Callens, Marie-Liesse Paty, Guillaume T Duval, Michael F Holick
BACKGROUND: The 16-item Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP) questionnaire helps to identify, without resorting to a blood test, older adults with low vitamin D concentrations. Our objective was to determine whether a self-administered VDSP was concordant with the VDSP administered by a physician, and to examine the concordance of every single item of the VDSP. METHODS: A total of 349 older in- and outpatients (mean, 83.2±7.2years; 59% female) were consecutively recruited in the geriatric ward of the University Hospital of Angers, France...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090360/implementation-of-a-fall-screening-program-in-a-high-risk-of-fracture-population
#8
Katherine Ritchey, Amanda Olney, Jane Shofer, Elizabeth A Phelan, Alvin M Matsumoto
Fall prevention is an important way to prevent fractures in person with osteoporosis. We developed and implemented a fall screening program in the context of routine osteoporosis care. This program was found to be feasible and showed that a significant proportion of persons with osteoporosis are at risk of falling. PURPOSE: Falls are the most common cause of fracture in persons with osteoporosis. However, osteoporosis care rarely includes assessment and prevention of falling. We thus sought to assess the feasibility of a fall screening and management program integrated into routine osteoporosis care...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083977/examining-the-effect-of-medication-adherence-on-risk-of-subsequent-fracture-among-women-with-a-fragility-fracture-in-the-u-s-medicare-population
#9
Allison Keshishian, Natalie Boytsov, Russel Burge, Kelly Krohn, Louise Lombard, Xiang Zhang, Lin Xie, Onur Baser
BACKGROUND: In the United States, osteoporosis affects approximately 10 million people, of whom 80% are women, and it contributes a significant clinical burden to the community. Poor adherence to osteoporosis medications adds to the overall burden of illness. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of osteoporosis medication adherence and the risk of a subsequent fracture among Medicare-enrolled women with a previous fragility fracture. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational analysis of U...
November 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074835/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-treatment-of-metabolic-bone-disorders-by-vitamin-d
#10
Reiko Watanabe, Daisuke Inoue
Vitamin D is indispensable for bone health and calcium metabolism, and decreased action of vitamin D causes various abnormalities in bone metabolism. Severe vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia/rickets. Even milder vitamin D insufficiency could still be harmful for bone health via secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone loss, and could also lead to increased risk of falling. Osteomalacia/rickets associated with impaired vitamin D action should be treated by either native or active vitamin D3, depending on its etiology...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074833/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-vitamin-d-insufficiency-deficiency
#11
Ryo Okazaki
Serum 25(OH)D level reflects bodily vitamin D store. Recently published "Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan" defines vitamin D sufficiency as 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL or more, vitamin D insufficiency as that of 20 to 30 ng/mL, vitamin D deficiency as that of less than 20 ng/mL. The lower the serum 25(OH)D level is, the higher the risks are, of secondary hyperparathyroidism, low bone mineral density, fall, fracture, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia, as well as lower response to anti-osteoporosis medications...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074832/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-eldecalcitol-r-and-fall-prevention
#12
Takao Suzuki
In the elderly, vitamin D deficiency results not only in impaired bone mineralization, but also myopathy. Low vitamin D has also been shown to be associated with decline of muscle strength, sarcopenia, functional limitation, and disability. Several recent studies have shown that low serum vitamin D concentration is associated with lower physical function and falls in older adults. In this article, the author reviews a relationship between falls and serum vitamin D concentration of the elderly living in the community, and also introduces the major results from a recent randomized controlled trial on prevention of decline of fall-related balance performance by the treatment with newly developed active vitamin D(Eldecalcitol(R) )among the women with age 65 years old and over and diagnosed as osteoporosis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064421/muscle-bone-crosstalk-emerging-opportunities-for-novel-therapeutic-approaches-to-treat-musculoskeletal-pathologies
#13
REVIEW
Delphine B Maurel, Katharina Jähn, Nuria Lara-Castillo
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are age-related musculoskeletal pathologies that often develop in parallel. Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduced bone mass and an increased fracture risk. Sarcopenia describes muscle wasting with an increasing risk of injuries due to falls. The medical treatment of both diseases costs billions in health care per year. With the impact on public health and economy, and considering the increasing life expectancy of populations, more efficient treatment regimens are sought. The biomechanical interaction between both tissues with muscle acting on bone is well established...
