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Transcranial direct current stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160761/fronto-parietal-coherence-response-to-tdcs-modulation-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#1
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Yong Wang, Yongkun Guo, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
A transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol (2 min, 2 mA, anodal electrode at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathodal electrode at the right supraorbital area) was applied in patients with different degrees of disorders of consciousness (DoC). Although previous research indicates that it could improve patients' coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) scores, the brain's electrophysiological responses to tDCS are still unclear. Therefore, the present study was performed to explore the underlying brain responses of patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) and a Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) to tDCS modulation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160331/primum-non-nocere-or-primum-facere-meliorem-hacking-the-brain-in-the-21st-century
#2
Lucas Borrione, Andre R Brunoni
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates cortical excitability. It is devoid of serious adverse events and exerts variable effects on cognition, with several research findings suggesting that it can improve memory, verbal and mathematical skills. Because tDCS devices are low-cost, portable and relatively easy to assemble, they have become available outside of the medical setting and used for non-medical ("cosmetic") purposes by laypersons. In this sense, tDCS has become a popular technique aiming to improve cognition and the achievement of a better performance not only at work, but also in other fields such as sports, leisure activities (video games) and even the military...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157025/non-pharmacological-rehabilitation-interventions-for-concussion-in-children-a-scoping-review
#3
Danielle M Dobney, Matthew B Miller, Emily Tufts
PURPOSE: To summarise the extent, nature, and quality of current scholarly literature related to non-pharmacological, rehabilitation interventions following concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury in children. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted from 1987 to 24 October 2017. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) full text, peer reviewed, and written in English, (2) original research, (3) diagnosed concussion or mild traumatic brain injury, (4) described the evaluation of an intervention, (5) the outcome was a concussion impairment, and (6) the mean/median age was under 19...
November 20, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156988/high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-a-case-study
#4
Oded Meiron, Rena Gale, Julia Namestnic, Odeya Bennet-Back, Jonathan David, Nigel Gebodh, Devin Adair, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Marom Bikson
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy...
November 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155756/transcranial-electrical-brain-stimulation-in-alert-rodents
#5
Brita Fritsch, Anne-Kathrin Gellner, Janine Reis
Transcranial electrical brain stimulation can modulate cortical excitability and plasticity in humans and rodents. The most common form of stimulation in humans is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Less frequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) or transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a specific form of tACS using an electrical current applied randomly within a pre-defined frequency range, is used. The increase of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation research in humans, both for experimental and clinical purposes, has yielded an increased need for basic, mechanistic, safety studies in animals...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155494/modulating-attentional-biases-of-adults-with-autistic-traits-using-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#6
Michael C W English, Emma S Kitching, Murray T Maybery, Troy A W Visser
While neurotypical individuals over-attend to the left-side of centrally-presented visual stimuli, this bias is reduced in individuals with autism/high levels of autistic traits. Because this difference is hypothesized to reflect relative reductions in right-hemisphere activation, it follows that increasing right-hemisphere activation should increase leftward bias. We administered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right posterior parietal cortex to individuals with low levels (n = 19) and high levels (n = 19) of autistic traits whilst they completed a greyscales task...
November 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154939/hypothesis-for-cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-externally-and-internally-directed-cognition
#7
REVIEW
Pamela M Greenwood, Eric J Blumberg, Melissa R Scheldrup
A comprehensive explanation is lacking for the broad array of cognitive effects modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We advanced the testable hypothesis that tDCS to the default mode network (DMN) increases processing of goals and stored information at the expense of external events. We further hypothesized that tDCS to the dorsal attention network (DAN) increases processing of external events at the expense of goals and stored information. A literature search (PsychINFO) identified 42 empirical studies and 3 meta-analyses examining effects of prefrontal and/or parietal tDCS on tasks that selectively required external and/or internal processing...
November 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146468/tdcs-changes-in-motor-excitability-are-specific-to-orientation-of-current-flow
#8
Vishal Rawiji, Matteo Ciocca, André Zacharia, David Soares, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, John Rothwell, Sven Bestmann
BACKGROUND: Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS. METHODS: Here we test this idea by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS-MEP) to measure changes in corticospinal excitability following tDCS applied with electrodes aligned orthogonal (across) or parallel to M1 in the central sulcus...
