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Body composition AND children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917503/food-reluctance-of-preschool-children-attending-daycare-centers-is-associated-with-a-lower-body-mass-index
#1
Véronique Surette, Stéphanie Ward, Pascale Morin, Hassan Vatanparast, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Food reluctance can present as fussiness, picky eating, slowness in eating, and high satiety responsiveness. It can be associated with inadequate weight gain during early childhood. Although a majority of preschoolers attend daycare centers, associations between their eating behaviors at daycare and their body composition have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop an estimate of food reluctance and to assess the relationship between food reluctance at daycare and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference of preschoolers...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904008/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-clinical-and-pharmacogenetic-aspects-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-polymorphism
#2
Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Edna Jesus Litenski Barbosa, Per-Arne Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Camilla A M Glad
Pharmacogenetics aims to maximize the beneficial effects of a medical therapy by identifying genetic finger prints from responders and non-responders and, thereby, improving safety and efficacy profile of the drug. Most subjects who are deficient in growth hormone (GHD) are candidates for recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy. To date, it is well established that even after adjustments for several clinical variables, such as age, gender, body composition and the age at onset of the GHD, response to rhGH treatment is highly variable among individuals, part of which is believed to be due to genetic factors within the GH system...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899889/neck-circumference-and-clustered-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-children-and-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#3
José Castro-Piñero, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Oscar L Veiga, Ascensión Marcos, Víctor Segura-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as obesity, is crucial to prevent adverse long-term effects on individuals' health. Therefore, the aims were: (1) to explore the robustness of neck circumference (NC) as a predictor of CVD and examine its association with numerous anthropometric and body composition indices and (2) to release sex and age-specific NC cut-off values to classify youths as overweight/obese. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898295/relationships-between-sleep-duration-physical-activity-and-body-mass-index-in-young-new-zealanders-an-isotemporal-substitution-analysis
#4
Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Nicholas Gant, Jesús Del Pozo-Cruz, Ralph Maddison
BACKGROUND: The evidence regarding the unique effect of sedentary behaviour on obesity among children is unclear. Moreover, the effect of substituting sedentary behaviour with physical activity of different intensities on the body composition of children has received limited empirical study. OBJECTIVE: To examine the mathematical effects on Body Mass Index (BMI) of substituting sedentary behaviours with physical activities of different intensities on children and youth aged 5-14 years old in New Zealand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895692/development-of-equations-and-proposed-reference-values-to-estimate-body-fat-mass-among-chilean-children-and-adolescents
#5
Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Miguel de Arruda, José Sulla Torres, Camilo Urra Albornoz, Rossana Gómez Campos
INTRODUCTION: The assessment of body composition is relevant to establish nutritional status and identify potential health risks. OBJETIVE: a) To develop regression equations to predict fat mass (FM) using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as reference method; b) to propose reference FM values based on chronological and biological age for Chilean children and adolescents. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study in children and adolescents aged 5...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895538/body-composition-in-a-population-of-school-adolescents-a-comparison-of-simple-anthropometric-methods-and-bioelectrical-impedance
#6
María I Tovar-Galvez, Emilio González-Jiménez, Celia Martí-García, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
OBJECTIVES: To report the anthropometric characteristics and body composition and to analyze the potential sex-based differences in Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents living in Granada and Ceuta. To estimate body fat percentage using regression equations and bioelectrical impedance to check for sex differences. An additional objective was to see whether the body fat percentages obtained by these two methods were similar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 1,518 children and adolescents (aged 9-16) from 12 primary and secondary schools in Ceuta and Granada...
October 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879834/prospective-associations-between-dietary-patterns-and-body-composition-changes-in-european-children-the-idefics-study
#7
Juan Miguel Fernández-Alvira, Karin Bammann, Gabriele Eiben, Antje Hebestreit, Yannis A Kourides, Eva Kovacs, Nathalie Michels, Valeria Pala, Lucia Reisch, Paola Russo, Tomas Veidebaum, Luis A Moreno, Claudia Börnhorst
OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary patterns by applying cluster analysis and to describe the cluster memberships of European children over time and their association with body composition changes. DESIGN: The analyses included k-means clustering based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-three food items and regression models were fitted to assess the association between dietary patterns and body composition changes. SETTING: Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain...
September 7, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872392/the-relation-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behaviors-and-academic-achievement-are-mediated-by-fitness-and-bedtime
#8
Heidi J Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Santeri Kulmala, Charles H Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Tuija Tammelin
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior with academic achievement. We further examined whether aerobic fitness, obesity, and bedtime mediate these associations. METHODS: This study included 970 children aged 9-15 (52.3% girls) from nine schools throughout Finland. Register-based academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]) as well as self-reported and accelerometer-measured PA/sedentary behavior were assessed during spring 2013...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853029/effect-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-fitness-fat-mass-and-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-in-children-with-obesity-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Katrin A Dias, Charlotte B Ingul, Arnt E Tjønna, Shelley E Keating, Sjaan R Gomersall, Turid Follestad, Mansoureh S Hosseini, Siri M Hollekim-Strand, Torstein B Ro, Margrete Haram, Else Marie Huuse, Peter S W Davies, Peter A Cain, Gary M Leong, Jeff S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity...
