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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541915/embedded-system-for-prosthetic-control-using-implanted-neuromuscular-interfaces-accessed-via-an-osseointegrated-implant
#1
Enzo Mastinu, Pascal Doguet, Yohan Botquin, Bo Hakansson, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Despite the technological progress in robotics achieved in the last decades, prosthetic limbs still lack functionality, reliability, and comfort. Recently, an implanted neuromusculoskeletal interface built upon osseointegration was developed and tested in humans, namely the Osseointegrated Human-Machine Gateway. Here, we present an embedded system to exploit the advantages of this technology. Our artificial limb controller allows for bioelectric signals acquisition, processing, decoding of motor intent, prosthetic control, and sensory feedback...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541651/channel-crack-designed-gold-pu-sponge-for-highly-elastic-piezoresistive-sensor-with-excellent-detectability
#2
Yun-Hui Wu, Hai-Zhou Liu, Song Chen, Xuchu Dong, Ping-Ping Wang, Shuqi Liu, Yong Lin, Yong Wei, Lan Liu
It is a great challenge to fabricate piezoresistive sensors that possess high elasticity, large-area compliance and excellent detectability to satisfy both extremely tiny and large human activities monitoring. Herein, a novel and facile strategy is reported to manufacture highly elastic channel crack-based gold@PU sponge piezoresistive material. The elastic 3D conductive network is successfully prepared by gold ion sputtering, and channel cracks are skillfully designed on the 3D sponge skeletons. Such novel structure makes these fabricated sensors are capable of monitoring both tiny and large human motions, which originate from the nano-crack joint sensing mechanism and physical contact of conductive interconnected network...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538681/human-thalamic-somatosensory-nucleus-ventral-caudal-vc-as-a-locus-for-stimulation-by-inputs-from-tactile-noxious-and-thermal-sensors-on-an-active-prosthesis
#3
REVIEW
Jui Hong Chien, Anna Korzeniewska, Luana Colloca, Claudia Campbell, Patrick Dougherty, Frederick Lenz
The forebrain somatic sensory locus for input from sensors on the surface of an active prosthesis is an important component of the Brain Machine Interface. We now review the neuronal responses to controlled cutaneous stimuli and the sensations produced by Threshold Stimulation at Microampere current levels (TMIS) in such a locus, the human thalamic Ventral Caudal nucleus (Vc). The responses of these neurons to tactile stimuli mirror those for the corresponding class of tactile mechanoreceptor fiber in the peripheral nerve, and TMIS can evoke sensations like those produced by the stimuli that optimally activate each class...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530390/highly-sensitive-durable-and-multifunctional-sensor-inspired-by-spider
#4
Chengzhi Luo, Junji Jia, Youning Gong, Zhongchi Wang, Qiang Fu, Chunxu Pan
Sensitivity, durability, and multifunction are the essential requirements for a high- performance wearable sensor. Here, we report a novel multifunctional sensor with high sensitivity and durability by using a buckled spider silk-like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SSL-SWNTs) film as the conducting network and a crack-shaped Au film as the sensitive transducer. Its high sensitivity is inspired by the crack-shaped structure of the spider's slit organs, while the high durability is inspired by the mechanical robustness of the spider silk...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521045/effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-water-vapor-on-chamber-pressure-and-oxygen-level-during-low-atmospheric-pressure-stunning-of-poultry
#5
Paul H Holloway, David G Pritchard
The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#6
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary Irwin, Autumn Bullard, David Thompson, Nicole Bentley, William Stacey, Parag Patil, Cynthia Chestek
OBJECTIVE:  Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504931/robust-real-time-musculoskeletal-modeling-driven-by-electromyograms
#7
Guillaume Durandau, Dario Farina, Massimo Sartori
OBJECTIVE: Current clinical biomechanics involves lengthy data acquisition and time-consuming offline analyses and current biomechanical models cannot be used for real-time control in man-machine interfaces. We developed a method that enables online analysis of neuromusculoskeletal function in vivo in the intact human. METHODS: We used electromyography (EMG)-driven musculoskeletal modeling to simulate all transformations from muscle excitation onset (EMGs) to mechanical moment production around multiple lower-limb degrees of freedom (DOFs)...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500008/wearable-haptic-systems-for-the-fingertip-and-the-hand-taxonomy-review-and-perspectives
#8
Claudio Pacchierotti, Stephen Sinclair, Massimiliano Solazzi, Antonio Frisoli, Vincent Hayward, Domenico Prattichizzo
In the last decade, we have witnessed a drastic change in the form factor of audio and vision technologies, from heavy and grounded machines to lightweight devices that naturally fit our bodies. However, only recently, haptic systems have started to be designed with wearability in mind. The wearability of haptic systems enables novel forms of communication, cooperation, and integration between humans and machines. Wearable haptic interfaces are capable of communicating with the human wearers during their interaction with the environment they share, in a natural and yet private way...
