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Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207286/lc-ms-ms-simultaneous-analysis-of-allopregnanolone-epiallopregnanolone-pregnanolone-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate-in-human-plasma
#1
Luana Lionetto, Fernando De Andrés, Matilde Capi, Martina Curto, Donata Sabato, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Bossù, Eleonora Sacchinelli, Maria Donata Orfei, Federica Piras, Nerisa Banaj, Gianfranco Spalletta
AIM: Several neuropsychopharmacological properties have been attributed to the 3α-reduced pregnane steroids, allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, as well as to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate because of their ability to modulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors in the CNS. In order to understand better their role in several mechanisms in CNS, a new methodology is proposed to monitor these compounds in human plasma. Methodology & results: The analytes were first derivatized with 2-hydrazinopyridine and extracted from plasma using SPE...
February 16, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205606/differential-abnormal-pattern-of-anterior-cingulate-gyrus-activation-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-an-fmri-and-pattern-classification-approach
#2
Christian Bürger, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Susanne Meinert, Katharina Dohm, Ilona Schneider, Dario Zaremba, Katharina Förster, Judith Alferink, Jens Bölte, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
Distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is a major challenge in psychiatric treatment. Consequently, there has been growing interest in identifying neuronal biomarkers of disorder-specific pathophysiological processes to differentiate affective disorders. Thirty-six depressed bipolar patients, 36 depressed unipolar patients and 36 matched healthy controls participated in an fMRI-experiment. Emotional faces served as stimuli in a matching task. We investigated neural activation towards angry, fearful and happy faces focusing on prototypical regions related to emotion processing, ie the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205605/the-role-of-the-rna-demethylase-fto-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-and-mrna-methylation-in-hippocampal-memory-formation
#3
Brandon J Walters, Valentina Mercaldo, Colleen J Gillon, Matthew Yip, Rachael L Neve, Frederick M Boyce, Paul W Frankland, Sheena A Josselyn
The formation of long-lasting memories requires coordinated changes in gene expression and protein synthesis (Davis and Squire, 1984; Duvarci et al, 2008; Hernandez and Abel, 2008). Although many studies implicate DNA modifications (DNA methylation, histone modifications) in memory formation, the contributions of RNA modifications remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the role of mRNA methylation in hippocampal-dependent memory formation in mice. RNA modifications are highly dynamic and readily reversible (Jia et al, 2013)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205604/selectively-bred-rats-provide-a-unique-model-of-vulnerability-to-ptsd-like-behavior-and-respond-differentially-to-fgf2-augmentation-early-in-life
#4
Katherine E Prater, Elyse L Aurbach, Hanna K Larcinese, Taylor N Smith, Cortney A Turner, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Stephen Maren, Huda Akil
Individuals respond differently to traumatic experiences including their propensity to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding individual differences in PTSD vulnerability will allow the development of improved prevention and treatment options. Here, we characterized fear conditioning and extinction in rats selectively bred for differences in their locomotor response to a novel environment. Selectively bred high responder (bHR) and low responder (bLR) male rats are known to differ in their emotional reactivity on a range of measures of spontaneous anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195577/hippocampus-glutamate-and-n-acetyl-aspartate-markers-of-excitotoxic-neuronal-compromise-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Isabelle M Rosso, David J Crowley, Marisa M Silveri, Scott L Rauch, J Eric Jensen
Hippocampus atrophy is implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and may partly reflect stress-induced glutamate excitotoxicity that culminates in neuron injury and manifests as re-experiencing symptoms and other memory abnormalities. This study used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine whether PTSD is associated with lower hippocampus levels of the neuron marker N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), along with higher levels of glutamate (Glu) and Glu/NAA. We also predicted that metabolite levels would correlate with re-experiencing symptoms and lifetime trauma load...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195139/altered-insula-connectivity-under-mdma
#6
Ishan C Walpola, Timothy Nest, Leor Roseman, David Erritzoe, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Recent work with noninvasive human brain imaging has started to investigate the effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on large-scale patterns of brain activity. MDMA, a potent monoamine-releaser with particularly pronounced serotonin- releasing properties, has unique subjective effects that include: marked positive mood, pleasant/unusual bodily sensations and pro-social, empathic feelings. However, the neurobiological basis for these effects is not properly understood, and the present analysis sought to address this knowledge gap...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186095/the-role-of-microrna-expression-in-cortical-development-during-conversion-to-psychosis
#7
Amanda B Zheutlin, Clark D Jeffries, Diana O Perkins, Yoonho Chung, Adam M Chekroud, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Barbara A Cornblatt, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Larry J Seidman, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods, Ming Tsuang, Tyrone D Cannon
In a recent report of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), clinical high-risk individuals who converted to psychosis showed a steeper rate of cortical gray matter reduction compared with non-converters and healthy controls, and the rate of cortical thinning was correlated with levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline. These findings suggest a critical role for microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, in perturbations of cortical maturation processes associated with onset of psychosis...