November 7, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145166/revisiting-interhemispheric-imbalance-in-chronic-stroke-a-tdcs-study
#9
Alana B McCambridge, James W Stinear, Winston D Byblow
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stroke patients with moderate-severe motor impairment may have an increased reliance on contralesional vs ipsilesional motor areas to control the paretic arm. We hypothesised that increasing contralesional excitability with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would benefit motor performance in patients with moderate-severe impairment. METHODS: Ten patients with motor impairment at the chronic stage after stroke received a-tDCS, cathodal (c-tDCS) and sham with the target electrode over contralesional motor cortex (M1)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142099/assessing-tms-induced-d-and-i-waves-with-spinal-h-reflexes
#10
Niclas Niemann, Patrick Wiegel, Alexander Kurz, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex produces a series of descending volleys known as D- (direct) and I- (indirect) waves. In the present study, we questioned whether spinal H-reflexes can be used to dissect D-waves, early and late I-waves from TMS. We therefore probed H-reflex facilitation at arrival times of D- and I-waves at the spinal level and thereby changed TMS parameters that have previously been shown to have selective effects on evoked D- and different I-waves. We changed TMS intensity and current direction, and applied a double-pulse paradigm known as short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#11
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137988/tms-eeg-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-top-down-influences-of-posterior-intraparietal-cortex-on-behavior-and-visual-event-related-potentials
#12
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo
Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137960/ampa-receptor-translocation-and-phosphorylation-are-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-rats
#13
Justin Stafford, Milene L Brownlow, Anthony Qualley, Ryan Jankord
Over the last decade, the interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has continued to increase, along with consideration of how it affects neuroplasticity mechanisms in the brain. Both human and animal studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and, although its application has increased, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tDCS' beneficial effects remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) increases following tDCS. In this work, we utilized a rodent model of tDCS to directly assess changes in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, a critical protein for enhancing synaptic transmission...
November 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136550/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-adaptive-postural-control
#14
Peter Poortvliet, Billie Hsieh, Andrew Cresswell, Jacky Au, Marcus Meinzer
OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127879/role-of-the-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-in-auditory-selective-attention-an-rtms-study
#15
Corinne A Bareham, Stanimira D Georgieva, Marc R Kamke, David Lloyd, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Jason B Mattingley
Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone...
October 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127483/high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-for-tinnitus-modulation-a-preliminary-trial
#16
Giriraj Singh Shekhawat, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of its external source. Non-invasive neuromodulation techniques have been used in the past decade to investigate the impact of stimulation on tinnitus perception. The objective is to invest the impact of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Thirteen participants underwent two sessions of HD-tDCS (real and sham) in a double blind, sham controlled, randomized trial...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123493/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-affects-judgments-of-moral-violations
#17
Hong Yuan, Serik Tabarak, Wenxin Su, Yong Liu, Jing Yu, Xu Lei
Previous studies show that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are correlated with moral processing during picture viewing tasks. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to determine whether this non-invasive brain stimulation technique could modulate the evaluation of moral violations. Sixty-four subjects were randomly recruited, separated into different groups and tested with 42 pairs of pictures depicting moral violations. Each subject was required to rate the pictures two separate times, i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#18
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116303/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-and-computational-models-in-post-stroke-aphasic-patients-single-session-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Michele Devido Dos Santos, Vitor Breseghello Cavenaghi, Ana Paula Machado Goyano Mac-Kay, Vitor Serafim, Alexandre Venturi, Dennis Quangvinh Truong, Yu Huang, Paulo Sérgio Boggio, Felipe Fregni, Marcel Simis, Marom Bikson, Rubens José Gagliardi
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing the same neuromodulation protocol may present different responses. Computational models may help in understanding such differences. The aims of this study were, firstly, to compare the performance of aphasic patients in naming tasks before and after one session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sham, and analyze the results between these neuromodulation techniques; and secondly, through computational model on the cortex and surrounding tissues, to assess current flow distribution and responses among patients who received tDCS and presented different levels of results from naming tasks...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#20
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective or reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
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