May 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499043/bioethics-and-transhumanism
#9
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485567/stretchable-transparent-and-stretch-unresponsive-capacitive-touch-sensor-array-with-selectively-patterned-silver-nanowires-reduced-graphene-oxide-electrodes
#10
Taeyoung Choi, Byeong-Ung Hwang, Bo-Yeong Kim, Tran Quang Trung, Yun Hyoung Nam, Do-Nyun Kim, Kilho Eom, Nae-Eung Lee
Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484314/new-generation-emerging-technologies-for-neurorehabilitation-and-motor-assistance
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Frisoli, Massimiliano Solazzi, Claudio Loconsole, Michele Barsotti
This paper illustrates the application of emerging technologies and human-machine interfaces to the neurorehabilitation and motor assistance fields. The contribution focuses on wearable technologies and in particular on robotic exoskeleton as tools for increasing freedom to move and performing Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). This would result in a deep improvement in quality of life, also in terms of improved function of internal organs and general health status. Furthermore, the integration of these robotic systems with advanced bio-signal driven human-machine interface can increase the degree of participation of patient in robotic training allowing to recognize user's intention and assisting the patient in rehabilitation tasks, thus representing a fundamental aspect to elicit motor learning...
December 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474793/3d-printed-stretchable-tactile-sensors
#12
Shuang-Zhuang Guo, Kaiyan Qiu, Fanben Meng, Sung Hyun Park, Michael C McAlpine
The development of methods for the 3D printing of multifunctional devices could impact areas ranging from wearable electronics and energy harvesting devices to smart prosthetics and human-machine interfaces. Recently, the development of stretchable electronic devices has accelerated, concomitant with advances in functional materials and fabrication processes. In particular, novel strategies have been developed to enable the intimate biointegration of wearable electronic devices with human skin in ways that bypass the mechanical and thermal restrictions of traditional microfabrication technologies...
May 5, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471157/wearable-resistive-pressure-sensor-based-on-highly-flexible-carbon-composite-conductors-with-irregular-surface-morphology
#13
Kang-Hyun Kim, Soon Kyu Hong, Nam-Su Jang, Sung-Hun Ha, Hyung Woo Lee, Jong-Man Kim
Wearable pressure sensors are crucial building blocks for potential applications in real-time health monitoring, artificial electronic skins, and human-to-machine interfaces. Here we present a highly sensitive, simple-architectured wearable resistive pressure sensor based on highly compliant yet robust carbon composite conductors made of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forest embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix with irregular surface morphology. A roughened surface of the VACNT/PDMS composite conductor is simply formed using a sandblasted silicon master in a low-cost and potentially scalable manner and plays an important role in improving the sensitivity of resistive pressure sensor...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452335/performance-of-laser-sintered-ti-6al-4v-implants-with-bone-inspired-porosity-and-micro-nanoscale-surface-roughness-in-the-rabbit-femur
#14
David J Cohen, Alice Cheng, Kaan Sahingur, Ryan M Clohessy, Louis B Hopkins, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Long term success of bone-interfacing implants remains a challenge in compromised patients and in areas of low bone quality. While surface roughness at the micro/nanoscale can promote osteogenesis, macro-scale porosity is important for promoting mechanical stability of the implant over time. Currently, machining techniques permit pores to be placed throughout the implant, but the pores are generally uniform in dimension. The advent of laser sintering provides a way to design and manufacture implants with specific porosity and variable dimensions at high resolution...