February 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181516/progress-on-the-neuroscience-based-nomenclature-nbn-for-psychotropic-medications
#8
Pierre Blier, Maria A Oquendo, David J Kupfer
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 09 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.33.
February 9, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176786/disrupted-glutamatergic-transmission-in-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-behavioral-abnormality-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#9
Jia Cheng, Aiyi Liu, Michael Y Shi, Zhen Yan
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits...
February 8, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170220/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-haloperidol
#10
Marshall W Tyler, Josefa Zaldivar-Diez, Stephen J Haggarty
The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169286/garcinol-blocks-the-reconsolidation-of-multiple-cocaine-paired-cues-after-a-single-cocaine-reactivation-session
#11
Amber B Dunbar, Jane R Taylor
Manipulations of memory reconsolidation can interfere with the ability of a drug-paired cue to drive drug-seeking behavior. However, the typical reconsolidation paradigm that reactivates the memory through the presentation of the cue (conditioned stimulus; CS) only interferes with the memory of the reactivated CS while leaving other drug-paired CSs intact and able to continue driving drug-seeking behavior. Here, we used a novel unconditioned-stimulus (US) reactivation paradigm to interfere with the ability of multiple cues to drive drug-seeking behavior after just one reactivation and treatment session...
February 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165038/will-viewing-overeating-as-compulsive-lead-to-novel-pharmacological-interventions
#12
Kristin N Javaras
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 06 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.29.
February 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165037/neuroanatomical-prediction-of-anhedonia-in-adolescents
#13
Randy P Auerbach, Angela Pisoni, Erin Bondy, Poornima Kumar, Jeremy G Stewart, Anastasia Yendiki, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia is a transdiagnostic risk factor implicated in mental illness onset, treatment non-response, and suicidal behaviors. Prior cross-sectional research in adults has shown that anhedonia is associated with reduced dorsal striatal volume, but it is unknown whether this relationship extends to adolescents and whether reduced striatal volume prospectively predicts anhedonia. To address these gaps, the current study investigated whether striatal volume predicted anhedonia severity in adolescents. At baseline, healthy female adolescents aged 12-14 years (n=50) completed a clinical assessment, and structural MRI data were acquired on a 3 Tesla MR scanner...
February 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145409/treatment-of-bipolar-depression-with-deep-tms-dtms-results-from-a-double-blind-randomized-parallel-group-sham-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Diego F Tavares, Martin L Myczkowski, Rodrigo L Alberto, Leandro Valiengo, Rosa M Rios, Pedro Gordon, Bernardo de Sampaio-Junior, Izio Klein, Carlos G Mansur, Marco Antonio Marcolin, Beny Lafer, Ricardo A Moreno, Wagner Gattaz, Jeff Z Daskalakis, André R Brunoni
Bipolar depression (BD) is a highly prevalent condition with limited therapeutic options. Deep (H1-coil) transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a novel TMS modality with established efficacy for unipolar depression. We conducted a randomized sham-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dTMS in treatment-resistant BD patients. Patients received 20 sessions of active or sham dTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (H1-coil, 55 18 Hz 2-sec 120% MT trains). The primary outcome was changes in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) from baseline to endpoint (week 4)...
