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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070607/-human-factors-in-medicine
#1
M Lazarovici, H Trentzsch, S Prückner
The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated...
January 9, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067801/easy-handling-of-sensors-and-actuators-over-tcp-ip-networks-by-open-source-hardware-software
#2
Andrés Mejías, Reyes S Herrera, Marco A Márquez, Antonio José Calderón, Isaías González, José Manuel Andújar
There are several specific solutions for accessing sensors and actuators present in any process or system through a TCP/IP network, either local or a wide area type like the Internet. The usage of sensors and actuators of different nature and diverse interfaces (SPI, I2C, analogue, etc.) makes access to them from a network in a homogeneous and secure way more complex. A framework, including both software and hardware resources, is necessary to simplify and unify networked access to these devices. In this paper, a set of open-source software tools, specifically designed to cover the different issues concerning the access to sensors and actuators, and two proposed low-cost hardware architectures to operate with the abovementioned software tools are presented...
January 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065790/comparison-of-cellular-and-transcriptomic-effects-between-electronic-cigarette-vapor-and-cigarette-smoke-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#3
Sébastien Anthérieu, Anne Garat, Nicolas Beauval, Mélissa Soyez, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice
The use of electronic cigarette (e-cig) can be considered as an alternative to smoking. However, due to a lack of thorough toxicological studies, absolute safety of these products cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this in vitro work was to investigate the potential toxicity of e-vapors generated by a smoking machine in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells cultured at air-liquid interface, in comparison to cigarette smoke (CS). Although CS decreased strongly cell viability from 48min exposure, e-vapors induced no cytotoxicity up to 288min exposure...
January 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058456/-human-factors-in-medicine
#4
M Lazarovici, H Trentzsch, S Prückner
The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated...
January 5, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046233/su-f-t-535-an-android-app-and-windows-executable-with-gui-for-the-monitor-unit-calculation-in-kv-x-ray-therapy
#5
J Pearse, J Chow
PURPOSE: We created two applications, one for use on Android and one for use on Windows, to carry out monitor unit (MU) calculations. These applications carried out these long calculations quickly, while avoiding the potential for human error. METHODS: A general formula for calculating MU for an orthovoltage x-ray machine was used and implemented in two programs created for Android and Windows. The formula relies on the prescribed dose and fractionation. Other values the formula relies upon are relative exposure factor (REF) and backscatter factor (BSF)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026984/examining-changes-to-center-of-pressure-during-the-first-trials-of-wii-gameplay
#6
Rebecca Reed-Jones, Laura Carvalho, Chelsey Sanderson, William Montelpare, Nicholas Murray, Douglas Powell
OBJECTIVE: Use of the Nintendo Wii™ as a balance assessment and rehabilitation tool continues to grow. One advantage of the Wii is that games can serve as a virtual reality training tool; however, a disadvantage of the Wii is the human-machine interface and the learning effect over multiple trials. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in postural control during Wii gameplay over a series of trials in novice players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one university athletes (aged 18-25 years) completed four trials of the Nintendo Wii Fit™ soccer heading (SH) balance game...
December 27, 2016: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024389/tribotronic-transistor-array-as-an-active-tactile-sensing-system
#7
Zhi Wei Yang, Yaokun Pang, Limin Zhang, Cunxin Lu, Jian Chen, Tao Zhou, Chi Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Large-scale tactile sensor arrays are of great importance in flexible electronics, human-robot interaction, and medical monitoring. In this paper, a flexible 10 × 10 tribotronic transistor array (TTA) is developed as an active tactile sensing system by incorporating field-effect transistor units and triboelectric nanogenerators into a polyimide substrate. The drain-source current of each tribotronic transistor can be individually modulated by the corresponding external contact, which has induced a local electrostatic potential to act as the conventional gate voltage...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018838/a-motion-sensing-based-framework-for-robotic-manipulation
#8
Hao Deng, Zeyang Xia, Shaokui Weng, Yangzhou Gan, Peng Fang, Jing Xiong
To data, outside of the controlled environments, robots normally perform manipulation tasks operating with human. This pattern requires the robot operators with high technical skills training for varied teach-pendant operating system. Motion sensing technology, which enables human-machine interaction in a novel and natural interface using gestures, has crucially inspired us to adopt this user-friendly and straightforward operation mode on robotic manipulation. Thus, in this paper, we presented a motion sensing-based framework for robotic manipulation, which recognizes gesture commands captured from motion sensing input device and drives the action of robots...
