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Osteoporosis and falls

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108205/modifying-the-phenotypic-frailty-model-in-predicting-risk-of-major-osteoporotic-fracture-in-the-elderly
#1
Guowei Li, Alexandra Papaioannou, Lehana Thabane, Mitchell A H Levine, George Ioannidis, Andy K O Wong, Arthur Lau, Jonathan D Adachi
INTRODUCTION: The phenotypic frailty (PF) model (including slow walking, low physical activity, exhaustion, weakness, and unintentional weight loss) has been widely used to quantify the degree of frailty and predict risks of adverse health outcomes for the elderly. However, evidence has shown that not all the components included in the PF model contribute equally, and low predictive accuracy of the PF model has been reported in predicting risks of outcomes. We aimed to improve predictive accuracy of the PF model in risk of major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) in the elderly by modifying its weighting of individual components...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097725/increased-cortical-porosity-in-women-with-hip-fracture
#2
D Sundh, A G Nilsson, M Nilsson, L Johansson, D Mellström, M Lorentzon
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures cause increased mortality and disability and consume enormous healthcare resources. Only 46% of hip fracture patients have osteoporosis at the total hip according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement. Cortical porosity increases with ageing and is believed to be important for bone strength. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether older women with hip fracture have higher cortical porosity than controls, and if so whether this difference is independent of clinical risk factors and areal bone mineral density (aBMD)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060916/nocturia-is-associated-with-slipping-and-falling
#3
So Young Kim, Woojin Bang, Min-Su Kim, Bumjung Park, Jin-Hwan Kim, Hyo Geun Choi
Several reports have demonstrated associations between falls and nocturia in the elderly. However, little information is available regarding other age groups. This study evaluated the relationship between the frequency of nocturia and falls in men using a large, population-based survey in Korea, and the results were adjusted for various confounding factors. Data from a 2011 Korean community health survey (KCHS) were retrieved for 92,660 men aged 19 to 103 years. Information regarding the history of slips or falls in the past year was collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032296/vitamin-d-musculoskeletal-health
#4
REVIEW
Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Natalia Laszcz, Marek Wojcik, Pawel Pludowski
Perhaps the role of Vitamin D supplementation has been most exhaustively studied in calcium absorption, skeletal wellbeing, muscular potency, balance and risk of falling. Nonetheless, new data has emerged and the recent research on sarcopenia makes the topic increasingly interesting. Given the socioeconomic burden of the musculoskeletal consequences of hypovitaminosis D it is vital to keep abreast with the latest literature in the field. The recommended Vitamin D supplementation dose should suffice to increase the serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level to 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and this level should be optimally maintained with a maintenance dose, particularly for those diagnosed with osteoporosis...
December 29, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017954/-the-effect-of-exercise-and-sports-on-musculoskeletal-health-in-the-elderly
#5
Atsushi Harada
There is insufficient information on the effect of exercise and sports on musculoskeletal health in the elderly. Although the effects of sports are still unclear, the effects of exercise could be significant. For example, exercise improves osteoporosis by increasing bone mineral density and ameliorates sarcopenia by increasing muscle mass, muscular strength, and walking speed. As a result, fall risk is reduced and fracture risk is also likely to improve. Tai Chi is reportedly effective for joint pain and stiffness, and may improve symptoms of osteoarthritis...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013446/evaluation-of-the-validity-of-osteoporosis-and-fracture-risk-assessment-tools-iof-one-minute-test-score-and-frax-in-postmenopausal-palestinian-women
#6
Akram Kharroubi, Elias Saba, Ibrahim Ghannam, Hisham Darwish
: The need for simple self-assessment tools is necessary to predict women at high risk for developing osteoporosis. In this study, tools like the IOF One Minute Test, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) were found to be valid for Palestinian women. The threshold for predicting women at risk for each tool was estimated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of the updated IOF (International Osteoporosis Foundation) One Minute Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Test, FRAX, SCORE as well as age alone to detect the risk of developing osteoporosis in postmenopausal Palestinian women...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013364/rest-activity-patterns-and-falls-and-fractures-in-older-men
#7
Tara S Rogers, Terri L Blackwell, Nancy E Lane, Greg Tranah, Eric S Orwoll, Jane A Cauley, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Katie L Stone, Steven R Cummings, Peggy M Cawthon
: Dysregulated rest-activity rhythm (RAR) patterns have been associated with several health conditions in older adults. This study showed that later acrophase was associated with a modestly greater risk of falls but not fractures in elderly men. Associations between dysregulated RAR patterns and osteoporosis risk warrant further investigation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between rest-activity rhythm (RAR) patterns and risk of falls/fractures in older men...
