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Body composition AND children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437242/anthropometric-reference-data-for-children-and-adults-united-states-2011-2014
#1
C D Fryar, Q Gu, C L Ogden, K M Flegal
Anthropometry or human body measurements provide important indicators of nutritional status in children and adults (1). In children, measurements reflect general health status, dietary adequacy, and growth and development over time. In adults, body measurements are used to evaluate health and dietary status, disease risk, and body composition. This report presents anthropometric reference data for 2011-2014 for U.S. children and adults.
August 2016: Vital & Health Statistics. Series 3, Analytical and Epidemiological Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434085/exploring-the-oral-microflora-of-preschool-children
#2
Wen Ren, Qun Zhang, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Lili Ma, Feng Chen, Tao Xu, Baohua Xu
The oral cavity is one of the most important and complicated habitats in our body and supports diverse microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to determine the bacterial diversity and composition of various oral micro-niches. Samples were collected from supragingival plaque, saliva, and tongue coating from 10 preschool children (30 samples total). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing dataset generated 314,639 clean reads with an average of 10,488 ± 2,787 reads per sample. The phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were predominant, accounting for more than 90% of the total sequences...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#3
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#4
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429893/significant-associations-between-c-reactive-protein-levels-body-adiposity-distribution-and-peripheral-blood-cells-in-school-age-children
#5
Aralia Berenice Salgado-Bernabé, Luz Elena Ramos-Arellanol, Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Natividad Castro-Alarcón, Amalia Vences-Velázquez, Lorenzo Salga-do-Goytia, Isela Parra-Rojas
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Ge- nerally, there are significant correlations between body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels. We investigated the relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels with body adiposity distribution and blood cell count in obese children. A cross-sec- tional study was performed in 225 Mexican children. In the study were included 106 obese and 119 normal-weight children, aged 6-13 years old. The body composition was evaluated by BMI, body circumferences and skinfold thickness...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429877/normal-weight-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-a-7-year-longitudinal-study-in-girls-from-prepuberty-to-early-adulthood
#6
Petri Wiklund, Timo Törmäkangas, Yi Shi, Na Wu, Aki Vainionpää, Markku Alen, Sulin Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To study whether normal-weight obesity in childhood is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in early adulthood. METHODS: This study assessed data for 236 girls followed from prepuberty to early adulthood. Growth chart data were obtained from birth to 18 years. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and cardiometabolic risk by calculating continuous clustered risk score (at ages 11, 14, and 18). The association of body weight status with cardiometabolic risk from childhood to early adulthood was examined...
April 21, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428959/copy-number-variations-in-candidate-genes-and-intergenic-regions-affect-body-mass-index-and-abdominal-obesity-in-mexican-children
#7
Diana Lizzete Antúnez-Ortiz, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro, Ana Isabel Burguete-García, Amélie Bonnefond, Jesús Peralta-Romero, Philippe Froguel, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Miguel Cruz
Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6-12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422940/body-composition-at-birth-and-height-at-2-years-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-children-in-jimma-ethiopia
#8
Bitiya Admassu, Jonatan C Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Gregers S Andersen, Victor Owino, Tefera Belachew, Kim F Michaelsen, Mubarek Abera, Rasmus Wibaek, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 months (±3 months)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421337/glucose-independent-association-of-adiposity-and-diet-composition-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
Claudio Maffeis, Elena Fornari, Anita Morandi, Claudia Piona, Francesca Tomasselli, Mara Tommasi, Marco Marigliano
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that diet composition, adiposity and glycometabolic control could independently contribute to an increase in the cardiovascular risk (CVR) for children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: One hundred and eighty children/adolescents with T1D (age range 5-18 years) were enrolled. Diet (3-day weighed dietary record), physical (height, weight, waist circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and biochemical (HbA1c, lipid profile) parameters were recorded...
April 18, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418431/body-burdens-sources-and-interrelations-of-selected-toxic-and-essential-elements-among-the-nine-cree-first-nations-of-eeyou-istchee-james-bay-region-of-northern-quebec-canada
#10
Evert Nieboer, Ian D Martin, Eric N Liberda, Eric Dewailly, Elizabeth Robinson, Leonard J S Tsuji
BACKGROUND: this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. METHODS: the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417008/association-of-gene-coding-variation-and-resting-metabolic-rate-in-a-multi-ethnic-sample-of-children-and-adults
#11
Jacklyn N Hellwege, Digna R Velez Edwards, Sari Acra, Kong Chen, Maciej S Buchowski, Todd L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Resting metabolic rates (RMR) vary across individuals. Understanding the determinants of RMR could provide biological insight into obesity and its metabolic consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: The present study measured RMR using reference standard indirect calorimetry and evaluated genetic variations from an exome array in a sample of children and adults (N = 262) predominantly of African and European ancestry with a wide range of ages (10 - 67 years old) and body mass indices (BMI; 16...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409283/body-composition-and-lung-function-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-meconium-ileus
#12
Artemis Doulgeraki, Argyri Petrocheilou, Glykeria Petrocheilou, George Chrousos, Stavros-Eleftherios Doudounakis, Athanasios G Kaditis
The aim of this study was to explore whether history of meconium ileus (MI) at birth in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) adversely affects body composition and lung function in later life. Data of children and adolescents with CF who underwent spirometry and DXA as part of their routine care were analyzed. Associations between MI (explanatory variable) and areal bone mineral density (total body less head-TBLH aBMD), lean tissue mass (LTM), and fat mass (FM) (outcomes) were assessed using general linear models...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395461/-analysis-of-the-epidemiological-characteristics-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-10-16-adolescents-in-7-provinces-in-china-2012
#13
Z H Wang, Z Y Zou, S Wang, Y H Dong, Z G Yang, Z P Yang, X J Wang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among children and adolescents aged 10-16 years old in 7 provinces in China. Methods: Using the method of stratified cluster random sampling, 93 primary and secondary schools were selected from Guangdong, Hunan, Liaoning, Shanghai, Chongqing, Tianjin, and Ningxia provinces in China. A total of 9 296 students aged 10-16 years old with complete physical and biochemical parameters were selected as the subjects of the present study from above 93 primary and secondary schools...
