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Zebin Wang, Yueqiang Wen, Jianbo Liang, Xinling Liang, Wei Shi
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was found to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events and general mortality in dialysis. Studies have indicated that dialysate calcium concentrations were significantly associated with cardiac function. However, the relationship between low calcium dialysate and LV diastolic function has not been clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of low calcium dialysate on cardiac function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. A total of 60 PD patients were enrolled in this study, with a calcium content of the PD solution of 1...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Sadudee Peerapornratana, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Pisut Katavetin
♦ Background: Current guidelines suggest that intraperitoneal (IP) antibiotics should be administered only in a long peritoneal dialysis (PD) dwell (≥ 6 hours). The long dwell might result in low ultrafiltration and volume overload. We aim to examine plasma and dialysate concentration of cefazolin and ceftazidime after IP administration in a short-dwell (≤ 2 hours) automated cyclingexchange. ♦ Methods: Stable PD patients without peritonitis were invited to participate in the present study. Patients underwent 5 2-liter exchanges of PD fluid over 10 hours by the PD cycling machine without last fill or additional dwell...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Talerngsak Kanjanabuch, Nuttha Lumlertgul, Lachlan J Pearson, Tanittha Chatsuwan, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Nisa Thongbor, Gunticha Nuntawong, Laksamon Praderm, Pantiwa Wechagama, Surapong Narenpitak, Apinya Wechpradit, Worauma Punya, Guttiga Halue, Phetpailin Naka, Somboon Jeenapongsa, Somchai Eiam-Ong
♦ Background: Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Although a wide range of clinical manifestations from this organism are known, peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) has rarely been reported. ♦ Patients and Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients from all regions in Thailand were eligible for the study if they had peritonitis and either peritoneal fluid or effluent culture positive for B.pseudomallei Patient data obtained included baseline characteristics, laboratory investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Martin J Bobak, Matthew W Weber, Melissa A Doellman, Douglas R Schuweiler, Jeana M Athens, Steven A Juliano, Paul A Garris
Modafinil (MOD) exhibits therapeutic efficacy for treating sleep and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism is incompletely understood. Compared to other psychostimulants inhibiting dopamine (DA) uptake, MOD weakly interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modestly elevates striatal dialysate DA, suggesting additional targets besides DAT. However, the ability of MOD to induce wakefulness is abolished with DAT knockout, conversely suggesting that DAT is necessary for MOD action. Another psychostimulant target, but one not established for MOD, is activation of phasic DA signaling...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Hyun Jung Gye, Toyohiko Nishizawa
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) belongs to genus Betanodavirus (family Nodaviridae). It is highly pathogenic to various marine fishes. In the present study, cultured NNV suspension was placed in dialysis tube at molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 10(6) and dialyzed against Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS), 15mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), or deionized water (DIW) for 14days followed by anion-exchange chromatography. Infectivity titers of NNV suspensions were stable during dialyses. However, the antigenicity of NNV suspension was decreased to 2...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Pablo Molina, José L Górriz, Sandra Beltrán, Belén Vizcaino, Luis M Pallardó
Although some experimental targets involved in calcium deposition are emerging, no intervention has been described to reliably reverse vascular calcification (VC). We report a case of severe VC regression in a parathyroidectomized patient on hemodialysis over 12-year follow-up, highlighting the use of calcium-free phosphate binders and a 2.5 mEq/L calcium dialysate for reducing calcium loading, despite persistent asymptomatic hypocalcemia occurrences. This case suggests that phosphate-binder choice and calcium dialysate concentration could be influenced by other components of CKD-MBD besides biochemical parameters, such as the presence of VC, so concluding that asymptomatic hypocalcemia may not be as harmful as once supposed, and conferring greater prognostic weight to the presence of VC than to calcium levels...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Juergen Prattes, Daniel Schneditz, Florian Prueller, Eva Jaindl, Notburga Sauseng, Martin Hoenigl, Gernot Schilcher, Robert Krause
BACKGROUND: The aim of this combined in-vitro and in-vivo study was to investigate whether state of the art dialysis modalities produce false positive serum 1,3-ß-d-Glucan (BDG) levels. METHODS: Dialysis fluid for simulated dialysis treatments was spiked with BDG from different sources. Samples were taken from the dialysate and dialyzer blood compartments at various time points. In addition, serum samples were obtained in three groups of patients without invasive fungal disease: a...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
William G McCormack, John P Cooke, William T O'Connor, Philip M Jakeman
Nutrient stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the change in extracellular essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. In vivo microdialysis (MD) is a minimally invasive sampling technique, capable of sampling solute in the interstitial space of a target tissue. In a contralateral limb design (REST vs. EX), this study utilised in vivo MD to examine the change in skeletal muscle dialysate amino acid concentration following ingestion of whey protein isolate (WPI) and flavoured water (CON)...
