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Antonio García-Hermoso, Andrea P Quintero, Enrique Hernández, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mikel Izquierdo, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Daniel Prieto-Benavides, Carolina Sandoval-Cuellar, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio Villa-González, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence concerning how active commuting (AC) is associated with health benefits in young. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between AC to and from campus (walking) and obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of Colombian university students. METHODS: A total of 784 university students (78.6% women, mean age = 20.1 ± 2.6 years old) participated in the study. The exposure variable was categorized into AC (active walker to campus) and non-AC (non/infrequent active walker to campus: car, motorcycle, or bus) to and from the university on a typical day...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Seonghee Cho, Kyungmin Kim, Taehoon Kim, Hyoeun Park, Jin-Moo Kim, SeungHoon Lee, YeonSu Kang, Kiyuk Chang, Chulhong Kim
Detection of cholesterol crystals (Chcs) in atherosclerosis disease is important for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Polarization microscopy (PM) has been in use traditionally for detecting Chcs, but they have difficulty in distinguishing Chcs with other crystalline materials in tissue, such as collagens. Thus, most studies using PM have been limited to studying cell-level samples. Although various methods have been proposed to detect Chcs with high specificity, most of them have low signal-to-noise ratios, a high system construction cost, and are difficult to operate due to a complex protocol...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Amir H Atabaki, Sajjad Moazeni, Fabio Pavanello, Hayk Gevorgyan, Jelena Notaros, Luca Alloatti, Mark T Wade, Chen Sun, Seth A Kruger, Huaiyu Meng, Kenaish Al Qubaisi, Imbert Wang, Bohan Zhang, Anatol Khilo, Christopher V Baiocco, Miloš A Popović, Vladimir M Stojanović, Rajeev J Ram
Electronic and photonic technologies have transformed our lives-from computing and mobile devices, to information technology and the internet. Our future demands in these fields require innovation in each technology separately, but also depend on our ability to harness their complementary physics through integrated solutions1,2 . This goal is hindered by the fact that most silicon nanotechnologies-which enable our processors, computer memory, communications chips and image sensors-rely on bulk silicon substrates, a cost-effective solution with an abundant supply chain, but with substantial limitations for the integration of photonic functions...
April 2018: Nature
Rachel Aldred, Anna Goodman, John Gulliver, James Woodcock
Cycling injury risk is an important topic, but few studies explore cycling risk in relation to exposure. This is largely because of a lack of exposure data, in other words how much cycling is done at different locations. This paper helps to fill this gap. It reports a case-control study of cycling injuries in London in 2013-2014, using modelled cyclist flow data alongside datasets covering some characteristics of the London route network. A multilevel binary logistic regression model is used to investigate factors associated with injury risk, comparing injury sites with control sites selected using the modelled flow data...
April 13, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yong Liu, Pan Wu, Jon Kee Ho, Haiping Hua, Haojiao Chen, Ying Cen, Songxue Guo, Chunmao Han, Xingang Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study analyses the epidemiological characteristics of bus fires in mainland China over the past 10 years to develop prevention strategies and emergency procedures for such incidence and the resulting casualties. METHODS: We collected reports on bus fires from the media and news websites and looked up on Medline, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for relevant publications in English or Chinese from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015...
April 12, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Xiaoxuan Zhu, Li Lei, Xingshen Wang, Yinghui Zhang
In this study, passenger comfort and the air pollution status of the micro-environmental conditions in an air-conditioned bus were investigated through questionnaires, field measurements, and a numerical simulation. As a subjective analysis, passengers' perceptions of indoor environmental quality and comfort levels were determined from questionnaires. As an objective analysis, a numerical simulation was conducted using a discrete phase model to determine the diffusion and distribution of pollutants, including particulate matter with a diameter < 10 μm (PM10 ), which were verified by experimental results...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Süheyla Sürücüoğlu
Tuberculosis has spread by human movements throughout history. There have been reports indicating tuberculosis transmission on all travel vehicles, including aircrafts, ground vehicles and vessels until today. However, due to the ever increasing of air transportation and air travelling among countries with low and high tuberculosis incidence, transmission risk especially in aircrafts has become an important issue worldwide. But in many of the studies conducted in this regard, transmission of tuberculosis in aircrafts was found very low...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Christina Strobl, Mayra Eduardoff, Magdalena M Bus, Marie Allen, Walther Parson
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amplification and Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) using an early access version of the Precision ID Whole MtDNA Genome Panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) were evaluated using 15 forensically relevant samples. Samples were selected to represent typical forensic specimens for mtDNA analysis including hairs, hair shafts, swabs and ancient solid tissue samples (bones and teeth) that were stored in the freezer for up to several years after having been typed with conventional Sanger-type Sequencing and Capillary Electrophoresis...
