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Robert M Silver
In this issue of BJOG, Roman-Galvez and colleagues show that some women decrease their amount of smoking or stop smoking entirely during pregnancy (Roman-Galvez BJOG; in press). However, few partners decrease smoking during pregnancy. In addition to exposing the pregnancy to passive smoking, continued smoking by their partner decreases the odds of the woman quitting. Accordingly, public health measures should target partners as well as patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 13, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Renée Dagenais, Arden R Barry, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To determine whether an analogy relating a city bus to the well-stirred model for high extraction drugs administered intravenously improves pharmacy students' self-perceived and objectively-assessed understanding. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Fifty-two entry-to-practice pharmacy students enrolled in an elective clinical pharmacokinetics course completed a questionnaire and quiz before and after the bus analogy presentation. Pre- and post test questionnaires consisted of five items measuring (on five-point unipolar scale) students' self-perceived understanding of the model...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Md Mainul Islam, Hussain Shareef, Azah Mohamed
The electric vehicle (EV) is considered a premium solution to global warming and various types of pollution. Nonetheless, a key concern is the recharging of EV batteries. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach that considers the costs of transportation loss, buildup, and substation energy loss and that incorporates harmonic power loss into optimal rapid charging station (RCS) planning. A novel optimization technique, called binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA), is proposed to solve the optimization problem...
2017: PloS One
Chao Song, Kai Xu, Wuxin Liu, Chui-Ping Yang, Shi-Biao Zheng, Hui Deng, Qiwei Xie, Keqiang Huang, Qiujiang Guo, Libo Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Da Xu, Dongning Zheng, Xiaobo Zhu, H Wang, Y-A Chen, C-Y Lu, Siyuan Han, Jian-Wei Pan
Here we report on the production and tomography of genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with up to ten qubits connecting to a bus resonator in a superconducting circuit, where the resonator-mediated qubit-qubit interactions are used to controllably entangle multiple qubits and to operate on different pairs of qubits in parallel. The resulting 10-qubit density matrix is probed by quantum state tomography, with a fidelity of 0.668±0.025. Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement created so far in solid-state architectures and pave the way to large-scale quantum computation...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ken Wilkerson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
Sergio Useche, Boris Cendales, Viviola Gómez
This Data in Brief (DiB) article presents a hierarchical multiple linear regression model that examine the associations between psychosocial work factors and risk behaviors at the wheel in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) drivers (n=524). The data were collected using a structured self-administrable questionnaire made of measurements of wok stress (job strain and effort- reward imbalance), fatigue (need for recovery and chronic fatigue), psychological distress and demographics (professional driving experience, hours driven per day and days working per week)...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Kathryn Bus, Karissa L Peyer, Yang Bai, Laura D Ellingson, Gregory J Welk
Health coaching is a common approach for promoting lifestyle changes, but little is known about the effectiveness of different delivery methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-person versus online health coaching when used as part of a facilitated behavior change program. To increase translatability, the study used a naturalistic design that enabled participants to self-select the coaching delivery method (Group) as well as the target behavior (diet, physical activity, or weight management)...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
Ludimila Labanca, Fernando Sales Guimarães, Letícia Pimenta Costa-Guarisco, Erica de Araújo Brandão Couto, Denise Utsch Gonçalves
Given the high prevalence of presbycusis and its detrimental effect on quality of life, screening tests can be useful tools for detecting hearing loss in primary care settings. This study therefore aimed to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of the whispered voice test as a screening method for detecting hearing impairment in older people. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 210 older adults aged between 60 and 97 years who underwent the whispered voice test employing ten different phrases and using audiometry as a reference test...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Małgorzata Sowiak, Anna Kozajda, Karolina Jeżak, Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
The aim of this study was to establish whether the air-conditioning system in buses constitutes an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi, and whether or not the fungi concentration depends on the period from the last disinfection of the system, combined with replacement of the cabin dust particle filter. The air samples to fungi analysis using impact method were taken in 30 buses (20 with an air-conditioning system, ACS; 10 with a ventilation system, VS) in two series: 1 and 22 weeks after cabin filter replacement and disinfection of the air-conditioning system...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lina Martínez, Sergio Prada, Daniela Estrada
Obesity and frequent mental and physical distress are often associated with major health problems. The characteristics of the urban environment, such as homicide rates and public goods provision, play an important role in influencing participation in physical activity and in overall mental health. This study aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between homicide rates and public goods provision on the health outcomes of the citizens of Cali, Colombia, a city known for its high urban violence rate and low municipal investment in public goods...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Jihui Ma, Cuiying Song, Avishai Avi Ceder, Tao Liu, Wei Guan
This work proposes a model considering fairness in the problem of crew scheduling for bus drivers (CSP-BD) using a hybrid ant-colony optimization (HACO) algorithm to solve it. The main contributions of this work are the following: (a) a valid approach for cases with a special cost structure and constraints considering the fairness of working time and idle time; (b) an improved algorithm incorporating Gamma heuristic function and selecting rules. The relationships of each cost are examined with ten bus lines collected from the Beijing Public Transport Holdings (Group) Co...