August 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846042/feasibility-and-reliability-of-tests-measuring-health-related-physical-fitness-in-children-with-moderate-to-severe-levels-of-intellectual-disability
#10
Marieke Wouters, Anna M van der Zanden, Heleen M Evenhuis, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp
Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt) for cardiorespiratory fitness, and body composition tests, and 30-97% of the tests were successfully completed. Short-term test-retest reliability of all tests was good (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] > ...
September 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837004/antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-weight-gain-and-obesity-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#11
Heidi Dutton, Mary-Anne Doyle, C Arianne Buchan, Shuhiba Mohammad, Kristi B Adamo, Risa Shorr, Dean A Fergusson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and there is growing interest in better delineating the role of the human gut microbiome in this phenomenon. Obesity-specific gut microbiome features have been observed in both human and animal studies, and these variations appear to play a causative role in increasing body weight. There is evidence that antibiotics can modify the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome and that this may contribute to body weight changes...
August 24, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834796/does-a-one-year-age-gap-modify-the-influence-of-age-maturation-and-anthropometric-parameters-as-determinants-of-performance-among-youth-elite-soccer-players
#12
Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, José Antonio Lekue, Markos Amado, Susana Maria Gil
Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832576/longitudinal-assessment-of-body-composition-in-healthy-swedish-children-from-1-week-until-4-years-of-age
#13
H Henriksson, B Eriksson, E Forsum, E Flinke, P Henriksson, M Löf
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of longitudinal body composition development is required to identify the mechanisms behind childhood overweight and obesity and to prevent these conditions. However, accurate data on this development in early childhood are lacking. Our aim was to describe the longitudinal body composition development in healthy young Swedish children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Body size and composition were assessed in 26 children using air-displacement plethysmography (1 and 12 weeks and 4...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830701/a-priori-and-a-posteriori-derived-dietary-patterns-in-infancy-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-childhood-the-role-of-body-composition
#14
Elisabeth T M Leermakers, Edith H van den Hooven, Oscar H Franco, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Henriëtte A Moll, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cardiometabolic risk has its origins in early life. However, it is unclear whether diet during early childhood is associated with cardiometabolic health, and what the role is of obesity. We aimed to study whether overall diet during early childhood is associated with cardiometabolic health and to examine if difference in body composition explain this association. METHODS: We examined associations of different types of dietary patterns in infancy with cardiometabolic health at school age among 2026 Dutch children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands...
August 13, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830700/effects-of-maternal-omega-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-during-pregnancy-lactation-on-body-composition-of-the-offspring-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Gai-Ling Li, Hui-Jian Chen, Wan-Xia Zhang, Qiang Tong, You-E Yan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of maternal omega-3 fatty acids intake on the body composition of the offspring is unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to confirm the effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on body weight, body length, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and sum of skinfold thicknesses of offspring. METHODS: Human intervention studies were selected by a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and references of related reviews and studies...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829285/vitamin-d-insufficiency-deficiency-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-brazilian-children-regardless-of-body-fat-distribution
#16
Luana Cupertino Milagres, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Ana Paula Pereira Castro, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Juliana Farias de Novaes
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors, controlled by adiposity, in a representative sample of prepubescent children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were performed. Laboratory analyses were performed to determine the levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyitamin D; 25(OH)D), glucose, insulin, serum lipids and intact parathyroid hormone...
August 22, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819768/maternal-obesity-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-metabolic-potential-in-offspring-during-infancy
#17
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Ruy Jáuregui, Hatim Azaryah, Francisco José Torres-Espínola, Luz García-Valdés, M Teresa Segura, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood. Our study aimed to investigate differences in the functions encoded by the microbiome of infants at 18 months of age when the transition from early infant-feeding to solid family foods is established. To investigate the impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index on infants' gut microbiome, faecal samples from infants born to normoweight (n = 21) and obese mothers (n = 18) were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a functional-inference-based microbiome analysis...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#18
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814982/cord-blood-dna-methylation-and-adiposity-measures-in-early-and-mid-childhood
#19
Jacob K Kresovich, Yinan Zheng, Andres Cardenas, Brian T Joyce, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Emily Oken, Matthew W Gillman, Marie-France Hivert, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity in childhood is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. As this condition is difficult to treat once present, identification of risk early in life can help inform and implement strategies to prevent the onset of the condition. We performed an epigenome-wide association study to prospectively investigate the relationship between cord blood DNA methylation and adiposity measurements in childhood. METHODS: We measured genome-wide DNA methylation from 478 children in cord blood and measured overall and central adiposity via skinfold caliper measurements in early (range 3...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#20
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
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