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Neuropsychopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#1
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905406/differential-roles-for-l-type-calcium-channel-subtypes-in-alcohol-dependence
#2
Stefanie Uhrig, David Vandael, Andrea Marcantoni, Nina Dedic, Ainhoa Bilbao, Miriam A Vogt, Natalie Hirth, Laura Broccoli, Rick E Bernardi, Kai Schönig, Peter Gass, Dusan Bartsch, Rainer Spanagel, Jan M Deussing, Wolfgang H Sommer, Emilio Carbone, Anita C Hansson
It has previously been shown that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) decreases alcohol consumption, although the contribution of the central LTCC subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 remains unknown. Here, we determined changes in Cav1.2 (Cacna1c) and Cav1.3 (Cacna1d) mRNA and protein expression in alcohol dependent rats during protracted abstinence and naïve controls using in situ hybridization and Western Blot analysis. Functional validation was obtained by electrophysiological recordings of calcium currents in dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#3
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882999/activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-5-ht2c-receptors-reduces-incentive-motivation
#4
Lourdes Valencia-Torres, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, David J Lyons, Teodora Georgescu, Megan Greenwald-Yarnell, Martin G Myers, Christopher M Bradshaw, Lora K Heisler
Obesity is primarily due to food intake in excess of the body's energetic requirements, intake that is not only associated with hunger but also the incentive value of food. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is a target for the treatment of human obesity. Mechanistically, 5-HT2CRs are positioned to influence both homeostatic feeding circuits within the hypothalamus and reward circuits within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here we investigated the role of 5-HT2CRs in incentive motivation using a mathematical model of progressive ratio (PR) responding in mice...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882998/dopamine-and-opioid-neurotransmission-in-behavioral-addictions-a-comparative-pet-study-in-pathological-gambling-and-binge-eating
#5
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Kati Alakurtti, Riitta Parkkola, Tuuli Lahti, Hannu Alho, Jussi Hirvonen, Eveliina Arponen, Sarita Forsback, Valtteri Kaasinen
Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
November 24, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876790/stress-induces-a-shift-towards-striatum-dependent-stimulus-response-learning-via-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor
#6
Susanne Vogel, Floris Klumpers, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Krista T Oplaat, Harm J Krugers, Melly S Oitzl, Marian Joëls, Christian F Doeller, Guillén Fernández
Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing...
November 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874023/methylphenidate-and-memory-and-attention-adaptation-training-for-persistent-cognitive-symptoms-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Brenna C McDonald, Laura A Flashman, David B Arciniegas, Robert J Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C Sprehn, Flora M Hammond, Arthur C Maerlender, Carrie L Kruck, Karen L Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N Wall, Andrew J Saykin, Thomas W McAllister
The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18)...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869141/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Houshang Amiri, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Daniel Brandeis, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Matthias Ruf, Isabella Wolf, Tobias Banaschewski, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, David J Lythgoe
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the glutamate concentrations across the two disorders with those in healthy control participants using both categorical and dimensional approaches. In the current multi-center study (four centers), we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in 51 children with ASD, 29 with OCD, and 53 healthy controls (aged 8 to 13 years) to investigate glutamate (Glu) concentrations in two regions of the fronto-striatal circuit: midline anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsal striatum...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857126/repeated-7-day-treatment-with-the-5-ht2c-agonist-lorcaserin-or-the-5-ht2a-antagonist-pimavanserin-alone-or-in-combination-fails-to-reduce-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#9
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857125/presynaptic-dopamine-capacity-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-taking-clozapine-an-18-f-dopa-pet-study
#10
Euitae Kim, Oliver D Howes, Mattia Veronese, Katherine Beck, Seongho Seo, Jin Woo Park, Jae Sung Lee, Yun-Sang Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Some patients with schizophrenia show poor response to first-line antipsychotic treatments and this is termed treatment resistant schizophrenia. The differential response to first-line antipsychotic drugs may reflect a different underlying neurobiology. Indeed, a previous study found dopamine synthesis capacity was significantly lower in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, in this study, the treatment resistant patients were highly symptomatic whilst the responsive patients showed no or minimal symptoms...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848935/distinct-roles-of-creb-within-the-ventral-and-dorsal-hippocampus-in-mediating-nicotine-withdrawal-phenotypes
#11
Miranda Fisher, Rachel LeMalefant, Luyi Zhou, Gavin Huang, Jill Turner
Addiction to nicotine and the inability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors, emphasizing the importance of understanding how genes and drugs of abuse mechanistically impact each other. One well-characterized protein responsible for regulating both response to drugs and gene expression is the transcription factor CREB. Previous work indicates that hippocampal specific alterations in CREB signaling and synaptic plasticity may underlie certain nicotine withdrawal phenotypes. However, the structure of the hippocampus possesses dorsal and ventral sub-regions, each differing in behavioral, anatomic and gene expression characteristics...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834392/pharmacological-activators-of-the-nr4a-nuclear-receptors-enhance-ltp-in-a-creb-cbp-dependent-fashion
#12
Morgan S Bridi, Joshua D Hawk, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Stephen Safe, Ted Abel
Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we find that Nr4a gene expression after learning requires the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) interaction domain of the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP)...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834391/hippocampal-gabab-1a-receptors-constrain-generalized-contextual-fear
#13
Joseph F Lynch, Patrick Winiecki, T Lee Gilman, Jordan M Adkins, Aaron M Jasnow
Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition plays a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS- tones. Work from our lab has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834390/varenicline-reduces-context-induced-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-through-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#14
F Lacroix, A Pettorelli, J-Mn Maddux, A Heidari-Jam, N Chaudhri
Varenicline, a pharmacotherapy for tobacco addiction, reduces alcohol consumption in humans and rodents. The therapeutic potential of varenicline would escalate if it also diminished conditioned responses elicited by alcohol-predictive cues, which can precipitate relapse in abstinent individuals. We investigated this application, along with the underlying neural substrates, using a robust preclinical assay in which relapse to alcohol-seeking was triggered by re-exposure to an alcohol-associated environmental context...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827371/sex-differences-in-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-regulation-of-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-and-their-cognitive-consequences
#15
Herminio M Guajardo, Kevin Snyder, Andrew Ho, Rita J Valentino
Stress-related neuropsychiatric pathologies are more prevalent in females compared to males. An important component of the stress response is activation of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine system. Because LC activation is tempered by endogenous opioid release during stress, the magnitude of opioid regulation of the LC could determine stress vulnerability. Here we report convergent evidence for decreased μ-opioid receptor (MOR) function in the female rat LC. The selective MOR agonist, DAMGO (10 pg), completely inhibited LC discharge of male, but not female rats and DAMGO (30 pg) produced no further inhibition of female LC neurons...
November 9, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827370/ethanol-sensitive-pacemaker-neurons-in-the-mouse-external-globus-pallidus
#16
Karina P Abrahao, Jessica H Chancey, C Savio Chan, David M Lovinger
Although ethanol is one of the most widely used drugs, we still lack a full understanding of which neuronal subtypes are affected by this drug. Pacemaker neurons exert powerful control over brain circuit function, but little is known about ethanol effects on these types of neurons. Neurons in the external Globus Pallidus (GPe) generate pacemaker activity that controls basal ganglia, circuitry associated with habitual and compulsive drug use. We performed patch-clamp recordings from GPe neurons. We found that bath application of ethanol dose-dependently decreased the firing rate of low frequency GPe neurons, but did not alter the firing of high frequency neurons...
November 9, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824052/augmentation-of-heroin-seeking-following-chronic-food-restriction-in-the-rat-differential-role-for-dopamine-transmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-core
#17
Tracey M D'Cunha, Emilie Daoud, Damaris Rizzo, Audrey Bishop, Melissa Russo, Gabrielle Mourra, Laurie Hamel, Firas Sedki, Uri Shalev
Caloric restriction during drug abstinence increases the risk for relapse in addicts. In rats, chronic food restriction during a period of withdrawal following heroin self-administration augments heroin seeking. The mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core dopamine (DA) in food restriction-induced augmentation of heroin seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 days. Next, rats were moved to the animal colony for a withdrawal period, during which rats were food restricted to 90% of their original body weight (FDR group) or given unrestricted access to food (sated group)...
November 8, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815414/the-international-college-of-neuropsychopharmacology-cinp-treatment-guidelines-for-bipolar-disorder-in-adults-cinp-bd-2017-part-1-background-and-methods-of-the-development-of-guidelines
#18
REVIEW
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Allan Young, Lakshmi Yatham, Heinz Grunze, Eduard Vieta, Pierre Blier, Hans Jurgen Moeller, Siegfried Kasper
BACKGROUND: This paper includes a short description of the important clinical aspects of Bipolar Disorder with emphasis on issues that are important for the therapeutic considerations, including mixed and psychotic features, predominant polarity, and rapid cycling as well as comorbidity. METHODS: The workgroup performed a review and critical analysis of the literature concerning grading methods and methods for the development of guidelines. RESULTS: The workgroup arrived at a consensus to base the development of the guideline on randomized controlled trials and related meta-analyses alone in order to follow a strict evidence-based approach...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813530/involvement-of-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-lateral-habenula-in-dopamine-attenuation-after-chronic-mild-stress
#19
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examine the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-ie rodent homologue of Brodmann Area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb), in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
November 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796303/effects-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-on-preferential-brain-responses-to-negative-social-feedback
#20
Marta Gozzi, Erica M Dashow, Audrey Thurm, Susan E Swedo, Caroline F Zink
Receiving negative social feedback can be detrimental to emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being, and fear of negative social feedback is a prominent feature of mental illnesses that involve social anxiety. A large body of evidence has implicated the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in the modulation of human neural activity underlying social cognition, including negative emotion processing; however, the influence of oxytocin and vasopressin on neural activity elicited during negative social evaluation remains unknown...
November 30, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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