2017: PloS One
Harpreet Singh, Raghuram Mallaiah, Gautam Yadav, Nitin Verma, Ashu Sawhney, Samir K Brahmachari
Reducing child mortality with quality care is the prime-most concern of all nations. Thus in current IT era, our healthcare industry needs to focus on adapting information technology in healthcare services. Barring few preliminary attempts to digitalize basic hospital administrative and clinical functions, even today in India, child health and vaccination records are still maintained as paper-based records. Also, error in manually plotting the parameters in growth charts results in missed opportunities for early detection of growth disorders in children...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Sophie Hawkesworth, Richard J Silverwood, Ben Armstrong, Triantafyllos Pliakas, Kiran Nanchalal, Barbara J Jefferis, Claudio Sartini, Antoinette A Amuzu, S Goya Wannamethee, Sheena E Ramsay, Juan-Pablo Casas, Richard W Morris, Peter H Whincup, Karen Lock
BACKGROUND: Policy initiatives such as WHO Age Friendly Cities recognise the importance of the urban environment for improving health of older people, who have both low physical activity (PA) levels and greater dependence on local neighbourhoods. Previous research in this age group is limited and rarely uses objective measures of either PA or the environment. METHODS: We investigated the association between objectively measured PA (Actigraph GT3x accelerometers) and multiple dimensions of the built environment, using a cross-sectional multilevel linear regression analysis...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
David J Wallace, Kristin N Ray, Abbye Degan, Kristen Kurland, Derek C Angus, Ana Malinow
BACKGROUND: Prior work has not studied the effects of transportation accessibility and patient factors on clinic non-arrival. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were: (1) to evaluate transportation characteristics and patient factors associated with clinic non-arrival, (2) to evaluate the comparability of bus and car drive time estimates, and (3) to evaluate the combined effects of transportation accessibility and income on scheduled appointment non-arrival. METHODS: We queried electronic administrative records at an urban general pediatrics clinic...
November 24, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
Rahul Goel, Parth Jain, Geetam Tiwari
Pedestrians, cyclists, and users of motorised two-wheelers account for more than 85% of all the road fatality victims in Delhi. The three categories are often referred to as vulnerable road users (VRUs). Using Bayesian hierarchical approach with a Poisson-lognormal regression model, we present spatial analysis of road fatalities of VRUs with wards as areal units. The model accounts for spatially uncorrelated as well as correlated error. The explanatory variables include demographic factors, traffic characteristics, as well as built environment features...
November 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jessica Westman, Margareta Friman, Lars E Olsson
Children's school journeys have changed vastly during recent decades: More children are being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier research into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys-in particular how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode. This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Christopher M K L Yao, Andrew K Ma, Sharon L Cushing, Vincent Y W Lin
BACKGROUND: With an increasing proportion of the population living in cities, mass transportation has been rapidly expanding to facilitate the demand, yet there is a concern that mass transit has the potential to result in excessive exposure to noise, and subsequently noise-induced hearing loss. METHODS: Noise dosimetry was used to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of the Toronto Mass Transit system (subway, streetcar, and buses) both aboard moving transit vehicles and on boarding platforms from April - August 2016...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Etongola Papy Mbelambela, Ryoji Hirota, Masamitsu Eitoku, Sifa Marie Joelle Muchanga, Hidenori Kiyosawa, Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell, Ontshick Leader Lawanga, Narufumi Suganuma
OBJECTIVES: Road-traffic emissions (RTE) induce adverse health effects, notably respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases, as a result of pollutants deposited into the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupation groups of Congolese transit workers exposed to RTE, particularly bus conductors and respiratory health, in Kinshasa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 April 20(th) to May 14(th), whose participants were bus conductors (n = 110), bus drivers (n = 107), taxi-motorcyclists (n = 102) and high school teachers (control group; n = 106)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Arturo Rodríguez-Cristerna, Wilfrido Gómez-Flores, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque Pereira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for breast ultrasound (BUS) are trained to classify pathological classes, that is, benign and malignant. However, from a clinical perspective, this kind of classification does not agree totally with radiologists' diagnoses. Usually, the tumors are assessed by using a BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) category and, accordingly, a recommendation is emitted: annual study for category 2 (benign), six-month follow-up study for category 3 (probably benign), and biopsy for categories 4 and 5 (suspicious of malignancy)...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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