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Human machine interface

Ran Cao, Xianjie Pu, Xinyu Du, Wei Yang, Jiaona Wang, Hengyu Guo, Shuyu Zhao, Zuqing Yuan, Chi Zhang, Congju Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Electronic textile (E-textile) with designable electric circuit and multi-functionalities holds great application prospect for future wearable electronics. However, most of the E-textiles still have critical challenges, including air permeability, satisfactory washability and massive fabrication. In this work, we fabricate a washable E-textile that addresses all of the concerns and show its application as a self-powered triboelectric gesture textile for intelligent human-machine interface. Utilizing conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and screen-printing technology, this kind of E-textile embraces high conductivity (0...
May 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Amit Kumar Halder, Ana S Moura, M Natalia D S Cordeiro
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are becoming one of the most interesting fields for developing therapeutics and therapeutics related patents. At present, QSAR methodologies comprise a series of possibilities, including joining forces with machine learning methods and increasing even more the swiftness they might bring to the prospective development of therapeutics in the Health Sciences scope. Areas covered: After evaluating the period from 2010 to the end of 2018, the areas covered by the reviewed QSAR based therapeutics patents comprise three main fields (drug development, risk assessment and novel QSAR methodologies), and several areas, from cancer and cancer related symptomatology to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or even monitoring several chemical particles carrier-mediums or interface frontiers...
May 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Jordan T White, Jing Li, Emily Grasso, James O Wrabl, Vincent J Hilser
Allostery is an important regulatory phenomenon enabling precise control of biological function. Initial understanding of allostery was gained from seminal work on conformational changes exhibited by structured proteins. Within the last decade, protein allostery has also been demonstrated to occur within intrinsically disordered proteins. This emerging concept of disorder-mediated allostery can be usefully understood in the context of a thermodynamic ensemble. The advantage of this ensemble allosteric model is that it unifies the explanations of allostery occurring within both structured and disordered proteins...
June 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Younghoon Lee, Seung Hee Cha, Yong-Woo Kim, Dukhyun Choi, Jeong-Yun Sun
Human-machine interfaces have benefited from the advent of wireless sensor networks and the internet of things, but rely on wearable/attachable electronics exhibiting stretchability, biocompatibility, and transmittance. Limited by weight and volume, wearable devices should be energy efficient and even self-powered. Here, we report practical approaches for obtaining a stably self-cleanable, transparent and attachable ionic communicator based on triboelectric nanogenerators. The communicator can be easily applied on human skin due to softness and chemically anchored robust layers...
May 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Hailong Yu, Xueli Fan, Lebin Zhao, Xiaoyang Guo
Hand gesture recognition is getting more and more important in the area of rehabilitation and human machine interface (HMI). However, most current approaches are difficult to achieve practical application because of an excess of sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to recognize six common hand gestures and establish the optimal relationship between hand gesture and muscle by utilizing only two channels of surface electromyography (sEMG). We proposed an integrated approach to process the sEMG data including filtering, endpoint detection, feature extraction, and classifier...
April 14, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Longfei Wang, Shuhai Liu, Guoyun Gao, Yaokun Pang, Xin Yin, Xiaolong Feng, Laipan Zhu, Yu Bai, Libo Chen, Tianxiao Xiao, Xudong Wang, Yong Qin, Zhong Lin Wang
Silicon transistors rapidly approaching their scaling limit due to the short-channel effects, alternative technologies are being urgently needed for the next-generation electronics. Here, we demonstrate ultrathin ZnO piezotronic transistors with a ~2-nm physical channel length using the inner crystal self-generated out-of-plane piezopotential as the gate voltage to control the carriers transport. This design removes the need for external gate electrodes that are challenging at nanometer scale. These ultrathin devices exhibit a strong piezotronic effect and excellent pressure-switching characteristics...
April 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Sihong Wang, Jin Young Oh, Jie Xu, Helen Tran, Zhenan Bao
Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants...
April 25, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sisse H Laursen, Amanda A Buus, Lisbet Brandi, Peter Vestergaard, Ole K Hejlesen
Hyperphosphatemia is known as one of the more challenging conditions in end-stage renal disease patients. This study set out to present and evaluate a healthcare-oriented decision support tool in the management of hyperphosphatemia within hemodialysis therapy. A prototype module was designed to fit into the interface of a modern dialysis machine (Fresenius 5008). The prototype included three main functions: 1) immediate bedside blood sample access, 2) a model based prognosis tool with estimates of P-phosphate and 3) an overview of the user's phosphate related activities during dialysis treatments...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Tian-Jian Luo, Jitu Lv, Fei Chao, Changle Zhou
Action observation (AO) generates event-related desynchronization (ERD) suppressions in the human brain by activating partial regions of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). The activation of the hMNS response to AO remains controversial for several reasons. Therefore, this study investigated the activation of the hMNS response to a speed factor of AO by controlling the movement speed modes of a humanoid robot's arm movements. Since hMNS activation is reflected by ERD suppressions, electroencephalography (EEG) with BCI analysis methods for ERD suppressions were used as the recording and analysis modalities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tim Shay, Orlin D Velev, Michael D Dickey
Soft and stretchable materials play an important role in the emerging fields of soft robotics, human-machine interfaces, and stretchable electronics. Hydrogels are compelling materials because they are soft, chemically tunable, biocompatible, and ionically conductive. Hydrogels have been used as components of skin mountable sensors, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes, and show promise in emerging devices as stretchable, transparent electrodes. Ultimately, these types of devices interface the hydrogel with rigid metallic electrodes to connect with electronic circuitry...