December 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004295/vitamin-d-status-correction-in-saudi-arabia-an-experts-consensus-under-the-auspices-of-the-european-society-for-clinical-and-economic-aspects-of-osteoporosis-osteoarthritis-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-esceo
#8
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji Aljohani, Riad Sulimani, Abdulaziz M Al-Othman, Hanan Alfawaz, Mona Fouda, Fahad Al-Amri, Awad Shahrani, Mohammed Alharbi, Fahad Alshahrani, Waleed Tamimi, Shaun Sabico, Rene Rizzoli, Jean-Yves Reginster
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Middle East and in Saudi Arabia, in particular. While several international recommendations on the management of vitamin D deficiency have been documented and practiced globally, these recommendations should be adapted to the conditions of the Middle Eastern region. To address this challenge, the Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis (PMCO) in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, KSA, together with local experts and in cooperation with the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO), organized a panel that formulated unified recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in the region...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975302/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-associated-with-functional-decline-and-falls-in-frail-elderly-women-despite-supplementation
#9
M P Kotlarczyk, S Perera, M A Ferchak, D A Nace, N M Resnick, S L Greenspan
: We examined the impact of daily supplementation on vitamin D deficiency, function, and falls in female long-term care residents. Initial vitamin D deficiency was associated with greater functional decline and increased fall risk despite guideline-recommended supplementation, highlighting the importance of preventing vitamin D deficiency in frail elderly. INTRODUCTION: Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines recommend 800 IU vitamin D daily for older adults and maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] above 20 ng/ml for optimal skeletal health...
December 15, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956336/muscle-and-myotendinous-tissue-properties-at-the-distal-tibia-as-assessed-by-high-resolution-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography
#10
M C Erlandson, A K O Wong, E Szabo, N Vilayphiou, M A Zulliger, J D Adachi, A M Cheung
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) quantifies bone microstructure and density at the distal tibia where there is also a sizable amount of myotendinous (muscle and tendon) tissue (MT); however, there is no method for the quantification of MT. This study aimed (1) to assess the feasibility of using HR-pQCT distal tibia scans to estimate MT properties using a custom algorithm, and (2) to determine the relationship between MT properties at the distal tibia and mid-leg muscle density (MD) obtained from pQCT...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933155/a-quality-improvement-initiative-on-the-management-of-osteoporosis-in-older-people-with-parkinsonism
#11
Inderpal Singh, Rachel Fletcher, Linda Scanlon, Mandy Tyler, Shridhar Aithal
The risk of falls is higher in patients with people with Parkinsonism (PwP) compared to those without Parkinsonism, and leads to adverse outcomes including fragility fractures. Osteoporosis is under-recognised, and the prevalence of fragility fractures in not well studied. The primary aim of this project is for 100% of new patient referrals to, and 80% of follow up patients within the movement disorder (MD) service with osteoporosis to be treated in accordance with evidence based osteoporosis guidance. Routinely captured information regarding demographics and fragility fractures was retrospectively extracted from the clinical workstation, clinic letters, and clinical coding between July and November 2015...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918708/patient-specific-hip-fracture-strength-assessment-with-microstructural-mr-imaging-based-finite-element-modeling
#12
Chamith S Rajapakse, Alexandra Hotca, Benjamin T Newman, Austin Ramme, Shaleen Vira, Elizabeth A Kobe, Rhiannon Miller, Stephen Honig, Gregory Chang
Purpose To describe a nonlinear finite element analysis method by using magnetic resonance (MR) images for the assessment of the mechanical competence of the hip and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the tool. Materials and Methods This prospective study received institutional review board approval and fully complied with HIPAA regulations for patient data. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. A nonlinear finite element analysis method was developed to estimate mechanical parameters that relate to hip fracture resistance by using MR images...
December 2, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881629/risk-of-fractures-after-stroke-results-from-the-ontario-stroke-registry
#13
Moira K Kapral, Jiming Fang, Shabbir M H Alibhai, Peter Cram, Angela M Cheung, Leanne K Casaubon, Marla Prager, Melissa Stamplecoski, Brennan Rashkovan, Peter C Austin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of fractures after stroke. METHODS: Using the Ontario Stroke Registry, we identified a population-based sample of consecutive patients seen in the emergency department or hospitalized with stroke (n = 23,751) or TIA (n = 11,240) at any of 11 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada, and discharged alive between July 1, 2003, and March 31, 2012. We compared the risk of low-trauma fractures in patients with stroke vs those with TIA using propensity score methods to adjust for differences in baseline factors...