October 24, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054559/the-influence-of-reconstruction-kernel-on-bone-mineral-and-strength-estimates-using-quantitative-computed-tomography-and-finite-element-analysis
#14
Andrew S Michalski, W Brent Edwards, Steven K Boyd
Quantitative computed tomography has been posed as an alternative imaging modality to investigate osteoporosis. We examined the influence of computed tomography convolution back-projection reconstruction kernels on the analysis of bone quantity and estimated mechanical properties in the proximal femur. Eighteen computed tomography scans of the proximal femur were reconstructed using both a standard smoothing reconstruction kernel and a bone-sharpening reconstruction kernel. Following phantom-based density calibration, we calculated typical bone quantity outcomes of integral volumetric bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone mineral content...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044479/the-strategies-to-reduce-injuries-and-develop-confidence-in-elders-intervention-falls-risk-factor-assessment-and-management-patient-engagement-and-nurse-co-management
#15
David B Reuben, Priscilla Gazarian, Neil Alexander, Katy Araujo, Dorothy Baker, Jonathan F Bean, Chad Boult, Peter Charpentier, Pamela Duncan, Nancy Latham, Rosanne M Leipzig, Lisa M Quintiliani, Thomas Storer, Siobhan McMahon
In response to the epidemic of falls and serious falls-related injuries in older persons, in 2014, the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and the National Institute on Aging funded a pragmatic trial, Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop confidence in Elders (STRIDE) to compare the effects of a multifactorial intervention with those of an enhanced usual care intervention. The STRIDE multifactorial intervention consists of five major components that registered nurses deliver in the role of falls care managers, co-managing fall risk in partnership with patients and their primary care providers (PCPs)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038836/automated-dxa-based-finite-element-analysis-for-hip-fracture-risk-stratification-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
S Yang, W D Leslie, Y Luo, A L Goertzen, S Ahmed, L M Ward, I Delubac, L M Lix
Fracture risk indices (FRIs) generated from DXA-based finite element analysis were associated with hip fracture independent of FRAX score computed with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Prospective studies are warranted to determine whether FRIs represent an improvement over BMD for predicting incident hip fractures. INTRODUCTION: The study aims to examine the association between prior hip fracture and FRIs derived from automated finite element analysis (FEA) of DXA hip scans. Femoral neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric FRIs were calculated as the von Mises stress induced by a sideways fall divided by the bone yield stress over the specified region of interest (ROI)...
October 6, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974906/alzheimer-s-disease-and-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Hung Chen, Raymond Y Lo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and osteoporosis are both common degenerative diseases in the elderly population. The incidence of both diseases increases with age and will be posing enormous societal burden worldwide. It may appear that AD and osteoporosis are two distinct diseases although many risk factors are shared. Previous observational studies have shown that patients with osteoporosis have higher risks of developing AD than those who do not have osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis, falls, and fractures are more often seen in patients with AD than other older adults, the association between these two diseases may be due to a pathophysiological link rather than one condition causing the other...
July 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974207/study-of-the-variations-of-fall-induced-hip-fracture-risk-between-right-and-left-femurs-using-ct-based-fea
#18
Tanvir R Faisal, Yunhua Luo
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture of elderly people-suffering from osteoporosis-is a severe public health concern, which can be reduced by providing a prior assessment of hip fracture risk. Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) has been considered an effective computational tool to assess the hip fracture risk. Considering the femoral neck region is the weakest, fracture risk indicators (FRI) are evaluated for both single-legged stance and sideways fall configurations and are compared between left and right femurs of each subject...
October 3, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955689/korean-society-for-bone-and-mineral-research-task-force-report-perspectives-on-intermittent-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation
#19
REVIEW
Han Seok Choi, Yong-Ki Min, Dong Won Byun, Myung Hoon Hahn, Kyoung Min Kim, Beom Jun Kim, Ki-Won Oh
An adequate supply of vitamin D is considered necessary for osteoporosis management and fracture prevention. Intermittent high-dose vitamin D supplementation is an effective and convenient way to achieve and maintain sufficient vitamin D status. However, the long-term effectiveness of supplementation for preventing falls and fractures is unclear, and some deleterious effects of such treatments have been reported. Concerning these issues, the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research task force team reviewed previous clinical trials and provided the following perspectives based on current evidence: 1) An adequate supply of vitamin D is necessary for preventing falls and fractures in postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years...
August 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950817/specific-patient-features-affect-antiepileptic-drug-therapy-decisions-focus-on-gender-age-and-psychiatric-comorbidities
#20
Pisani Laura Rosa, Nikanorova Marina, Johannessen Landmark Cecilie, Johannessen Svein Ivar, Pisani Francesco
BACKGROUND: Patient features, apart from the type of seizues/epilepsy, affect markedly antiepileptic drug (AED) choice and dosage. The present review focuses on gender, age and psychiatric comorbidities which play a leading role in influencing antiepileptic treatment. METHODS: Reviews with large population of patients, controlled clinical trials, observational investigations, experimental studies and experimental reviews of experimental data, where appropriated, were analysed and illustrated to produce the most homogeneous indications possible...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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