2016: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004819/long-term-stable-organic-photodetectors-with-ultra-low-dark-currents-for-high-detectivity-applications
#9
Marcin Kielar, Olivier Dhez, Gilles Pecastaings, Arnaud Curutchet, Lionel Hirsch
Printed organic photodetectors can transform plastic, paper or glass into smart surfaces. This innovative technology is now growing exponentially due to the strong demand in human-machine interfaces. To date, only niche markets are targeted since organic sensors still present reduced performances in comparison with their inorganic counterparts. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to engineer a state-of-the-art organic photodetector approaching the performances of Si-based photodiodes in terms of dark current, responsivity and detectivity...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001482/thermodynamic-effects-of-three-different-diode-lasers-on-an-implant-bone-interface-an-ex-vivo-study-with-review-of-the-literature
#10
Nicola Alberto Valente, Antonio Calascibetta, Giuseppe Pio Patianna, Thomas Mang, Michael Hatton, Sebastiano Andreana
The aim of this study is to assess the increase of temperature, following laser irradiation with 810nm and 980nm and 1064nm diode laser's wavelengths, of an implant, under conditions that more closely replicate those of the human body. A 4x14mm machined surface implant was placed in a porcine rib to replicate the conductivity of heat given by the bone. A peri-implant vertical defect 2mm wide and 2mm deep, to simulate bone resorption. Two thermocouples were positioned, crestally and apically, on the implant surface...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000607/polychromatic-ssvep-stimuli-with-subtle-flickering-adapted-to-brain-display-interactions
#11
Yu-Yi Chien, Fang-Cheng Lin, John Zao, Ching-Chi Chou, Yi-Pai Huang, Heng-Yuan Kuo, Yijun Wang, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Han-Ping D Shieh
OBJECTIVE: Interactive displays armed with natural user interfaces (NUIs) will likely lead the next breakthrough in consumer electronics, and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often regarded as the ultimate NUI-enabling machines to respond to human emotions and mental states. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are a commonly used BCI modality due to the ease of detection and high information transfer rates. However, the presence of flickering stimuli may cause user discomfort and can even induce migraines and seizures...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992344/brain-machine-interface-control-algorithms
#12
Maryam M Shanechi
Motor brain-machine interfaces (BMI) allow subjects to control external devices by modulating their neural activity. BMIs record the neural activity, use a mathematical algorithm to estimate the subject's intended movement, actuate an external device, and provide visual feedback of the generated movement to the subject. A critical component of a BMI system is the control algorithm, termed decoder. Significant progress has been made in the design of BMI decoders in recent years resulting in proficient control in non-human primates and humans...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958268/making-brain-machine-interfaces-robust-to-future-neural-variability
#13
David Sussillo, Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
A major hurdle to clinical translation of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) is that current decoders, which are trained from a small quantity of recent data, become ineffective when neural recording conditions subsequently change. We tested whether a decoder could be made more robust to future neural variability by training it to handle a variety of recording conditions sampled from months of previously collected data as well as synthetic training data perturbations. We developed a new multiplicative recurrent neural network BMI decoder that successfully learned a large variety of neural-to-kinematic mappings and became more robust with larger training data sets...
December 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941636/a-portable-array-type-optical-fiber-sensing-instrument-for-real-time-gas-detection
#14
San-Shan Hung, Hsing-Cheng Chang, I-Nan Chang
A novel optical fiber array-type of sensing instrument with temperature compensation for real-time detection was developed to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia simultaneously. The proposed instrument is multi-sensing array integrated with real-time measurement module for portable applications. The sensing optical fibers were etched and polished before coating to increase sensitivities. The ammonia and temperature sensors were each composed of a dye-coated single-mode fiber with constructing a fiber Bragg grating and a long-period filter grating for detecting light intensity...
December 8, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929324/hither-and-thither-how-do-we-innovate
#15
Robert G Frank
The Dembo-Wright Lecture provided a forum to discuss how innovation occurs in general and in rehabilitation psychology. The 21st Century will rely upon the creation and enhancement of knowledge. Universities, industries and professional disciplines are challenged to develop models that nurture their development of knowledge jobs that create new systems or products. A new model of nurturing innovation: The Rainforest, relies upon creating ecosystems that bring together and support the critical groups allowing instances that propel spontaneous growth of sustainable enterprises...
December 8, 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918416/a-touch-sensing-technique-using-the-effects-of-extremely-low-frequency-fields-on-the-human-body
#16
Hatem Elfekey, Hany Ayad Bastawrous, Shogo Okamoto
Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918413/a-brain-machine-interface-based-on-erd-ers-for-an-upper-limb-exoskeleton-control
#17
Zhichuan Tang, Shouqian Sun, Sanyuan Zhang, Yumiao Chen, Chao Li, Shi Chen
To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI)...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917105/eeg-negativity-in-fixations-used-for-gaze-based-control-toward-converting-intentions-into-actions-with-an-eye-brain-computer-interface
#18
Sergei L Shishkin, Yuri O Nuzhdin, Evgeny P Svirin, Alexander G Trofimov, Anastasia A Fedorova, Bogdan L Kozyrskiy, Boris M Velichkovsky
We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs) were collected during game's control-on and control-off conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910541/research-on-the-best-measurement-situation-between-optical-probe-and-tissue-surfaces-in-non-invasive-detection
#19
Xuyao Yu, Rong Liu, Hui Yu, Jiao Wang, Jun Wang, Kexin Xu
Near-infrared spectroscopy is often used for the non-invasive detection of composition in the human body, such as that of blood glucose and haemoglobin, due to its high penetration depth into tissues. Although it is feasible to position the optical probe precisely, contact situation between probe and human tissues is a difficult problem to determine because of physiological tremor and mechanical performance of bio-soft tissue. Here, we proposed a novel estimation method for the situation between the optical probe and tissue surfaces based on the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and radar chart...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900947/continuous-decoding-of-human-grasp-kinematics-using-epidural-and-subdural-signals
#20
Robert D Flint, Joshua M Rosenow, Matthew C Tate, Marc W Slutzky
OBJECTIVE: Restoring or replacing function in paralyzed individuals will one day be achieved through the use of brain-machine interfaces. Regaining hand function is a major goal for paralyzed patients. Two competing prerequisites for the widespread adoption of any hand neuroprosthesis are accurate control over the fine details of movement, and minimized invasiveness. Here, we explore the interplay between these two goals by comparing our ability to decode hand movements with subdural and epidural field potentials (EFPs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
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