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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095603/review-of-regulatory-emphasis-on-transportation-safety-in-the-united-states-2002-2009-public-versus-private-modes
#1
Garrett C Waycaster, Taiki Matsumura, Volodymyr Bilotkach, Raphael T Haftka, Nam H Kim
The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094066/implementation-of-elastography-score-and-strain-ratio-in-combination-with-b-mode-ultrasound-avoids-unnecessary-biopsies-of-breast-lesions
#2
Kristina Bojanic, Natasa Katavic, Martina Smolic, Marija Peric, Kristina Kralik, Miroslav Sikora, Kristina Vidačić, Mirta Pacovski, Damir Stimac, Gordana Ivanac
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of B-mode ultrasound, elastography score (ES) and strain ratio (SR) improves diagnostic performance with respect to breast lesions. One hundred thirty lesions were prospectively evaluated by B-mode ultrasound and strain elastography, followed by fine-needle aspiration cytology/biopsy in 117 woman who were scheduled for regular breast BUS. The median ES (4.5 vs. 2.9, p < 0.001) and SR (4.9 vs. 2.3, p < 0.001) were significantly higher for malignant than for benign lesions...
January 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089249/redundant-and-fault-tolerant-algorithms-for-real-time-measurement-and-control-systems-for-weapon-equipment
#3
Dan Li, Xiaoguang Hu
Because of the high availability requirements from weapon equipment, an in-depth study has been conducted on the real-time fault-tolerance of the widely applied Compact PCI (CPCI) bus measurement and control system. A redundancy design method that uses heartbeat detection to connect the primary and alternate devices has been developed. To address the low successful execution rate and relatively large waste of time slices in the primary version of the task software, an improved algorithm for real-time fault-tolerant scheduling is proposed based on the Basic Checking available time Elimination idle time (BCE) algorithm, applying a single-neuron self-adaptive proportion sum differential (PSD) controller...
January 12, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#4
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070777/breast-ultrasound-image-segmentation-a-survey
#5
REVIEW
Qinghua Huang, Yaozhong Luo, Qiangzhi Zhang
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging is one of the most frequently used diagnostic tools to detect and classify abnormalities of the breast. Recently, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems using ultrasound images have been developed to help radiologists to increase diagnosis accuracy. However, accurate ultrasound image segmentation remains a challenging problem due to various ultrasound artifacts. In this paper, we investigate approaches developed for breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058758/passengers-at-risk-a-multi-level-analysis-of-the-decision-to-travel-with-a-drunk-driver
#6
José Ignacio Nazif, Rony Blank-Gomel
AIMS: To assess the impact of demographic, intrapersonal and environmental factors on the likelihood in Chile of becoming a passenger of an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID). DESIGN: Multi-level cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were acquired from two large-scale household surveys of representative samples of Chile's Metropolitan Region. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1341 individuals ≥ 16 years. 696 of them reported engaging in PAID...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056914/effects-of-a-school-based-intervention-on-active-commuting-to-school-and-health-related-fitness
#7
Emilio Villa-González, Jonatan R Ruiz, Jason A Mendoza, Palma Chillón
BACKGROUND: Active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main objective was to investigate the effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness in school-age children of Southern Spain. METHODS: A total of 494 children aged 8 to 11 years were invited to participate in the study. The schools were non-randomly allocated (i.e., school level allocation) into the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052765/sexual-abuse-and-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-young-female-hawkers-in-burkina-faso-a-mixed-method-study
#8
Saide Yacine Y A Ouédraogo, Ebrima J Sisawo, Song-Lih Huang
BACKGROUND: Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. METHODS: The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods...
January 4, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051199/prevalence-of-hypertension-and-its-associated-factors-among-a-group-of-bus-drivers-in-colombo-sri-lanka
#9
Umesh Jayarajah, Anuradha Ja Jayakody, Janitha Mbn Jayaneth, Sumedha Wijeratne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043651/comparison-of-air-pollution-exposures-in-active-vs-passive-travel-modes-in-european-cities-a-quantitative-review
#10
REVIEW
Audrey de Nazelle, Olivier Bode, Juan Pablo Orjuela
BACKGROUND: Transport microenvironments tend to have higher air pollutant concentrations than other settings most people encounter in their daily lives. The choice of travel modes may affect significantly individuals' exposures; however such considerations are typically not accounted for in exposure assessment used in environmental health studies. In particular, with increasing interest in the promotion of active travel, health impact studies that attempt to estimate potential adverse consequences of potential increased pollutant inhalation during walking or cycling have emerged...
December 30, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043298/-investigation-on-events-of-bus-on-fire-in-6-years-in-the-mainland-of-china
#11
X G Wang, Y Liu, Y Cen, P Wu, H L Zhou, C M Han
Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036065/design-of-a-mobile-low-cost-sensor-network-using-urban-buses-for-real-time-ubiquitous-noise-monitoring
#12
Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Unai Hernandez-Jayo, Francesc Alías, Ignacio Angulo
One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years...
December 29, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026870/vulvar-and-vaginal-melanoma-a-unique-subclass-of-mucosal-melanoma-based-on-a-comprehensive-molecular-analysis-of-51-cases-compared-with-2253-cases-of-nongynecologic-melanoma
#13
June Y Hou, Caitlin Baptiste, Radhika Bangalore Hombalegowda, Ana I Tergas, Rebecca Feldman, Nathaniel L Jones, Sudeshna Chatterjee-Paer, Ama Bus-Kwolfski, Jason D Wright, William M Burke
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatments for vulvar and vaginal melanomas (VVMs) have not been identified. Herein, the authors compare molecular profiles between VVM and nongynecologic melanoma (NGM) subtypes with the objective of identifying novel, targetable biomarkers. METHODS: In total, 2304 samples of malignant melanoma that were submitted to Caris Life Sciences between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to assess copy numbers and protein expression of selected genes...