October 4, 2016: Amino Acids
T Baumann, J Kozik, A Lussi, T S Carvalho
During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW)...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Giuseppe Turchetti, S Bellelli, M Amato, S Bianchi, P Conti, A Cupisti, V Panichi, A Rosati, F Pizzarelli
This study aims to estimate the mean annual social cost per patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by stages 4 and 5 pre-dialyses and cost components in Italy. The multicenter cross-sectional study included all adult outpatients in charge of the 14 main Nephrology Centers of Tuscany Region during 7 weeks from 2012 to 2013. Direct medical costs have been estimated using tariffs for laboratory tests, diagnostic exams, visits, hospitalization and prices for drugs. Non-medical costs included expenses of low-protein special foods, travel, and formal and informal care...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Markus Pirklbauer, Ramona Schupart, Gert Mayer
INTRODUCTION: To avoid excessive calcium loading in hemodialysis (HD) patients, current guidelines suggest a dialysate calcium concentration (dCa) of 2.5 mEq/l based on relatively stable intradialytic serum calcium levels. However, the latter do not account for possible calcium storage in acutely accessible pools. A rapidly exchangeable calcium pool located at the bone level has been previously proposed to be involved in acute (minute-to-minute) extracellular calcium regulation. DESIGN: To evaluate the contribution of this pool in the maintenance of serum calcium levels, acute calcium buffer capacity was assessed by measuring intradialytic dialysate-sided ionized calcium mass balance (iCaMB ) and change in extracellular fluid calcium mass in chronic HD patients using a dCa of 3...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Foroogh Sabzghabaei, Seyed Alireza Heydariezade, Rashin S Joodat
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis (HD) has impact on the cardiovascular system by inducing changes in the characteristics of body fluids such as PH, temperature and electrolyte concentrations. In the previous studies, prolongation of the QT interval and increase of QT dispersion have been reported during HD sessions. These changes were more significant while using solutions with less potassium and higher bicarbonate during dialysis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different potassium and bicarbonate concentrations on electrocardiography (ECG) parameters and the electrochemical balance of cell membranes...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Narges Sadat Zahed, Omid Gharooi, Latif Gachkar, Hajar Nikbakht
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extra cellular volume expansion and Na retention remain the main cause of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between concentration of Na dialysate and blood pressure (BP) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patient. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 266 adult patients undergoing HD for at least three months...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Thomas M Langer, Suzanne E Neumueller, Emma Crumley, Nicholas J Burgraff, Sawan Talwar, Matthew Robert Hodges, Lawrence G Pan, Hubert V Forster
Unilateral dialysis of the broad spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (50 mM) into the ventral respiratory column (VRC; including the pre-Bӧtzinger Complex region) of awake goats increased pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) and breathing frequency (f), conceivably due to local compensatory increases in serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP) measured in effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF). In contrast, unilateral dialysis of a triple cocktail of antagonists to muscarinic (atropine; 5 mM), neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and 5-HT2A receptors does not alter V̇I or f, but increases local SP...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mengya Liang, Kangni Feng, Xiao Yang, Guangxian Chen, Zhixian Tang, Weibin Lin, Jian Rong, Zhongkai Wu
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the effects of different temperature settings of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) on intestinal barrier function in a piglet model. METHODS: Twenty Wuzhishan piglets were randomly assigned to 40 min of HCA at 18°C (DHCA group, n = 5), 40 min of HCA at 24°C (MHCA group, n = 5), normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB group, n = 5) or sham operation (SO group, n = 5). Serum D-lactate (SDL) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were determined...