April 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389119/nutritional-status-among-adolescent-girls-in-children-s-homes-anthropometry-and-dietary-patterns
#14
Tone Berg, Christine Magala-Nyago, Per Ole Iversen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387749/pressure-injuries-in-medically-complex-children-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Katherine Freundlich
Pressure injuries are a challenging problem in the care of medically complex children. Available evidence is limited, and there are theoretical reasons to use caution before extrapolating adult data, including key differences in body composition, common locations of pressure injury, and association with medical devices. The focus of this article will be to review the definition of a pressure injury and what is known about pathophysiology, prevention, recognition, staging, and treatment of pressure injuries in children with medical complexity...
April 7, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376768/long-term-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-vitamin-d-deficient-obese-children-participating-in-an-integrated-weight-loss-programme-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-rationale-for-the-study-design
#16
Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Michał Brzeziński, Agnieszka Jankowska, Paulina Metelska, Magdalena Słomińska-Frączek, Piotr Socha
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated not only with an array of metabolic disorders (e.g. insulin resistance, hiperinsulinemia, impaired tolerance of glucose, lipid disorders) but also skeletal and joint abnormalities. Recently, a pleiotropic role of vitamin D has been emphasized. Obese children frequently present with vitamin D deficiency, and greater fat mass is associated with lower serum concentration of this vitamin. Although some evidence suggests that weight loss may affect vitamin D status, this issue has not been studied extensively thus far...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363705/relationship-between-plasma-adropin-levels-and-body-composition-and-lipid-characteristics-amongst-young-adolescents-in-taiwan
#17
Jin-Biou Chang, Nain-Feng Chu, Fu-Huang Lin, Jhu-Ting Hsu, Pi-Yun Chen
Adropin is a 76 amino acid peptide hormone with a molecular weight of 4999.9Da that may be associated with energy homeostasis, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in mice and human. There is only a few studies that examine plasma adropin levels and body composition in children. This study is to evaluate the relationship between plasma adropin levels, body composition and lipid variables amongst young adolescents in Taiwan. We examined 492 adolescents (269 females and 223 males) ranging from 12 to 15 years old, with a mean age of 13...
March 28, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359065/evaluating-weight-status-and-sex-as-moderators-of-the-association-of-serum-leptin-with-bone-mineral-density-in-children-and-adolescents%C3%A2
#18
Sara A Armaiz-Flores, Nichole R Kelly, Ovidiu A Galescu, Andrew P Demidowich, Anne M Altschul, Sheila M Brady, Van S Hubbard, Courtney K Pickworth, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Lauren B Shomaker, James C Reynolds, Jack A Yanovski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Animal studies suggest that leptin may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD). Clinical studies have yielded conflicting results. We therefore investigated associations between leptin and bone parameters in children. METHODS: 830 healthy children (age = 11.4 ± 3.1 years; 75% female; BMI standard deviation score [BMIz] = 1.5 ± 1.1) had fasting serum leptin measured with ELISA and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The main effects for leptin and BMIz plus leptin's interactions with sex and BMIz were examined using hierarchical linear regressions for appendicular, pelvis, and lumbar spine BMD as well as bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA)...
March 30, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356614/a-study-on-the-physical-fitness-of-children-with-juvenile-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Hyo-Jeong Kwon, You Lim Kim, Hyun Soo Lee, Suk Min Lee
[Purpose] This study was conducted to assess the physical fitness of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). [Subjects and Methods] In total, 26 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. Using the physical fitness measurement instruments, the Inbody 720 and Quark b2, the elements of physical fitness that were assessed included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, lung capacity, and body composition. [Results] The results revealed significant differences in muscular strength, muscular endurance, lung capacity, body composition, functional ability, and health-related quality of life between the children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and the control group...
March 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351509/adequate-calcium-intake-during-long-periods-improves-bone-mineral-density-in-healthy-children-data-from-the-childhood-obesity-project
#20
Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Natàlia Ferré, Veronica Luque, Veit Grote, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Verduci, Fiammetta Vecchi, Joaquin Escribano
BACKGROUND: Bone mineralization can be influenced by genetic factors, hormonal status, nutrition, physical activity and body composition. The association of higher calcium (Ca) intake or Ca supplementation with better bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial. Furthermore, it has been speculated that maintaining long-term adequate Ca intake rather than having a brief supplementation period is more effective. The aim of the study was to prospectively analyse the influence of adequate Ca intake on BMD at 7 years of age in European children...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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