April 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Bing Chen, Chun-Hao Zhong, Xuan Zhao, Hao Ma, Xiao Guan, Xi Li, Feng-Yan Liang, Jack Chun Yiu Cheng, Ling Qin, Sheung-Wai Law, Wei-Hsin Liao
Background/Objective: The number of patients paralysed due to stroke, spinal cord injury, or other related diseases is increasing. In order to improve the physical and mental health of these patients, robotic devices that can help them to regain the mobility to stand and walk are highly desirable. The aim of this study is to develop a wearable exoskeleton suit to help paralysed patients regain the ability to stand up/sit down (STS) and walk. Methods: A lower extremity exoskeleton named CUHK-EXO was developed with considerations of ergonomics, user-friendly interface, safety, and comfort...
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Nicholas J Barrows, Rafael K Campos, Kuo-Chieh Liao, K Reddisiva Prasanth, Ruben Soto-Acosta, Shih-Chia Yeh, Geraldine Schott-Lerner, Julien Pompon, October M Sessions, Shelton S Bradrick, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are critically important human pathogens that sicken a staggeringly high number of humans every year. Most of these pathogens are transmitted by mosquitos, and not surprisingly, as the earth warms and human populations grow and move, their geographic reach is increasing. Flaviviruses are simple RNA-protein machines that carry out protein synthesis, genome replication, and virion packaging in close association with cellular lipid membranes...
April 13, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Sergey Lobov, Nadia Krilova, Innokentiy Kastalskiy, Victor Kazantsev, Valeri A Makarov
Recent advances in recording and real-time analysis of surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) have fostered the use of sEMG human-machine interfaces for controlling personal computers, prostheses of upper limbs, and exoskeletons among others. Despite a relatively high mean performance, sEMG-interfaces still exhibit strong variance in the fidelity of gesture recognition among different users. Here, we systematically study the latent factors determining the performance of sEMG-interfaces in synthetic tests and in an arcade game...
April 6, 2018: Sensors
Wuxiao Han, Linlin Zhang, Haoxuan He, Hongmin Liu, Lili Xing, Xinyu Xue
The development of multifunctional electronic-skin that establishes human-machine interfaces, enhances perception abilities or has other distinct biomedical applications is the key to the realization of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a new self-powered (battery-free) flexible vision electronic-skin has been realized from pixel-patterned matrix of piezo-photodetecting PVDF/Ppy film. The electronic-skin under applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric voltage, and the outputting signal can be significantly influenced by UV illumination...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Song Luan, Ian Williams, Michal Maslik, Yan Liu, Felipe De Carvalho, Andrew Jackson, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Timothy Constandinou
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal observation of single unit neural activity from large numbers of cortical neurons in awake and mobile animals is often a vital step in studying neural network behaviour and towards the prospect of building effective Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs). These recordings generate enormous amounts of data for transmission & storage, and typically require offline processing to tease out the behaviour of individual neurons. Our aim was to create a compact system capable of: 1) reducing the data bandwidth by circa 2 to 3 orders of magnitude (greatly improving battery lifetime and enabling low power wireless transmission in future versions); 2) producing real-time, low-latency, spike sorted data; and 3) long term untethered operation...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Mahdi Rasouli, Yi Chen, Arindam Basu, Sunil L Kukreja, Nitish V Thakor
Despite significant advances in computational algorithms and development of tactile sensors, artificial tactile sensing is strikingly less efficient and capable than the human tactile perception. Inspired by efficiency of biological systems, we aim to develop a neuromorphic system for tactile pattern recognition. We particularly target texture recognition as it is one of the most necessary and challenging tasks for artificial sensory systems. Our system consists of a piezoresistive fabric material as the sensor to emulate skin, an interface that produces spike patterns to mimic neural signals from mechanoreceptors, and an extreme learning machine (ELM) chip to analyze spiking activity...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
James E Keating, John T Minges, Scott H Randell, Gary L Glish
The rapid release of new tobacco products requires high-throughput quantitative methods to support tobacco research. Sample preparation for LC-MS and GC-MS is time consuming and limits throughput. Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry (PS-MS/MS) is proposed and validated as a simple and rapid method for quantification of nicotine and cotinine in complex matrices to support tobacco-related research. Air liquid interface (ALI) human tracheobronchial epithelial cell (HTBEC) cultures were exposed to tobacco smoke using a Vitrocell VC-10 smoking machine...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
Fran├žois Osiurak, Jordan Navarro, Emanuelle Reynaud
Over the evolution, humans have constantly developed and improved their technologies. This evolution began with the use of physical tools, those tools that increase our sensorimotor abilities (e.g., first stone tools, modern knives, hammers, pencils). Although we still use some of these tools, we also employ in daily life more sophisticated tools for which we do not systematically understand the underlying physical principles (e.g., computers, cars). Current research is also turned toward the development of brain-computer interfaces directly linking our brain activity to machines (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yang Gao, Xiaoliang Fang, Janping Tan, Ting Lu, Linkun Pan, Fu-Zhen Xuan
Wearable strain sensors based on nanomaterial/elastomer composites have potential applications in flexible electronic skin, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this research, a type of high performance strain sensors have been developed using fragmentized carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane (CNT/PDMS) composites. The CNT/PDMS composites were ground into fragments, and a liquid-induced densification method was used to fabricate the strain sensors. The strain sensors showed high sensitivity with gauge factors (GFs) larger than 200 and a broad strain detection range up to 80%, much higher than those strain sensors based on unfragmentized CNT/PDMS composites (GF <1)...
March 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
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