December 27, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995968/preliminary-effectiveness-of-breast-cancer-screening-among-1-22-million-chinese-females-and-different-cancer-patterns-between-urban-and-rural-women
#14
Yubei Huang, Hongji Dai, Fengju Song, Haixin Li, Ye Yan, Zhenhua Yang, Zhaoxiang Ye, Sheng Zhang, Hong Liu, Yali Cao, Li Xiong, Yahong Luo, Tie Pan, Xiangjun Ma, Jie Wang, Xiuling Song, Ling Leng, Yeping Zhang, Jie Sun, Jialin Wang, Hengmin Ma, Lingzhi Kong, Zhenglong Lei, Yaogang Wang, Wang Peishan, Jiali Han, Xishan Hao, Kexin Chen
To determine the preliminary effectiveness of breast cancer screening among Chinese females, 1226714 women aged 35-69 years first received clinical breast examinations. Urban women with suspected cancer received mammography followed by breast ultrasound (BUS), while rural suspected women underwent BUS followed by mammography. After one-year follow-up, 223 and 431 breast cancers were detected among urban and rural women (respectively), with overall detection rates of 0.56/1000 and 0.52/1000. Higher detection rates were significantly associated with older age at screening for both urban and rural women; additionally, urban women were at significantly higher risk if they had no job, no insurance, or were obese; additional risk factors specific to rural women included Han nationality, higher income, being unmarried, and having a family history of cancer (all P values < 0...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992590/statistical-analysis-of-bus-networks-in-india
#15
Atanu Chatterjee, Manju Manohar, Gitakrishnan Ramadurai
In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983463/long-term-effects-of-the-entre-os-rios-tragedy-on-grief-and-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#16
Daniela Cardoso, Lúcia Ferreira, José Rocha, Manuela Leite, Vera Almeida
In 2001, in Entre-os-Rios, Portugal, a bridge fell on Douro River, all 59 passengers from one bus and three cars died and 36 bodies have never been recovered. The objective is to reveal the cumulative risk from multiple losses and unrecovered bodies, 10 years after, comparing with grievers from road accidents. There are two groups of relatives of victims: from this tragedy (n = 20), with at least one unrecovered body; and from road traffic accidents (n = 20), with the same time after loss. The prevalence of prolonged grief was 95% and for traumatic stress was 70%...
December 16, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982747/women-s-perception-of-adolescent-marijuana-use-in-a-hispanic-seasonal-farm-worker-community-a-qualitative-study
#17
Mariano Kanamori, Jessica Weissman, Mario De La Rosa, James Melton, Mariana Sanchez, Patria Rojas, Mary Jo Trekpa
We examined the perception of adolescent children's marijuana use and its consequences in the Hispanic seasonal farmworking community of South Florida via three focus groups with Hispanic adult female seasonal workers (n = 29). The women described how adolescents' marijuana use increased over the past five years. Social networks for marijuana use were reported near schools and bus stations. Although participants expressed concern over adolescent marijuana use and involvement in selling marijuana, they reported that their job demands preclude their ability to supervise their children...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977221/the-invisibility-cloak-illusion-people-incorrectly-believe-they-observe-others-more-than-others-observe-them
#18
Erica J Boothby, Margaret S Clark, John A Bargh
Whether at a coffee shop, in a waiting room, or riding the bus, people frequently observe the other people around them. Yet they often fail to realize how much other people engage in the same behavior, and that they, therefore, also are being observed. Because it is logically impossible that people, on average, are the subjects of observation more than they are objects of it, the belief that one watches others more than one is watched is an illusion. Several studies show that people incorrectly believe that they observe others more than other people observe them...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976371/apolipoprotein-c-i-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glomerulosclerosis
#19
Pascal Bus, Louise Pierneef, Rosalie Bor, Ron Wolterbeek, Leendert A van Es, Patrick C N Rensen, Emile de Heer, Louis M Havekes, Jan A Bruijn, Jimmy F Berbée, Hans J Baelde
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Diabetic patients have increased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein C-I (apoCI), and meta-analyses found that a polymorphism in APOC1 is associated with an increased risk of developing nephropathy. To investigate whether overexpressing apoCI contributes to the development of kidney damage, we studied renal tissue and peritoneal macrophages from APOC1 transgenic (APOC1-tg) mice and wild-type littermates. In addition, we examined renal autopsy material from diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy and from control subjects...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973495/ultra-compact-and-low-threshold-thulium-microcavity-laser-monolithically-integrated-on-silicon
#20
Zhan Su, Nanxi Li, E Salih Magden, Matthew Byrd, P Purnawirman, Thomas N Adam, Gerald Leake, Douglas Coolbaugh, Jonathan D B Bradley, Michael R Watts
We demonstrate an ultra-compact and low-threshold thulium microcavity laser that is monolithically integrated on a silicon chip. The integrated microlaser consists of an active thulium-doped aluminum oxide microcavity beside a passive silicon nitride bus waveguide, which enables on-chip pump-input and laser-output coupling. We observe lasing in the wavelength range of 1.8-1.9 μm under 1.6 μm resonant pumping and at varying waveguide-microcavity gap sizes. The microlaser exhibits a threshold as low as 773 μW (226 μW) and a slope efficiency as high as 24% (48%) with respect to the pump power coupled into the silicon nitride bus waveguide (microcavity)...
December 15, 2016: Optics Letters
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