January 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872956/hip-fracture-registries-utility-description-and-comparison
#14
P Sáez-López, F Brañas, N Sánchez-Hernández, N Alonso-García, J I González-Montalvo
: Hip fractures (HF) are prevalent and involve high morbidity and mortality so improving their management is important. HF registries are a good way to improve knowledge about this condition and its quality of care, while at the same time reducing clinical variability, optimizing efficiency, improving outcomes, and reducing costs. INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures (HF) are a prevalent fragility fracture secondary to osteoporosis that involves high morbidity and mortality...
November 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866309/osteoporosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-after-kidney-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Elvira O Gosmanova, Aidar R Gosmanov
Preexisting diabetes increases risk of fractures after kidney transplantation (KT). However, little is known about mechanisms and prevention of increased fragility in these patients. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis after KT is complex and characterized by high prevalence of adynamic bone disease. Despite high prevalence of preexisting diabetes in KT recipients, diabetes patients were underrepresented in the studies that explored mechanisms and treatments of osteoporosis after KT. Therefore, caution should be exercised before considering conventional fracture prevention strategies in this unique group of patients...
November 19, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866217/osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-onj-and-atypical-femoral-fracture-aff-in-an-osteoporotic-patient-chronically-treated-with-bisphosphonates
#16
A Sánchez, R Blanco
The aim of the study is to report the rare association of two complications of long-term treatment of osteoporosis with bisphosphonates in the same Caucasian elderly patient. A female patient of Italian descent, age 87 years, consulted in February 2013. She had a history of osteoporosis and had taken alendronate weekly for 7 years (1999-2006). Due to low back pain, an orthopedist had indicated i.v. zoledronic acid, 5 mg/year for 3 years (2006-2008). She received occasional supplements of ergocalciferol...
November 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845703/older-swedish-adults-with-high-self-perceived-health-show-optimal-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-whereas-vitamin-d-status-is-low-in-patients-with-high-disease-burden
#17
Martin Carlsson, Pär Wanby, Lars Brudin, Erik Lexne, Karin Mathold, Rebecca Nobin, Lisa Ericson, Ola Nordqvist, Göran Petersson
Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH)D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH)D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people ≥75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy...
November 11, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822020/validation-of-the-chinese-version-10-item-perceived-efficacy-in-patient-physician-interactions-scale-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#18
Huiwen Zhao, Wen Luo, Rose C Maly, Jun Liu, Junyi Lee, Yaning Cui
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 10-item Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interaction (PEPPI-10) scale in hospitalized patients with severe knee osteoarthritis in the People's Republic of China. METHODS: Between January and March 2015, the Chinese versions of PEPPI, self-efficacy for exercise scale, osteoporosis self-efficacy scale, and modified fall efficacy scale were applied to assess 110 severe knee osteoarthritis patients who were hospitalized in the second ward of the department of arthroplasty surgery of Tianjin Hospital...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821102/the-osteoporotic-fracture-prevention-program-in-rural-areas-ofra-a-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-health-care-fund-driven-intervention-in-a-routine-health-care-setting
#19
Kilian Rapp, Karin Kampe, Patrick Roigk, Hella Kircheisen, Clemens Becker, Ivonne Lindlbauer, Hans-Helmut König, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Gisela Büchele
BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures are one of the leading causes for disability in old people. The main underlying mechanisms are osteoporosis and falls. Evidence-based measures to prevent either falls or fractures are available. However, coordinated preventive approaches combining bone health and fall prevention are rare. The objective of the study is to evaluate a health care fund driven program, which encourages insured persons to adhere to national guidelines regarding bone health and physical activity and falls prevention...
November 8, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813155/risk-and-prevention-of-fracture-in-patients-with-major-medical-illnesses-a-mini-review
#20
Steven R Cummings, Richard Eastell
Patients with several medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, recent stroke, HIV, and heart failure, have a high risk of hip fracture. These patients will also have more severe consequences of a hip fracture, including a greater chance of dying and more prolonged disability. Together, there are nearly as many patients with medical conditions that substantially increase the risk of hip fracture as there are people with osteoporosis by femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). The contributions of falling and decreased bone mass to the increased risks with these conditions are not certain...
December 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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