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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345632/brain-machine-interfaces-for-controlling-lower-limb-powered-robotic-systems
#1
Yongtian He, David Eguren, José M Azorín, Robert Grossman, Trieu Phat Luu, Jose Luis Pepe Contreras-Vidal
Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339793/skin-inspired-highly-stretchable-and-conformable-matrix-networks-for-multifunctional-sensing
#2
Qilin Hua, Junlu Sun, Haitao Liu, Rongrong Bao, Ruomeng Yu, Junyi Zhai, Caofeng Pan, Zhong Lin Wang
Mechanosensation electronics (or Electronic skin, e-skin) consists of mechanically flexible and stretchable sensor networks that can detect and quantify various stimuli to mimic the human somatosensory system, with the sensations of touch, heat/cold, and pain in skin through various sensory receptors and neural pathways. Here we present a skin-inspired highly stretchable and conformable matrix network (SCMN) that successfully expands the e-skin sensing functionality including but not limited to temperature, in-plane strain, humidity, light, magnetic field, pressure, and proximity...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#3
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328625/double-channel-piezotronic-transistors-for-highly-sensitive-pressure-sensing
#4
Shuhai Liu, Longfei Wang, Zheng Wang, Yafeng Cai, Xiaolong Feng, Yong Qin, Zhong Lin Wang
Piezotronic transistor (PT) that utilize inner crystal potential generated by interface piezoelectric polarization charges as the gate voltage has great potential applications in force/pressure triggered or controlled electronics device, sensors, human-machine communication and microelectromechanical systems. Although the performance of PTs has been partly enhanced by exploring special materials with different geometry or high piezoelectricity, few studies have been focused on the structure design of PT itself to more effectively enhance the performance and structural reliability...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326512/evaluating-the-effect-of-different-conditioning-agents-on-the-shear-bond-strength-of-resin-modified-glass-ionomers
#5
Namith Rai, Rajaram Naik, Ravi Gupta, Shobana Shetty, Amith Singh
Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the effects three different conditioning agents on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomers to human dentin. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty recently extracted, caries-free premolars and molars will be cleaned of debris and disinfected in a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite and sterile water for 30 min. The occlusal surface of each tooth will be reduced using conventional model trimmer with water to produce the dentin surface...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324440/micro-patterned-graphene-based-sensing-skins-for-human-physiological-monitoring
#6
Long Wang, Kenneth J Loh, Wei-Hung Chiang, Kausik Manna
Ultrathin, flexible, conformal, and skin-like electronic transducers are emerging as promising candidates for noninvasive and nonintrusive human health monitoring. In this work, a wearable sensing membrane is developed by patterning a graphene-based solution onto ultrathin medical tapes, which can then be attached to the skin for monitoring human physiological parameters and physical activity. Here, the sensor is validated for monitoring finger bending/movements and for recognizing hand motion patterns, thereby demonstrating its future potential for evaluating athletic performance, physical therapy, and designing next-generation human-machine interfaces...
January 11, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322316/intentional-binding-of-visual-effects
#7
Miriam Ruess, Roland Thomaschke, Andrea Kiesel
When an action produces an effect, the effect is perceived earlier in time compared to a stimulus without preceding action. This temporal bias is called intentional binding (IB) and serves as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by presenting a rotating clock hand while participants execute an action and perceive a resulting tone. Participants are asked to estimate the time point of tone onset by referring to the clock hand position. This time point estimate is compared to a time point estimate of a tone in a condition in which the tone occurs without preceding action...
January 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318679/magnetic-induced-piezopotential-gated-mos2-field-effect-transistor-at-room-temperature
#8
Yudong Liu, Junmeng Guo, Aifang Yu, Yang Zhang, Jinzong Kou, Ke Zhang, Rongmei Wen, Yan Zhang, Junyi Zhai, Zhong Lin Wang
Utilizing magnetic field directly modulating/turning the charge carrier transport behavior of field-effect transistor (FET) at ambient conditions is an enormous challenge in the field of micro-nanoelectronics. Here, a new type of magnetic-induced-piezopotential gated field-effect-transistor (MIPG-FET) base on laminate composites is proposed, which consists of Terfenol-D, a ferroelectric single crystal (PMNPT), and MoS2 flake. When applying an external magnetic field to the MIPG-FET, the piezopotential of PMNPT triggered by magnetostriction of the Terfenol-D can serve as the gate voltage to effectively modulate/control the carrier transport process and the corresponding drain current at room temperature...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300085/energetically-autonomous-wearable-and-multifunctional-sensor
#9
Hsing-Hua Hsieh, Fang-Chi Hsu, Yang-Fang Chen
Self-powered tactile sensing is the upcoming technological orientation for developing compact, robust, and energy-saving devices in human-machine interfacing and electronic skin. Here, we report an intriguing type of sensing device composed of a Pt crack-based sensor in series with a polymer solar cell as a building block for energetically autonomous, wearable, and tactile sensor. This coplanar device enables human activity and physiological monitoring under indoor light illumination (2 mW/cm2) with acceptable and readible output signals...