April 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436837/passive-bci-in-operational-environments-insights-recent-advances-and-future-trends
#15
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Alfredo Colosimo, Fabio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: this mini-review aims to highlight recent important aspects to consider and evaluate when passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems would be developed and used in operational environments, and remarks future directions of their applications. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG)-based pBCI has become an important tool for real-time analysis of brain activity, since it could potentially provide, covertly - without distracting the user from the main task - and objectively - not affected by the subjective judgement of an observer or the user itself - information about the operator cognitive state...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429598/preliminary-clinical-validation-of-a-differential-correction-method-for-improving-measurement-accuracy-in-noninvasive-measurement-of-blood-glucose-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#16
Guang Han, Xuyao Yu, Dandan Xia, Rong Liu, Jin Liu, Kexin Xu
One of the main challenges in the noninvasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is the background variations from light source drift, sweating, and temperature change at the human-machine interface. In this paper, a differential correction method based on the spectra from the floating-reference position and measuring position is proposed to eliminate these spectral variations from background interferences. Its effectiveness was validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments in which the diffuse reflectance of intralipid solutions and human skin was collected at the source distances of 0...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420135/a-prosthetic-hand-body-area-controller-based-on-efficient-pattern-recognition-control-strategies
#17
Simone Benatti, Bojan Milosevic, Elisabetta Farella, Emanuele Gruppioni, Luca Benini
Poliarticulated prosthetic hands represent a powerful tool to restore functionality and improve quality of life for upper limb amputees. Such devices offer, on the same wearable node, sensing and actuation capabilities, which are not equally supported by natural interaction and control strategies. The control in state-of-the-art solutions is still performed mainly through complex encoding of gestures in bursts of contractions of the residual forearm muscles, resulting in a non-intuitive Human-Machine Interface (HMI)...
April 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420129/hand-motion-detection-in-fnirs-neuroimaging-data
#18
Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri, Dennis Byrd, Kunal Mankodiya
As the number of people diagnosed with movement disorders is increasing, it becomes vital to design techniques that allow the better understanding of human brain in naturalistic settings. There are many brain imaging methods such as fMRI, SPECT, and MEG that provide the functional information of the brain. However, these techniques have some limitations including immobility, cost, and motion artifacts. One of the most emerging portable brain scanners available today is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
April 15, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410558/ultrasensitive-vertical-piezotronic-transistor-based-on-zno-twin-nanoplatelet
#19
Longfei Wang, Shuhai Liu, Xiaolong Feng, Qi Xu, Suo Bai, Laipan Zhu, Libo Chen, Yong Qin, Zhong Lin Wang
High sensitivity of pressure/strain sensors is the key to accurately evaluating external mechanical stimuli and could become more important in future generations of human-machine interfaces and artificial skin. Here we report the study of a two-terminal piezotronic transistor based on ZnO twin nanoplatelets (TNPT). Owing to the mirror symmetrical structure of ZnO twin nanplatelet, compressive pressure-induced positive piezoelectric polarization charges created at both metal-semiconductor interfaces can simultaneously lower both Schottky barrier heights and thus significantly modulate the carrier transport...
April 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389030/harnessing-prefrontal-cognitive-signals-for-brain-machine-interfaces
#20
REVIEW
Byoung-Kyong Min, Ricardo Chavarriaga, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) enable humans to interact with devices by modulating their brain signals. Despite impressive technological advancements, several obstacles remain. The most commonly used BMI control signals are derived from the brain areas involved in primary sensory- or motor-related processing. However, these signals only reflect a limited range of human intentions. Therefore, additional sources of brain activity for controlling BMIs need to be explored. In particular, higher-order cognitive brain signals, specifically those encoding goal-directed intentions, are natural candidates for enlarging the repertoire of BMI control signals and making them more efficient and intuitive...
April 4, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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