2016: PloS One
Laure Peyro Saint Paul, Maxence Ficheux, Danièle Debruyne, Magalie Loilier, Nicolas Bouvier, Rémy Morello, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Renaud Verdon, François Fournel, Vincent Cattoir, Thierry Lobbedez
♦ Background: Antibiotics are preferentially delivered via the peritoneal route to treat peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP) to ensure that maximal concentrations are delivered to the site of infection. Our study focused on the pharmacokinetics of daptomycin (DAP) administered via the intraperitoneal (IP) route in patients with PDRP. ♦ Methods: According to the DaptoDP protocol (Clinical Trial No. 2012-005699-33), IP DAP was administered daily, i.e., during the 6-h Nutrineal (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) dwell time period, for 14 days, in addition to administration of the antibiotics used for the usual care of patients with PDRP...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Harsimran Kaur, Shammi Kapoor, Gaganjyot Kaur
Lindane, a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, has caused a widespread environmental contamination along with other pesticides due to wrong agricultural practices. The high efficiency, sustainability and eco-friendly nature of the bioremediation process provide an edge over traditional physico-chemical remediation for managing pesticide pollution. In the present study, lindane degradation was studied by using a white-rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum GL-2 strain, grown on rice bran substrate for ligninolytic enzyme induction at 30 °C and pH 5...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Roman Fiedler, Markus Storr, Torsten Boehler, Peter Martus, Michael Pawlak, Marcus A Glomb, Christian Henning, Markus Templin, Kristin Werner, Daniel Zickler, Kevin Willy, Ralf Schindler, Matthias Girndt
Introduction Patients with chronic kidney disease maintained on intermittent hemodialysis suffer from systemic chronic inflammation which is causally associated with high mortality. Inflammation mediators of 15-45 kDa range cannot be effectively removed by conventional dialysis membranes. In this study, we tested the influence of serum and dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off or High flux membranes on the inflammation profile of THP-1 monocytes. Methods THP-1 monocytes were treated with serum or dialysates obtained from patients maintained on High cut-off and High flux membranes within a randomized crossover pilot trial...
September 26, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Nasirul J Ekbal, Anne Consalus, Jahm Persaud, Andrew Davenport
Background The results of studies investigating the effects of hyponatraemic dialysates have been mixed, with some reporting positive effects including reduction in blood pressure and inter-dialytic weight gains, whereas others have not been able to demonstrate any effect. These studies assume that setting a lower dialysate sodium results in the delivery of a hyponatraemic dialysate. We therefore measured delivered sodium to determine reliability. Methods We measured dialysate sodium in 10 BBraun Dialog+(®) and 6 Fresenius 4008H dialysis machines, which had been set up to deliver a sodium of 136 mmol/L, using flame photometry and indirect ion selective electrode (ISE) methods...
October 2016: Hemodialysis International
André Gottås, Marianne Arnestad, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Liliana C Bachs, Gudrun Høiseth
Vitreous humor (VH) is an alternative matrix for drug analysis in forensic toxicology. However, little is known about the distribution of xenobiotics, such as opioids, into VH in living organisms. The aim of this study was to simultaneously measure heroin and metabolite concentrations in blood and VH after injection of heroin in a living pig model. Six pigs were under non-opioid anesthesia during the surgical operation and experiment. Ocular microdialysis was used to acquire dialysate from VH, and a venous catheter was used for blood sampling...
2016: Forensic Toxicology
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