January 4, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298691/volition-adaptive-control-for-gait-training-using-wearable-exoskeleton-preliminary-tests-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-individuals
#10
Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Joan Aranda, Luis Montesano, Antonio J Del-Ama, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). METHODS: A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277720/extracting-information-from-the-shape-and-spatial-distribution-of-evoked-potentials
#11
Vítor Lopes-Dos-Santos, Hernan G Rey, Joaquin Navajas, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga
BACKGROUND: Over 90 years after its first recording, scalp electroencephalography (EEG) remains one of the most widely used techniques in human neuroscience research, in particular for the study of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, because of its low signal-to-noise ratio, extracting useful information from these signals continues to be a hard-technical challenge. Many studies focus on simple properties of the ERPs such as peaks, latencies, and slopes of signal deflections. NEW METHOD: To overcome these limitations, we developed the Wavelet-Information method which uses wavelet decomposition, information theory, and a quantification based on single-trial decoding performance to extract information from evoked responses...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251566/soft-dielectric-elastomer-oscillators-driving-bioinspired-robots
#12
E-F Markus Henke, Samuel Schlatter, Iain A Anderson
Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts...
December 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241330/ultrasensitive-and-highly-stable-resistive-pressure-sensors-with-biomaterial-incorporated-interfacial-layers-for-wearable-health-monitoring-and-human-machine-interfaces
#13
Hochan Chang, Sungwoong Kim, Sumin Jin, Seung-Woo Lee, Gil-Tae Yang, Ki-Young Lee, Hyunjung Yi
Flexible piezoresistive sensors have huge potential for health-monitoring, human-machine interfaces, prosthetic limbs and intelligent robotics. A variety of nanomaterials and structural schemes have been proposed for realizing ultrasensitive flexible piezoresistive sensors. However, despite success of recent efforts, the high sensitivity within narrower pressure ranges and/or the challenging adhesion and stability issues still potentially limit their broad applications. Herein, we introduce a biomaterial-based scheme for the development of flexible pressure sensors that are ultrasensitive (resistance change by five orders) over broad pressure ranges of 0...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218324/intellicount-high-throughput-quantification-of-fluorescent-synaptic-protein-puncta-by-machine-learning
#14
J A Fantuzzo, V R Mirabella, A H Hamod, R P Hart, J D Zahn, Z P Pang
Synapse formation analyses can be performed by imaging and quantifying fluorescent signals of synaptic markers. Traditionally, these analyses are done using simple or multiple thresholding and segmentation approaches or by labor-intensive manual analysis by a human observer. Here, we describe Intellicount, a high-throughput, fully-automated synapse quantification program which applies a novel machine learning (ML)-based image processing algorithm to systematically improve region of interest (ROI) identification over simple thresholding techniques...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215082/the-myokinetic-control-interface-tracking-implanted-magnets-as-a-means-for-prosthetic-control
#15
S Tarantino, F Clemente, D Barone, M Controzzi, C Cipriani
Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203013/examining-drivers-eye-glance-patterns-during-distracted-driving-insights-from-scanning-randomness-and-glance-transition-matrix
#16
Yuan Wang, Shan Bao, Wenjun Du, Zhirui Ye, James R Sayer
INTRODUCTION: Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. METHOD: Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202577/all-graphene-based-highly-flexible-non-contact-electronic-skin
#17
Jianing An, Truong-Son Dinh Le, Yi Huang, Zhaoyao Zhan, Yong Li, Lianxi Zheng, Wei Huang, Gengzhi Sun, Young-Jin Kim
Non-contact electronic skin (e-skin), which possesses superior long-range and high-spatial-resolution sensory properties, is becoming indispensable in fulfilling the emulation of human sensation via prosthetics. Here we present an advanced design and fabrication of all-graphene-based highly flexible non-contact e-skins by virtue of femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). The photo-reduced graphene oxide patterns function as the conductive electrodes, while the pristine graphene oxide thin film serves as the sensing layer...
December 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147992/monitoring-the-osseointegration-process-in-porous-ti6al4v-implants-produced-by-additive-manufacturing-an-experimental-study-in-sheep
#18
Mehmet C Kayacan, Yakup B Baykal, Tamer Karaaslan, Koray Özsoy, İlker Alaca, Burhan Duman, Yunus E Delikanlı
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the design and osseointegration process of transitive porous implants that can be used in humans and all trabecular and compact bone structure animals. The aim was to find a way of forming a strong and durable tissue bond on the bone-implant interface. METHODS: Massive and transitive porous implants were produced on a direct metal laser sintering machine, surgically implanted into the skulls of sheep and kept in place for 12 weeks...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140779/experiencing-the-sights-smells-sounds-and-climate-of-southern-italy-in-vr
#19
Vito M Manghisi, Michele Fiorentino, Michele Gattullo, Antonio Boccaccio, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Giuseppe L Cascella, Michele Dassisti, Antonio E Uva
This article explores what it takes to make interactive computer graphics and VR attractive as a promotional vehicle, from the points of view of tourism agencies and the tourists themselves. The authors exploited current VR and human-machine interface (HMI) technologies to develop an interactive, innovative, and attractive user experience called the Multisensory Apulia Touristic Experience (MATE). The MATE system implements a natural gesture-based interface and multisensory stimuli, including visuals, audio, smells, and climate effects...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137456/highly-stretchable-conductors-based-on-expanded-graphite-macro-confined-in-tubular-rubber
#20
Wei Luo, Tongfei Wu, Biqiong Chen, Mei Liang, Huawei Zou
Highly stretchable and durable conductors are significant to the development of wearable devices, robots, human-machine interfaces and other artificial intelligence products. Although many respectable methods have been reported, it is still a challenge to fabricate stretchable conductors with a large elastic limit, high conductivity and excellent reliability in rapid, effective and economic ways. Herein, a facile method is offered to fabricate high-performance stretchable tubular conductors (TCs) based on a macro-confined structure of expanded graphite (EG) in rubber tubing by simply physical packing...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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