March 29, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Xiaolan Wang, Ruiyang Ma, Lin Hao, Qiuhua Wu, Chun Wang, Zhi Wang
A covalent organic framework named TpAzo was successfully fabricated by a simple and environmentally friendly mechanochemical grinding method based on the Schiff base aldehyde-amine condensation reaction between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 4,4'-azodianiline (Azo), with p-toluene sulphonic acid as a molecular organizer. The TpAzo was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and thermogravimetric analysis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Anthony A Laverty, Elizabeth Webb, Eszter P Vamos, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: We investigated predictors of two increases in older people's public transport use: initiating public transport use among non-users; and increasing public transport use amongst users. We also investigated associations of these changes with physical activity, Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. METHODS: Data come from the 2008 and 2012 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Logistic regression assessed predictors of increases in public transport use among adults aged ≥50 years...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Konstantin Sharafutdinov, Leonardo Rydin Gorjão, Moritz Matthiae, Timm Faulwasser, Dirk Witthaut
We investigate the interplay of rotor-angle and voltage stability in electric power systems. To this end, we carry out a local stability analysis of the third-order model which entails the classical power-swing equations and the voltage dynamics. We provide necessary and sufficient stability conditions and investigate different routes to instability. For the special case of a two-bus system, we analytically derive a global stability map.
March 2018: Chaos
Aprajita Salgotra, Somnath Pan
This paper explores a two-level control strategy by blending local controller with centralized controller for the low frequency oscillations in a power system. The proposed control scheme provides stabilization of local modes using a local controller and minimizes the effect of inter-connection of sub-systems performance through a centralized control. For designing the local controllers in the form of proportional-integral power system stabilizer (PI-PSS), a simple and straight forward frequency domain direct synthesis method is considered that works on use of a suitable reference model which is based on the desired requirements...
March 26, 2018: ISA Transactions
Leila Mohammadi Amirabad, Mehdi Jonoobi, Narges Sharif Mousavi, Kristiina Oksman, Alireza Kaboorani, Hossein Yousefi
Microorganisms can spread on the surface of banknotes and cause many infectious diseases. Chitosan nanofibers (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are nanomaterials, which can affect the antimicrobial properties. In this study, the fungal species that grew on the surfaces of collected banknotes from different places were identified. To examine the antifungal effect of the both nanomaterials on the banknotes, the stable coatings using CNFs and CNCs emulsions were prepared by roller coating. The results revealed that the most colonies in the banknotes obtained from the bakeries and butcheries were Aspergillus sp...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ashleigh Parnell, Melinda Edmunds, Hannah Pierce, Melissa J Stoneham
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Exposure to advertising for unhealthy food, alcohol and gambling has been shown to influence children and adolescents' behaviours and attitudes. This exploratory study aimed to assess the volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertisements near schools in five local government areas in Perth, Western Australia and to monitor whether the volume of unhealthy advertisements varied seasonally. METHODS: The 29 local governments in the Perth metropolitan region were contacted seeking information regarding the locations of bus shelters featuring advertisements in their local government area...
March 5, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Wenjia Liu, Antony Warden, Jiahui Sun, Guangxia Shen, Xianting Ding
Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) devices combined with microfluidic chips or lateral flow stripes have shown great potential in the field of point-of-need testing (PoNT) as they only require a small volume of patient sample and are capable of presenting results in a short time. However, the detection for multiple targets in this field leaves much to be desired. Herein, we introduce a novel PCR platform by integrating a bottom-well microfluidic chip with an infra-red (IR) excited temperature control method and fluorescence co-detection of three PCR products...
March 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Bálint Bús, Károly Antal, Zsuzsa Emri
Spindle oscillations are generated predominantly during sleep state II, through cyclical interactions between thalamocortical and reticular neurons. Inhibition from reticular cells is critical for this activity; it enables burst firing by the de-inactivation of T-type Ca2+ channels. While the effect of different channelopathies on spindling is extensively investigated, our knowledge about the role of intrathalamic connections is limited. Therefore, we explored how the connection pattern and the density of reticular inhibitory synapses affect spindle activity in a thalamic network model...
March 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, Brian E Saelens
BACKGROUND: Although the active transportation (AT) indicator received an F grade on the 2016 US Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, this AT assessment excluded public transportation. An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play Study was to assess youth AT, including public transportation, among Washington, DC area children in relation to parental perceptions of neighborhood built environment (BE) variables. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children aged 7-12 years...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Shaniece Criss, Rachel E Blaine, Megan Palamé, Meghan Perkins, Kirsten Davison, Jo-Ann Kwass, Elsie M Taveras
INTRODUCTION: This case study describes the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (MA-CORD) health marketing campaign, examines the strategies used in such campaigns, and offers lessons learned to improve health marketing for future interventions. MA-CORD Health Marketing Components and Implementation. The three main components were an outdoor printed advertisement and texting campaign, social media with a focus on Facebook, and the Summer Passport Program, an event-based initiative in parks for children...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Marco Simões, Miguel Bernardes, Fernando Barros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and repetitive patterns of behavior, which can lead to deficits in adaptive behavior. In this study, a serious game was developed to train individuals with ASD for an important type of outdoor activity, which is the use of buses as a means of transportation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a serious game that defines a "safe environment" where the players became familiar with the process of taking a bus and to validate if it could be used effectively to teach bus-taking routines and adaptive procedures to individuals with ASD...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Richard Price, Abbie J Marsh, Marisa H Fisher
Facilitating the use of public transportation enhances opportunities for independent living and competitive, community-based employment for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Four young adults with IDD were taught through total-task chaining to use the Google Maps application, a self-prompting, visual navigation system, to take the bus to locations around a college campus and the community. Three of four participants learned to use Google Maps to independently navigate public transportation...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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