February 1, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139682/updating-procedures-can-reorganize-the-neural-circuit-supporting-a-fear-memory
#15
Janine L Kwapis, Timothy J Jarome, Nicole C Ferrara, Fred J Helmstetter
Established memories undergo a period of vulnerability following retrieval, a process termed 'reconsolidation.' Recent work has shown that the hypothetical process of reconsolidation is only triggered when new information is presented during retrieval, suggesting that this process may allow existing memories to be modified. Reconsolidation has received increasing attention as a possible therapeutic target for treating disorders that stem from traumatic memories, yet little is known about how this process changes the original memory...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139681/attenuating-nicotine-reinforcement-and-relapse-by-enhancing-endogenous-brain-levels-of-kynurenic-acid-in-rats-and-squirrel-monkeys
#16
Maria E Secci, Alessia Auber, Leigh V Panlilio, Godfrey H Redhi, Eric B Thorndike, Charles W Schindler, Robert Schwarcz, Steven R Goldberg, Zuzana Justinova
Currently-available antismoking medications have limited efficacy and often fail to prevent relapse. Thus, there is a pressing need for newer, more effective treatment strategies. Recently, we demonstrated that enhancing endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a neuroinhibitory product of tryptophan metabolism) counteracts the rewarding effects of cannabinoids by acting as a negative allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChRs). Since the effects of KYNA on cannabinoid reward involve nicotinic receptors, in the present study we used rat and squirrel monkey models of reward and relapse to examine the possibility that enhancing KYNA can counteract the effects of nicotine...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139680/ethanol-dependence-abolishes-monoamine-and-girk-kir3-channel-inhibition-of-orbitofrontal-cortex-excitability
#17
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Marcelo F Lopez, Patrick J Mulholland, John J Woodward
Alcohol abuse disorders are associated with dysfunction of frontal cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The OFC is extensively innervated by monoamines, and drugs that target monoamine receptors have been used to treat a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcoholism. However, little is known regarding how monoamines affect OFC neuron excitability or whether this modulation is altered by chronic exposure to ethanol. In this study, we examined the effect of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin on lOFC neuronal excitability in naïve mice and in those exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139679/mismatch-negativity-is-a-sensitive-and-predictive-biomarker-of-perceptual-learning-during-auditory-cognitive-training-in-schizophrenia
#18
Veronica B Perez, Melissa Tarasenko, Makoto Miyakoshi, Sean T Pianka, Scott D Makeig, David L Braff, Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
Computerized cognitive training is gaining empirical support for use in the treatment of schizophrenia (SZ). While cognitive training is efficacious for SZ at a group level when delivered in sufficiently intensive doses (eg, 30-50 h), there is variability in individual patient response. The identification of biomarkers sensitive to the neural systems engaged by cognitive training interventions early in the course of treatment could facilitate personalized assignment to treatment. This proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine whether mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential index of auditory sensory discrimination associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning, would predict gains in auditory perceptual learning and exhibit malleability after initial exposure to the early stages of auditory cognitive training in SZ...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139678/cocaine-potency-at-the-dopamine-transporter-tracks-discrete-motivational-states-during-cocaine-self-administration
#19
Cody A Siciliano, Sara R Jones
Although the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action for cocaine, and the dopamine system is known to mediate the reinforcing and rewarding effects of cocaine, the dopaminergic variations underlying individual differences in cocaine self-administration behaviors are not fully understood. Recent advances in the application of economic principles to operant tasks in rodents have allowed for the within-subject, within-session determination of both consummatory and appetitive responding for reinforcers...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128336/prophylactic-ketamine-attenuates-learned-fear
#20
Josephine C McGowan, Christina T LaGamma, Sean C Lim, Melina Tsitsiklis, Yuval Neria, Rebecca A Brachman, Christine A Denny
Ketamine has been reported to be an efficacious antidepressant for major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most recently, ketamine has also been shown to be prophylactic against stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. It remains unknown, however, when ketamine should be administered relative to a stressor in order to maximize its antidepressant and/or prophylactic effects. Moreover, it is unknown if ketamine can be prophylactic against subsequent stressors. We systematically administered ketamine at different time points relative to a fear experience in order to determine when ketamine is most effective at reducing fear expression or preventing fear reactivation...
January 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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